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A Matrix Approach to the Socioeconomic Activity of a Country  [PDF]
Susana Santos
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.85075
Abstract: A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) is presented as a tool to study the socioeconomic activity of a country. This activity involves the monetary or nominal flows that are measured by the National Accounts, as well as production (organized in factors, industries and goods and services) and institutions (organized in households, general government, non-financial and financial corporations, non-profit institutions serving households, and rest of the world). In order to contribute to the definition of a methodology that can improve the knowledge of the different aspects of this activity, the potentialities of a SAM for its reading and interpreting are explored, as well as for carrying out experiments regarding its functioning. Through a SAM-based approach, how to construct more or less complex networks of linkages of the above mentioned flows is shown, from which structural features can be evidenced and the associated multiplier effects studied. Following an application to Portugal, it is shown that a numerical version of a SAM, enables an empirical description of the origin, use, and distribution of income, whereas, an algebraic version of a SAM allows one to carry out, for example, a deeper study of the multiplier effects associated with the institutional distribution of income. The crucial role of the factors of production accounts is identified in this study, namely when they establish the link between the generation and the distribution and use of income. In this process, the important role the complementary details that the Input-Output Matrix (IOM) can add is also identified. Thus, being the generation of income, the result of the output of goods and services and the associated costs, on the one hand, an industry by industry IOM can add details regarding domestic and imported intermediate consumption by and between industries and, on the other hand, a product by product IOM can add details regarding the domestic and imported intermediate consumption of goods and services.
Child’s Life, Step-Family and Decision-Making Process  [PDF]
Susana Navas Navarro
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.42008

Step-families are included within the concept of “family” used by both Art. 8 of the Rome Convention for the protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and Art. 7 of the European Charter of Fundamental Rights of 2010. According to the OECD and EUROSTAT figures children that are living in step-families are between 8 and 12 years old, that is, they could be considered as preadolescents or in some cases adolescents at all. Thus, they are individuals with a certain grade of maturity that allow them to form their own views and express them. Today, there is an inevitable link between family and children’s participation rights (Art. 12 CRC; Art. 24 EU Charter). Nevertheless, European Law refers to the step-family from the “adult’s rights” viewpoint concerning the assignment of the parental responsibility to the step-parent neglecting children’s perspective. As said by Art. 6(1) EU Treaty of Lisbon and by Art. 52(2) EU Charter, the last legal instrument has the same legal recognition as the EU Treaties, which implies that the bedrock for direct and vertical application of the fundamental rights of children by both the EUCJ and national Courts is settled. Since 2006 one of the strategic objectives of the communitarian institutions is prioritizing the effective implementation of children’s rights.

Crisis y subjetividad. La situación social en Argentina vista por mujeres de clase media
Susana Masseroni,Susana Sauane
Papeles de población , 2004,
Abstract: El artículo analiza la manera en que un conjunto de mujeres profesionales de clase media de Buenos Aires ha procesado la crisis social que hizo eclosión a fines de 2001 en Argentina. El estudio amplía otro iniciado en 2000 y proseguido en 2001-2002, donde se buscaba ver cómo la grave situación creada vulneraba psíquica y somáticamente a las personas, con el objeto de comprender la manera en que las condiciones impuestas operan en el mediano plazo sobre los modos de pensar e interpretar los sucesos vividos actualmente y cómo se reinterpretan hoy los sucesos pasados. La investigación parte de supuestos teóricos provenientes de la sociología y de la psicología, mediante los cuales es posible comprender las consecuencias operadas en ámbitos de la vida cotidiana y analizar las interpretaciones individuales sobre experiencias personales, los sentimientos y emociones.
The Spin-Charge-Family Theory Is Explaining the Origin of Families, of the Higgs and the Yukawa Couplings  [PDF]
Norma Susana Manko? Bor?tnik
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.46113

The (extremely efficient) standard model of the elementary particles and fields makes several assumptions, which call for explanations. Any theory offering next step beyond the standard model must explain at least the existence and properties of families and their members and correspondingly the existence of the scalar Higgs and the Yukawa couplings, which in this model take care of masses of fermions and weak bosons and influence the decaying properties of families. The spin-charge-family theory [1-11] is offering a possible explanation for the assumptions of the standard model—for the appearance of families and their members (for the charges of a family members), for the gauge fields, for the scalar fields—interpreting the standard model as its low energy effective manifestation. The spin-charge-family theory predicts at the low energy regime two decoupled groups of four families of quarks and leptons. The predicted fourth family waits to be observed, while the stable fifth family is the candidate to form the dark matter. In this paper properties of families are analysed. The appearance of several scalar fields, all in the bosonic (adjoint) representations with respect to the family groups, while they are doublets with respect to the weak charge, is presented, their properties discussed, it is explained how these scalar fields can effectively be interpreted as the standard model Higgs and the Yukawa couplings. The spin-charge-family

The Explanation for the Origin of the Higgs Scalar and for the Yukawa Couplings by the Spin-Charge-Family Theory  [PDF]
Norma Susana Manko? Bor?tnik
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.615230
Abstract: The spin-charge-family theory is a kind of the Kaluza-Klein theories, but with two kinds of the spin connection fields, which are the gauge fields of the two kinds of spins. The SO(13,1) representation of one kind of spins manifests in d = (3 + 1) all the properties of family members as assumed by the standard model; the second kind of spins explains the appearance of families. The gauge fields of the first kind, carrying the space index m = (0,...,3), manifest in d = (3 + 1) all the vector gauge fields assumed by the standard model. The gauge fields of both kinds of spins, which carry the space index (7, 8) gaining at the electroweak break nonzero vacuum expectation values, manifest in d = (3 + 1) as scalar fields with the properties of the Higgs scalar of the standard model with respect to the weak and the hyper charge (\"\" and \"\", respectively), while they carry additional quantum numbers in adjoint representations, offering correspondingly the explanation for the scalar Higgs and the Yukawa couplings, predicting the fourth family and the existence of several scalar fields. The paper 1) explains why in this theory the gauge fields are with the scalar index s = (5,6,7,8) doublets with respect to the weak and the hyper charge, while they are with respect to all the other charges in the adjoint representations; 2) demonstrates that the spin connection fields manifest as the Kaluza-Klein vector gauge fields, which arise from the vielbeins; and 3) explains the role of the vielbeins and of both kinds of the spin connection fields.
Del discurso poblador a la praxis latifundista: la distribución de la tierra pública en la Patagonia
Mundo agrario , 2005,
Abstract: one of the main task get done by the national state consolidatted in 1880 was to continue with the previous governments′ practice of applying a systematic policy of transffering public lands to private hands through donation, selling or reward for services to the nation. the concentration of the land in few hands and the expanssion of the great proprierties were the most known consequences of these policies, incremented with the expanssion of the internal borders through occupational military campaigns on the indigenous space. in this work it is studied the characteristics of the great landowners′ accumulation process, throghout land-buyings to the state during the border′s expansion process that got rid of the pre-existent society and consolidatted the great landowners′ proprierties without giving place to massive process of half and little rural landowners sector, nor effective poblational center on the new borders, as the official discourse seemed to suggest.
Cambiando de perspectiva: cautivos en el interior de la frontera
Mundo agrario , 2006,
Abstract: this work focuses on the captive indians, ignored characters in the official history, that were silenced victims too, fruit of the ambivalent relationship -pacific and violent- between the indigenous and spanish world. the emphasis is put in the official policy since its captivity, giving special attention to the distribution, the modality of deposits, distinguishing those emanated from other causes.
La ecuación "más privado, menos estatal": quiénes ganan y quiénes pierden. El caso del servicio de transporte público en el Gran Buenos Aires
EURE (Santiago) , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0250-71612002008400005
Abstract: this article pretends to demostrate, specially about the case of the metropolitan public transport system, how the changes to the state structures, resulting from the new flexible ownership patterns, impact to the detriment of increasing groups of captive users. the mass transport system, now operated solely by private operators, without sufficient regulatory protection, shows the gradual disappearance of public service concept, since weakness state is more receptive to the lobbying power of the concessionaires. with that objective, we present the results of our accessibility departmental measurement, by comparing the amount of public transport service offer with the number of residents and poor levels. the analysis would explain a socio-spatial pattern of higher costs of public transport in areas where the most vulnerable population groups are located due to the lack of profitable markets to be served
El transporte urbano entre la globalización y la fragmentación: El caso de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires
EURE (Santiago) , 1998, DOI: 10.4067/S0250-71611998007100003
Abstract: with the consolidation of the advanced capitalism, the productive chains are dislocalizated, as well as the internacionalization of the capital oligopolies. they blossom in the underdeveloped world, stimulated by the suburbanization, the adjustment policies, the occupational flexibilization, the unemployment, the privatization and the desregulation of the public services, the hegemony of the market laws and the gradual disappearance of the welfare state. all items previously mentioned conduce to exasperate the social segregation and exclusion, and cause the growth of the urban violence until unexpected limits. the demographic concentration intensifies and complicates the demands, specially those of transportation, being complicated the management of the transport services and making more difficult the compatibilization of contradictory interests. in this conflict, indefectibility are been perjudiced the growing low resource segments, grow deeper the own inequities of the model. as a result appears cities more and more dualizated. in this framework, the urban services management requires be reconsidered and redesigned, specially in the large agglomerations, where since appears every time as more goad the resolution of the plurality of overlapping administrations than operate fragmentary, dispersing the responsibility on the integral problems to face. this is the case of the buenos aires metropolitan region, which we will refer focusing the issue management of the urban transportation
Mudan?as recentes nos processos de governan?a territorial em Portugal
Finisterra - Revista Portuguesa de Geografia , 2009,
Abstract: the current context in which nation-states find themselves is clearly different from that in which they were founded and consolidated. this fact has given rise to the need to rethink both their modus operandi and their role in society and the economy. against this new, fragmented and complex social setting, the urban policy polis xxi has evolved and become increasingly relevant and useful for the study of new models of urban governance and territorial development. this note seeks to: 1) sum up a set of conceptual considerations with regard to the challenges in terms of territorial governance that are faced by western nationstates in general and portugal in particular; 2) discuss the urban policy polis xxi against this new and evolving background; and 3) propose a framework for evaluating the performance of the inter-organizational partnerships promoted within the context of the urban policy polis xxi as a new territorial governance mechanism.
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