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Low 2012–13 Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Associated with Mutation in the Egg-Adapted H3N2 Vaccine Strain Not Antigenic Drift in Circulating Viruses
Danuta M. Skowronski, Naveed Z. Janjua, Gaston De Serres, Suzana Sabaiduc, Alireza Eshaghi, James A. Dickinson, Kevin Fonseca, Anne-Luise Winter, Jonathan B. Gubbay, Mel Krajden, Martin Petric, Hugues Charest, Nathalie Bastien, Trijntje L. Kwindt, Salaheddin M. Mahmud, Paul Van Caeseele, Yan Li
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092153
Abstract: Background Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is generally interpreted in the context of vaccine match/mismatch to circulating strains with evolutionary drift in the latter invoked to explain reduced protection. During the 2012–13 season, however, detailed genotypic and phenotypic characterization shows that low VE was instead related to mutations in the egg-adapted H3N2 vaccine strain rather than antigenic drift in circulating viruses. Methods/Findings Component-specific VE against medically-attended, PCR-confirmed influenza was estimated in Canada by test-negative case-control design. Influenza A viruses were characterized genotypically by amino acid (AA) sequencing of established haemagglutinin (HA) antigenic sites and phenotypically through haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. H3N2 viruses were characterized in relation to the WHO-recommended, cell-passaged vaccine prototype (A/Victoria/361/2011) as well as the egg-adapted strain as per actually used in vaccine production. Among the total of 1501 participants, influenza virus was detected in 652 (43%). Nearly two-thirds of viruses typed/subtyped were A(H3N2) (394/626; 63%); the remainder were A(H1N1)pdm09 (79/626; 13%), B/Yamagata (98/626; 16%) or B/Victoria (54/626; 9%). Suboptimal VE of 50% (95%CI: 33–63%) overall was driven by predominant H3N2 activity for which VE was 41% (95%CI: 17–59%). All H3N2 field isolates were HI-characterized as well-matched to the WHO-recommended A/Victoria/361/2011 prototype whereas all but one were antigenically distinct from the egg-adapted strain as per actually used in vaccine production. The egg-adapted strain was itself antigenically distinct from the WHO-recommended prototype, and bore three AA mutations at antigenic sites B [H156Q, G186V] and D [S219Y]. Conversely, circulating viruses were identical to the WHO-recommended prototype at these positions with other genetic variation that did not affect antigenicity. VE was 59% (95%CI:16–80%) against A(H1N1)pdm09, 67% (95%CI: 30–85%) against B/Yamagata (vaccine-lineage) and 75% (95%CI: 29–91%) against B/Victoria (non-vaccine-lineage) viruses. Conclusions These findings underscore the need to monitor vaccine viruses as well as circulating strains to explain vaccine performance. Evolutionary drift in circulating viruses cannot be regulated, but influential mutations introduced as part of egg-based vaccine production may be amenable to improvements.
Randomized Controlled Ferret Study to Assess the Direct Impact of 2008–09 Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine on A(H1N1)pdm09 Disease Risk
Danuta M. Skowronski, Marie-Eve Hamelin, Gaston De Serres, Naveed Z. Janjua, Guiyun Li, Suzana Sabaiduc, Xavier Bouhy, Christian Couture, Anders Leung, Darwyn Kobasa, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Erwin de Bruin, Robert Balshaw, Sophie Lavigne, Martin Petric, Marion Koopmans, Guy Boivin
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086555
Abstract: During spring-summer 2009, several observational studies from Canada showed increased risk of medically-attended, laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 illness among prior recipients of 2008–09 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Explanatory hypotheses included direct and indirect vaccine effects. In a randomized placebo-controlled ferret study, we tested whether prior receipt of 2008–09 TIV may have directly influenced A(H1N1)pdm09 illness. Thirty-two ferrets (16/group) received 0.5 mL intra-muscular injections of the Canadian-manufactured, commercially-available, non-adjuvanted, split 2008–09 Fluviral or PBS placebo on days 0 and 28. On day 49 all animals were challenged (Ch0) with A(H1N1)pdm09. Four ferrets per group were randomly selected for sacrifice at day 5 post-challenge (Ch+5) and the rest followed until Ch+14. Sera were tested for antibody to vaccine antigens and A(H1N1)pdm09 by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), microneutralization (MN), nucleoprotein-based ELISA and HA1-based microarray assays. Clinical characteristics and nasal virus titers were recorded pre-challenge then post-challenge until sacrifice when lung virus titers, cytokines and inflammatory scores were determined. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups of influenza-na?ve animals. Antibody rise to vaccine antigens was evident by ELISA and HA1-based microarray but not by HI or MN assays; virus challenge raised antibody to A(H1N1)pdm09 by all assays in both groups. Beginning at Ch+2, vaccinated animals experienced greater loss of appetite and weight than placebo animals, reaching the greatest between-group difference in weight loss relative to baseline at Ch+5 (7.4% vs. 5.2%; p = 0.01). At Ch+5 vaccinated animals had higher lung virus titers (log-mean 4.96 vs. 4.23pfu/mL, respectively; p = 0.01), lung inflammatory scores (5.8 vs. 2.1, respectively; p = 0.051) and cytokine levels (p>0.05). At Ch+14, both groups had recovered. Findings in influenza-na?ve, systematically-infected ferrets may not replicate the human experience. While they cannot be considered conclusive to explain human observations, these ferret findings are consistent with direct, adverse effect of prior 2008–09 TIV receipt on A(H1N1)pdm09 illness. As such, they warrant further in-depth investigation and search for possible mechanistic explanations.
vicK Gene as Potential Identification Marker for Staphylococcus aureus  [PDF]
Nurmusfirah Morad, Suzana Misbah
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.611010
Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen frequently detected in hospital community and has emerged as an important health concern in human medicine. Identification of S. aureus from clinical specimens by phenotypic methods may produce variable characteristics leading to ambiguity. Hence, a rapid and reliable method for identification of S. aureus is required which could expedite appropriate antibiotic therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the specificity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a signal transduction gene, vicK, among S. aureus isolates of Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 118 bacterial isolates were screened, which consisted of one hundred S. aureus isolates, ten Staphylococcus spp. and eight non-Staphylococci. Results indicated that PCR targeting vicK was able to identify 98% of S. aureus isolates with high sensitivity and specificity, while the remaining isolates of Staphylococcus spp. and non-Staphylococci did not yield any amplification of the gene. vicK thus, is highly specific within interspecies and intraspecies, which is potential to be used as a molecular identification marker for S. aureus.
Identificando a branquidade inominada: corpo, ra?a e na??o nas representa??es sobre Gisele Bündchen na mídia transnacional
Maia, Suzana;
Cadernos Pagu , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-83332012000100011
Abstract: this article examines the discursive configurations that associate the body of top model gisele bündchen to the body of the brazilian nation, and analyses the ways through which these configurations define what means to be brazilian according to discourses that circulate in brazilian and transnational media. in order to do that, i use images of gisele to interrogate the racial formations in the two contexts and to examine how theses formations are being reconfigured due to recent changes in the demographic and political contexts in brazil and in the united states. following the studies of racial relations in the two countries, i adopt a framework developed by the studies that focus on the construction of whiteness.
Os significados do trabalho segundo técnicos de nível médio
Burnier, Suzana;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302006000100007
Abstract: based on a research focusing on two generations of technicians with secondary education, we sought to understand the dialogues that this segment of workers establishes with the world of work in late modernity. we here discuss the meanings they attribute to work in a context of productive restructuring. how is such process felt by this group of qualified workers? how do they perceive the activities they perform in their companies? to what extent are they "co-opted" by employer discourses? which conditions do they claim to establish a positive relationship to work? in what kind of social relationships do they live at work and how do they analyze them? this study intends to contribute to a reflection on the training processes of workers, be they educational or not, by pointing out the topics the very workers highlighted as crucial in their experience and which, therefore, deserve analysis during their training.
As classifica??es de atividades econ?micas e de produtos aplicadas à indústria química
Borschiver, Suzana;
Perspectivas em Ciência da Informa??o , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-99362008000300005
Abstract: the present article aims at presenting concepts about industrial classifications of the "international family of economic and social classifications", which comprises economical activities, products, education, etc.; it also intends to demonstrate how the economical classifications of activities and products are applied, particularly, to the productive chain of the chemistry industry. for this, the main classifications of activities and products from the systems of statistical information of european and american countries were selected.
Sedu??o e identidade nacional: dan?arinas eróticas brasileiras no Queens, Nova York
Maia, Suzana;
Revista Estudos Feministas , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-026X2009000300009
Abstract: this article examines the trajectory of brazilian women who work as erotic dancers in new york city's gentlemen's bars. it argues that processes of globalization and transnationalism are related not just with political-economic transformations, but also to significant shifts in the ways people relate to each other, use their bodies, and conceive and realize their desires. such transformations must also be understood in relation to a colonial and post-colonial regime, in which representations about their bodies gain intelligibility. most of the women who participated in my research are from the middle-classes, and in terms of race, they self-identify as "morenas". based on fieldwork conducted between years 2004-2005, i analyze how their social positioning and identity are translated from one context to another, and how new social hierarchies are constructed in a transnational context. taking as a focus of study blue diamond, a bar located in the borough of queens, this article investigates how these transnational reconfigurations are articulated through particular relationships among dancers and between dancers and clients
A constru??o de redes públicas na gest?o local: algumas tendências recentes
Moura, Suzana;
Revista de Administra??o Contemporanea , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-65551998000100005
Abstract: the work discusses the meaning and characteristics of public networks established in process of elaboration and strategic plans/projects definition, that aim integrate local administration and civil society organizations. it starts from the interpretation of two tendencies that appear to urge innovation in current local administration, in which analyzed process can be found: competitive entrepreneurialism and democratic activism. these categories of analysis are developed from the author's contribution that have given back an image on changes occurred in cities administration in europe, usa and latin america, specially brazil. the recent issues of the networks are also associated to the studies done. two cases to analyze these new tendencies are considered: strategic planning experience of barcelona (spain), which has been developed since 1988; and cidade constituinte project of porto alegre (brazil), established since 1993.
Fukuyama on social capital
Ignjatovi? Suzana
Sociologija , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/soc0801035i
Abstract: The paper aims to provide a synthesis of Fukuyama's theory of social capital Three different conceptual issues are discussed in the article: definition paradigmatic framework, and methodology. Another aspect of Fukuyama's concept of social capital is discussed from the perspective of Fukuyama's great popularity in public policy since the nineties. The concluding part of the paper deals with Fukuyama's place in academic and policy discourse on social capital.
Average images of television (program) durations Imagens médias de dura es televisivas
Suzana Kilpp
Galáxia , 2009,
Abstract: Average images of television (program) durations — The object of this article is the essential nature of TV audiovisualities, represented by technical electronic images that are the temporal synthesis of a mutating set of shapes displayed in unceasing simultaneous flows. The locus of the observable is the televised panorama of channels whose screens display time clocks (which is why these channels constitute the corpus of this research), with the clocks serving as the reference system of observation. The main time clock frame on the screens of different channels is analyzed and a discussion is made of the figures of time displayed thereon. Este artigo tem por objeto a natureza precípua das audiovisualidades de tevê, configuradas por imagens técnicas eletr nicas que s o a síntese temporal de um conjunto mutante de formas dispostas em incessantes fluxos simultaneos. O lócus dos observáveis é o panorama televisivo dos canais que hoje mostram em seu écran "relógios" de marcar o "tempo" (canais que, por isso, constituem o corpus da pesquisa), sendo que estes foram escolhidos para serem o sistema de referência do observatório. Será analisada a moldura principal de relógios em panoramas televisivos de diferentes canais e se discutir o as figuras do tempo que ali s o enunciadas.
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