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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7354 matches for " Susan Wright "
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Socio-Cultural Identities, Perceptions of Sexuality/Sexual Behavior and Cultural Contexts as Determinants of HIV and AIDS Prevalence in Southern Africa  [PDF]
Chijioke Uwah, Susan Wright
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.21003
Abstract: This paper attempts to examine the connection between one’s socio cultural setting and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Often, local communities form the contexts within which people negotiate their social and sexual lives and identities. These communities also play a key role in enabling or restraining people from taking control over their health. The paper will try to demonstrate through specific examples that in African societies, sexual behavior is a product of one’s socio-cultural environment and structural contexts and not the cognitive properties of the individual. The article draws from the qualitative study (Focus group sessions, individual interviews) conducted in three high schools in the Boland area of the Western Cape with about 18 learners, 3 Life skills teachers, 3 Performer-Educators on the efficacy of the HIV/AIDS intervention by The Centre for HIV/AIDS Management theatre group based at the University of Stellenbosch. The aim of the study was to ascertain the cultural content of their campaign model as well as their knowledge of the determinants of sex and sexuality of their target areas. Based on the findings of this study, I argue that theatre will achieve greater success in its campaign against HIV/AIDS in South Africa if the designers of the campaign models adopt a more participatory approach, make indigenous culture central to the design of their intervention model and pay closer attention to what Campbell refers to as “community level of analysis” which simply put implies a greater understanding of the target audiences local communities and its determinants of sex and sexuality.
Modelling transoesophageal echo
Susan Wright
Global Cardiology Science & Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.5339/ahcsps.2011.2
Abstract: Background: Achieving competence in transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) requires a clear understanding of cardiac anatomy as well as an ability to correlate two-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic images with the three-dimensional (3D) structures which they represent. Training in the technique is a long process, which may also be hampered by insufficient access to teaching in the clinical environment. These challenges would be met by a simulator which demonstrates detailed cardiac anatomy with a previously unavailable degree of accuracy. Methods: A TOE simulator system was created by collaboration with a wide range of clinical specialists and a post-production company skilled in the generation of computer graphics and special effects for the film industry. The core of the system is an animated, accurate and detailed virtual heart. Echocardiographic simulation was developed to provide a real-time display of ultrasound images alongside the 3D anatomical correlate of the imaging plane. Results: A freely interactive animated model of the heart was created as the basis for ultrasound simulation. Creation of a mannequin simulator which drives the software allowed reproduction of the practical experience of the TOE procedure. Conclusions: Partnership with groups with a wide diversity of skills can result in a simulator teaching tool of high fidelity.
Sexual and menstrual practices: risks for cervix cancer
Johanna E Maree,Susan CD Wright
Health SA Gesondheid , 2007, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v12i3.265
Abstract: Cervix cancer is the cancer that causes most female deaths in South Africa. Little is known about the sexual and menstrual practices in high-risk communities in South Africa. Opsomming Servikskarsinoom is verantwoordelik vir die meeste kankersterftes in vroue in Suid Afrika. Min is bekend aangaande die seksuele- en menstruasiepraktyke in ho risiko gemeenskappe in Suid-Afrika. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Caring as a core concept in educating midwifery learners: A qualitative study
Mmajapi E. Chokwe,Susan C.D. Wright
Health SA Gesondheid , 2012,
Abstract: Caring is the core business of nursing and midwifery, involving a relationship in which the carer is committed to the needs of the one being cared for (Mason-Whitehead, Mcintosh, Bryan & Mason). Caring is the emotion which drives a midwife to care, the motive aimed at assisting someone to grow and self-actualise (Watson). The concern in midwifery is that irrespective of caring being central to the midwifery profession, caring taught in theoretical learning does not always translate into caring behaviour in practice. A qualitative exploratory study examined how midwifery educators impart the skill of caring during theoretical learning and clinical accompaniment, in order to respond to the general complaint made both locally and internationally that midwives are uncaring. The aim was to explore caring during theoretical learning and clinical accompaniment from the perspective of midwifery educators. Participants in the study were midwifery educators teaching midwifery in institutions of learning in Tshwane, South Africa. The naive sketch was used to gather data, wherein one central question was asked and the educators were invited to narrate and respond. Three themes emerged: the meaning of caring; how caring was conveyed during theoretical learning; and how it was conveyed during clinical accompaniment. Although the midwifery educators expressed how they conveyed caring to the learner midwives, it was not evident how caring competencies were assessed in order to ensure caring midwives at the end of training.Omgee is die kernwaarde van ‘n verpleegkundige en vroedvrou. Omgee behels ‘n verhouding waar die person wat omgee verbind is om in die behoeftes van die een wat sorg benodig te voldoen (Mason-Whitehead, Mcintosh, Bryan & Mason). Omgee is die emosie wat die vroedvrou noop om om te gee, om ‘n person te help groei en self-aktualiseer (Watson). Die kwelpunt in verloskunde is dat ongeag van die sentrale belang van omgee vir verloskundiges, die teoretiese onderig oor omgee nie altyd uitgeleef word in die praktyk nie. ’n Kwalitatiewe ondersoekende studie het die wyse ondersoek waarop vroevrou opvoerders die vaardigheid om om te gee, oordra tydens teoretiese en kliniese begeleiding, ten einde te reageer op die plaaslike en internasionale algemene klagte, dat vroedvroue nie omgee nie. Om omgee tydens teoreties en kliniese onderrig vanuit die perspektief van die opvoedkundige verloskundige te ondersoek. Die deelnemers het bestaan uit verloskundige opvoedkundiges wat verloskunde doseer in hoёr onderwys institusies in Tshwane, Suid-Afrika. ‘n Na ewe skets is gebr
Genome-Wide Association Mapping and Identification of Candidate Genes for the Rumpless and Ear-tufted Traits of the Araucana Chicken
Rooksana E. Noorai, Nowlan H. Freese, Lindsay M. Wright, Susan C. Chapman, Leigh Anne Clark
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040974
Abstract: Araucana chickens are known for their rounded, tailless rumps and tufted ears. Inheritance studies have shown that the rumpless (Rp) and ear-tufted (Et) loci each act in an autosomal dominant fashion, segregate independently, and are associated with an increased rate of embryonic mortality. To find genomic regions associated with Rp and Et, we generated genome-wide SNP profiles for a diverse population of 60 Araucana chickens using the 60 K chicken SNP BeadChip. Genome-wide association studies using 40 rumpless and 11 tailed birds showed a strong association with rumpless on Gga 2 (Praw = 2.45×10?10, Pgenome = 0.00575), and analysis of genotypes revealed a 2.14 Mb haplotype shared by all rumpless birds. Within this haplotype, a 0.74 Mb critical interval containing two Iroquois homeobox genes, Irx1 and Irx2, was unique to rumpless Araucana chickens. Irx1 and Irx2 are central for developmental prepatterning, but neither gene is known to have a role in mechanisms leading to caudal development. A second genome-wide association analysis using 30 ear-tufted and 28 non-tufted birds revealed an association with tufted on Gga 15 (Praw = 6.61×10?7, Pgenome = 0.0981). We identified a 0.58 Mb haplotype common to tufted birds and harboring 7 genes. Because homozygosity for Et is nearly 100% lethal, we employed a heterozygosity mapping approach to prioritize candidate gene selection. A 60 kb region heterozygous in all Araucana chickens contains the complete coding sequence for TBX1 and partial sequence for GNB1L. TBX1 is an important transcriptional regulator of embryonic development and a key genetic determinant of human DiGeorge syndrome. Herein, we describe localization of Rp and Et and identification of positional candidate genes.
Clinical Toxicities of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
Srividya Subramanian,Susan E. Bates,John J. Wright,Igor Espinoza-Delgado,Richard L. Piekarz
Pharmaceuticals , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ph3092751
Abstract: The HDAC inhibitors are a new family of antineoplastic agents. Since the entry of these agents into our therapeutic armamentarium, there has been increasing interest in their use. Although this family comprises chemical compounds from unrelated chemical classes that have different HDAC isoform specificities, they surprisingly have very similar toxicity profiles. In contrast, the observed toxicity profile is somewhat different from that of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and from other epigenetic agents. While some of the side effects may be familiar to the oncologist, others are less commonly seen. As some patients remain on therapy for a prolonged period of time, the long-term sequelae need to be characterized. In addition, since preclinical models suggest promising activity when used in combination with other antineoplastic agents, combination trials are being pursued. It will thus be important to distinguish the relative toxicity attributed to these agents and be alert to the exacerbation of toxicities observed in single agent studies. Notably, few of the agents in this class have completed phase 2 testing. Consequently, more clinical experience is needed to determine the relative frequency of the observed side effects, and to identify and develop approaches to mitigate potential clinical sequelae.
Synthesis and preliminary cytotoxicity study of a cephalosporin-CC-1065 analogue prodrug
Yuqiang Wang, Huiling Yuan, Susan C Wright, Hong Wang, James W Larrick
BMC Chemical Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6769-1-4
Abstract: A CC-1065 analogue was conjugated to a cephalosporin affording prodrug 2. The prodrug and its corresponding free drug, 1, have IC50 values of 0.9 and 0.09 nM, respectively, against U937 leukemia cells in vitro.For the first time, a prodrug comprised of a cephalosporin and a CC-1065 analogue has been synthesized. The preliminary in vitro studies show that the prodrug was 10-fold less toxic than the free drug. Prodrug 2 has the potential to be useful in cancer treatment using the ADEPT approach.Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) [1-5] is one of the promising new approaches that selectively target tumor cells, thus reducing toxic side effects to patients. In this approach, an enzyme is conjugated to a tumor-specific antibody. The antibody selectively localizes the enzyme to the tumor cell surface. Subsequent administration of a prodrug substrate of the enzyme leads to the enzyme-catalyzed release of the free drug at the tumor site. This strategy addresses the stoichiometry, controlled drug release and poor antibody penetration problems associated with the use of monoclonal antibody-drug conjugates [6-8]. In addition, because the process of drug release is enzymatic, a single enzyme can generate a large amount of free drug. Consequently, a small amount of antibody can be used to reduce immunogenicity.It is important that the free drug in the ADEPT approach be highly toxic. Using highly toxic agents can reduce the amount of the monoclonal antibody required, thereby reducing side effects. CC-1065 (Figure 1) is among the most potent antitumor agents discovered [9-13]. It binds to double-stranded B-DNA within the minor groove with a sequence preference for 5'-d(A/GNTTA)-3' and 5'-d(AAAAA)-3', and alkylates the N3 position of the 3'-adenine with its left-hand CPI segment [14,15]. CC-1065 also inhibits gene transcription by interfering with binding of the TATA box-binding protein to its target DNA [16]. Despite its high potency and broad spectrum of antitumor ac
Evidence for bacteriophage T7 tail extension during DNA injection
Philip Serwer, Elena T Wright, Kevin W Hakala, Susan T Weintraub
BMC Research Notes , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-1-36
Abstract: In the present study, electron microscopy of particles in T7 lysates reveals a needle-like capsid extension that attaches partially emptied bacteriophage T7 capsids to non-capsid vesicles and sometimes enters an attached vesicle. This extension is 40–55 nm long, 1.7–2.4× longer than the T7 tail and likely to be the proposed lengthened tail. The extension is 8–11 nm in diameter, thinner than most of the tail, with an axial hole 3–4 nm in diameter. Though the bound vesicles are not identified by microscopy, these vesicles resemble the major vesicles in T7 lysates, found to be E. coli outer membrane vesicles by non-denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by mass spectrometry.The observed lengthened tail is long enough to reach host cytoplasm during DNA injection. Its channel is wide enough to be a conduit for DNA injection and narrow enough to clamp DNA during a previously observed stalling/re-starting of injection. However, its outer diameter is too large to explain formation by passing of an intact assembly through any known capsid hole unless the hole is widened.A double-stranded DNA bacteriophage starts an infection by injecting its DNA genome into a host cell; progeny later assemble by packaging a genome. The protein movements that cause DNA injection are usually assumed to be restricted primarily to an external tail; the protein movements of DNA packaging are usually assumed to be restricted primarily to a multimeric DNA packaging ATPase [reviewed in references [1-3]]. However, as previously discussed [4], the protruding portion of the tail of bacteriophage T7 (23 nm long [5]) appears not long enough to reach from the outer shell of the bacteriophage, through the outer host membrane, the periplasmic space/cell wall and then the inner membrane, total distance about 24 nm [6,7]. Thus, DNA injection appears to require lengthening of the T7 tail.Tail lengthening is supported by the following observations: (a) After bacteriophage/host binding, five bacterioph
Synthesis and cytotoxicity of a biotinylated CC-1065 analogue
Yuqiang Wang, Huiling Yuan, Susan C Wright, Hong Wang, James W Larrick
BMC Chemical Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6769-2-1
Abstract: A biotinalyted CBI-bearing CC-1065 analogue, 6, was synthesized. The IC50 of 6 was 0.7 nM against U937 cells. Compound 6 caused apototsis of U937 cells.For the first time, a biotinalyted CBI-bearing CC-1065 analogue, 6, was synthesized. The biotinylated 6 can serve as a model compound to explore the usefulness of non-radioactive small molecule anticancer drugs in the pretargeting strategy for cancer imaging and therapy.Anticancer drugs generally act on metabolically active or rapidly proliferating cells, and cannot distinguish between cancer and normal cells; thus, toxicities to normal cells limit the dose of drugs that can be given to patients. Therefore, much research has focused on development of more specific therapeutic strategies to reduce toxicity to normal cells. One of these strategies is monoclonal antibody-directed pretargeting technology. The use of pretargeting technology for cancer imaging and treatment has made significant progress in the last few years [1-6]. This approach takes advantage of the fact that biotin binds strongly to proteins avidin and streptavidin [7,8]. Thus, a non-toxic tumor cell specific antibody is conjugated with avidin/streptavidin, and is administered to patients. After the antibody binds to tumor cells (usually 24–48 h); a clearing agent is given to remove the residual circulating antibodies in blood. Lastly, a toxic biotin-radioisotope conjugate is administered. Due to the small size of the biotin-radioisotope molecule and tight binding between biotin and avidin/streptavidin, the biotin-radioisotope rapidly binds to tumor cells with high specificity. This approach decouples the lengthy antibody to target process and the administration of a toxic moiety, but takes full advantage of both the high target specificity of the antibody and the favorable pharmacokinetics of a small toxic molecule. While progress using radioisotopes in this approach has been achieved, few reports on using a potent non-radioactive small molecule antica
First trimester screening for trisomy 21 in gestational week 8-10 by ADAM12-S as a maternal serum marker
Niels T?rring, Susan Ball, Dave Wright, Ga?ané Sarkissian, Marie Guitton, Bruno Darbouret
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-8-129
Abstract: In this case control study ADAM12-S was measured by KRYPTOR ADAM12-S immunoassay in maternal serum from gestational weeks 8 to 11 in 46 samples of fetal trisomy 21 and in 645 controls. Comparison of sensitivity and specificity of first trimester screening for fetal trisomy 21 with or without ADAM12-S included in the risk assessment using the mixture model.The concentration of ADAM12-S increased from week 8 to 11 and was negatively correlated with maternal weight. Log MoM ADAM12-S was positively correlated with log MoM PAPP-A (r = 0.39, P < 0.001), and with log MoM free beta hCG (r = 0.21, P < 0.001). The median ADAM12-S MoM in cases of fetal trisomy 21 in gestational week 8 was 0.66 increasing to approx. 0.9 MoM in week 9 and 10. The use of ADAM12-S along with biochemical markers from the combined test (PAPP-A, free beta hCG) with or without nuchal translucency measurement did not affect the detection rate or false positive rate of fetal aneuploidy as compared to routine screening using PAPP-A and free β-hCG with or without nuchal translucency.The data show moderately decreased levels of ADAM12-S in cases of fetal aneuploidy in gestational weeks 8-11. However, including ADAM12-S in the routine risk does not improve the performance of first trimester screening for fetal trisomy 21.The soluble form of A disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12-S) with suggested proteolytic activity on Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) - 3 and 5 and the epidermal growth factor ligands EGF, Betacellulin and HB-EGF [1], is synthesized by the placenta syncytiotrophoblasts [2,3] and is present in high concentrations in maternal serum from early first trimester [4-6]. Since ADAM12-S was first reported to be significantly reduced in maternal serum from women with fetal trisomy 21 [4] much attention has been given to investigating the utility of ADAM12-S as a prenatal marker for fetal aneulpoidy in first and second trimester [4-9], fetal pre-eclampsia [10,11] and intra uter
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