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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 406252 matches for " Susan M Phillips "
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Prescription for Obesity: Eat Less and Move More. Is It Really That Simple?  [PDF]
Karen M. Deck, Beth Haney, Camille F. Fitzpatrick, Susanne J. Phillips, Susan M. Tiso
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.49069
Abstract:

“Obesity is a disease.” This is the declaration by the American Medical Association in June, 2013. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of options for patients who meet the criteria of obesity. Primary care nurse practitioners are urged to confront obesity head on, with early, individualized intervention to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Options for weight loss and maintenance are abundant and often confusing or unattractive to the patient. Working with patients to achieve realistic, reasonable, and patient-tailored goals for weight loss and exercise programs are paramount to achieving a healthy weight and lifestyle.

Relative Health Effects of Education, Socioeconomic Status and Domestic Gender Inequity in Sweden: A Cohort Study
Susan P. Phillips,Anne Hammarstr?m
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021722
Abstract: Limited existing research on gender inequities suggests that for men workplace atmosphere shapes wellbeing while women are less susceptible to socioeconomic or work status but vulnerable to home inequities.
Quality and availability of consumer information on heart failure in Australia
Agnes I Vitry, Susan M Phillips, Susan J Semple
BMC Health Services Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-255
Abstract: The availability of consumer information was assessed through a questionnaire-based survey of the major organisations in Australia known, or thought, to be producing or using consumer materials on heart failure, including hospitals. The questionnaire was designed to explore issues around the use, production and dissemination of consumer materials. Only groups that had produced consumer information on heart failure were asked to complete the totality of the questionnaire.The quality of information booklets was assessed by using a standardised checklist.Of 101 organisations which were sent a questionnaire, 33 had produced 61 consumer resources on heart failure including 21 information booklets, 3 videos, 5 reminder fridge magnets, 7 websites, 15 self-management diaries and 10 self-management plans. Questionnaires were completed for 40 separate information resources. Most had been produced by hospitals or health services. Two information booklets had been translated into other languages. There were major gaps in the availability of these resources as more than half of the resources were developed in 2 of the 8 Australian states and territories, New South Wales and Victoria.Quality assessment of 19 information booklets showed that most had good presentation and language. Overall eight high quality booklets were identified. There were gaps in terms of topics covered, provision of references, quantitative information about treatment outcomes and quality and level of scientific evidence to support medical recommendations. In only one case was there evidence that consumers had been involved in the production of the booklets.Key findings arising from the study included the need to develop a nationally coordinated approach for increasing the dissemination of information resources on heart failure. While the more recent publication of a booklet by the National Heart Foundation may have improved the situation, dissemination of written information materials may remain sub-optima
Determinants of a healthy lifestyle and use of preventive screening in Canada
Vikky Qi, Susan P Phillips, Wilma M Hopman
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-275
Abstract: Data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS) 1998–9 were used. Independent variables were income, education, age, sex, marital status, body mass index, urban/rural residence and access to a regular physician. Dependent variables included smoking, excessive alcohol use, physical activity, blood pressure checks, mammography in past year and Pap smear in past 3 years. Logistic regression models were developed for each dependent variable.13,756 persons 20 years of age and older completed the health portion of the NPHS. In general, higher levels of income were associated with healthier behaviours, as were higher levels of education, although there were exceptions to both. The results for age and gender also varied depending on the outcome. The presence of a regular medical doctor was associated with increased rates of all preventive screening and reduced rates of smoking.These results expand upon previous data suggesting that socioeconomic disparities in healthy behaviours and health promotion continue to exist despite equal access to medical screening within the Canadian healthcare context. Knowledge, resources and the presence of a regular medical doctor are important factors associated with identified differences.A socioeconomic gradient favouring those with greater income exists for a variety of chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease, most cancers, diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease and metabolic syndrome [1]. Many of these can be prevented, identified early, or ameliorated by screening and individual behaviour.Major behavioral factors affecting health include nutrition, physical activity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol consumption. Low socioeconomic status has been associated with a more sedentary lifestyle and lower fruit and vegetable consumption [2]. A study based on the 1990 Canadian Health Promotion Survey found significant associations between socioeconomic class and patterns of
Defining and measuring gender: A social determinant of health whose time has come
Susan P Phillips
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-4-11
Abstract: A growing literature on the social determinants of health, suggests explanations for many population and individual level health outcomes are not attributable to biology. Income, income inequality, social connectedness, and social capital all show some association with health and illness [1-6]. This paper explores the meaning of gender as another of these social determinants of health, and proposes an epidemiological framework for including gender as an independent variable in future research.The usefulness of distinguishing between sex and gender, a common practice in the social sciences, has begun to percolate into the language of prevention, etiology and causation within health care. Sociologists describe sex as the relatively unchanging biology of being male or female, while gender refers to the roles and expectations attributed to men and women in a given society, roles which change over time, place, and life stage. Genetic makeup and hormone profile are both examples of sex, that is, of biologic characteristics, which tend to be constant across societies. Gender is a social, rather than a biological construct, and varies with the roles, norms and values of a given society or era. Being able to bear a child is, fundamentally, a function of biology, while expectations about the imperative to bear children, the nature of parenting, or the status associated with being a mother are more closely linked to gender roles and expectations.Gender has an impact on health in a variety of ways. Powerlessness and lack of control underlie much of the exposure to HIV/AIDS amongst women in Africa. Disproportionate barriers (that is, relative to men) in access to resources such as food, education, and medical care, disadvantage women throughout the developing world. Risk taking behavior is the norm amongst males throughout the world. Socially defined traits often stereotype men and women as having fixed and opposite characteristics such as active (male)/ passive (female), ration
From Stories to Evidence: How Mining Data Can Promote Innovation in the Nonprofit Sector
Michael Lenczner,Susan Phillips
Technology Innovation Management Review , 2012,
Abstract: Being a director at a nonprofit organization often means making guesses instead of properly informed decisions. One source of the “information fog” is fragmented funding. Nonprofit organizations have multiple types of funders, most of whom are not their direct beneficiaries. Predicting funder behaviour is therefore more of an art than a science. Planning for the future, setting goals, and making decisions all suffer in the nonprofit sector because of a lack of timely and accurate information. This article examines the opportunities to use newly available digitized information to address this information deficit. It shows how the rich, variegated and fast-changing landscape of information available online can be collected, combined, and repurposed in order to deliver it in actionable forms to decision makers across the nonprofit sector. This information can significantly improve planning decisions and enhance the effectiveness of the sector. The article concludes that a cultural shift is required in order for the nonprofit sector to exploit the opportunities presented by digital information. Nonprofits and funders are enjoined to increase their numeracy and to find creative ways to use data as part of their evaluation, planning and decision making. Researchers need to be adventurous in their use of quantitative information and specifically should employ linked datasets in order to explore previously unanswerable research and policy questions. The producers of data need to collect and publish their information in ways that facilitate reuse. Finally, funders need to support a variety of projects that seek to exploit these new opportunities.
Sgt1, but not Rar1, is essential for the RB-mediated broad-spectrum resistance to potato late blight
Pudota B Bhaskar, John A Raasch, Lara C Kramer, Pavel Neumann, Susan M Wielgus, Sandra Austin-Phillips, Jiming Jiang
BMC Plant Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-8
Abstract: We previously cloned a late blight resistance gene, RB, from a diploid wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum. Transgenic potato lines containing a single RB gene showed a rate-limiting resistance against all known races of Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen. To better understand the RB-mediated resistance we silenced the potato Rar1 and Sgt1 genes that have been implicated in mediating disease resistance responses against various plant pathogens and pests. The Rar1 and Sgt1 genes of a RB-containing potato clone were silenced using a RNA interference (RNAi)-based approach. All of the silenced potato plants displayed phenotypically normal growth. The late blight resistance of the Rar1 and Sgt1 silenced lines were evaluated by a traditional greenhouse inoculation method and quantified using a GFP-tagged P. infestans strain. The resistance of the Rar1-silenced plants was not affected. However, silencing of the Sgt1 gene abolished the RB-mediated resistance.Our study shows that silencing of the Sgt1 gene in potato does not result in lethality. However, the Sgt1 gene is essential for the RB-mediated late blight resistance. In contrast, the Rar1 gene is not required for RB-mediated resistance. These results provide additional evidence for the universal role of the Sgt1 gene in various R gene-mediated plant defense responses.Potato late blight, a disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the world's most devastating crop diseases. World-wide losses due to late blight exceed several billion dollars annually [1]. Most of the potato cultivars currently grown in the United States are highly susceptible to late blight and control of this disease relies almost exclusively on fungicide applications. The most effective and environmentally sound way for controlling late blight is to incorporate natural resistance into potato cultivars. The pedigrees of many potato cultivars currently used in different countries include late blight re
Using the ecology model to describe the impact of asthma on patterns of health care
Barbara P Yawn, George E Fryer, Robert L Phillips, Susan M Dovey, David Lanier, Larry A Green
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-5-7
Abstract: This is a case-control study using the 1999 U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Cases are school-aged children (6 to 17 years) and young adults (18 to 44 years) with self-reported asthma. Controls are from the same age groups who have no self-reported asthma. Descriptive analyses and risk ratios are placed within the ecology of medical care model and used to describe and compare the healthcare contact of cases and controls across multiple settings.In 1999, the presence of asthma significantly increased the likelihood of an ambulatory care visit by 20 to 30% and more than doubled the likelihood of making one or more visits to the emergency department (ED). Yet, 18.8% of children and 14.5% of adults with asthma (over a million Americans) had no ambulatory care visits for asthma. About one in 20 to 35 people with asthma (5.2% of children and 3.6% of adults) were seen in the ED or hospital but had no prior or follow-up ambulatory care visits. These Americans were more likely to be uninsured, have no usual source of care and live in metropolitan areas.The ecology model confirmed that having asthma changes the likelihood and pattern of care for Americans. More importantly, the ecology model identified a subgroup with asthma who sought only emergent or hospital services.Asthma is a common chronic disease affecting 5–13% of U.S. children and 3–5% of U.S. adults. [1-6] Due to its high and increasing prevalence and resulting morbidity, mortality and high cost of care, asthma is considered a priority condition by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ)[7] and a major focus of Healthy People 2010 in the United States.[8]Several studies have reported on health care utilization data for people with asthma, often focusing on emergency and hospital based care. [5,9-16] While these data are important, the designation of asthma as an ambulatory care sensitive condition demands that urgent and emergent care must be studied in the context of ambulatory visits. The eco
Gender and power: Nurses and doctors in Canada
Barbara Zelek, Susan P Phillips
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-2-1
Abstract: Nurses at an urban, university based hospital completed one of two forms of a vignette-based survey in January, 2000. Each survey included four clinical scenarios. In form 1 of the questionnaire the physicians described were female, male, female, and male. In form 2, vignettes were identical but the physician sex was changed to male, female, male, and female. Differences in responses to questions based on the sex of the physician in each vignette were studied199 self-selected nurses completed the survey. The responses of 177 female respondents and 11 respondents who did not specifiy their sex, and were assumed to be female based on the overall sex ratio of respondents, were analysed. Persistent sex-role stereotypes influenced the relationship between female nurses and physicians. Nurses were more willing to serve and defer to male physicians. They approached female physicians on a more egalitarian basis, were more comfortable communicating with them, yet more hostile toward them.When nurses and doctors are female, traditional power imbalances in their relationship diminish, suggesting that these imbalances are based as much on gender as on professional hierarchy. The effects of this change on the authority of the medical profession, the role of nurses, and on patient care merit further exploration.The income, prestige, and authority of doctors in most western countries reflects their omnipotence amongst health care professionals and their power within our society. The power of physicians appears to arise from knowledge and social class. However, concurrent with the increasing number of women entering medicine, there has been a recent decrease in that power.[1] For example, a significant proportion of female family physicians reports being sexually harassed by male patients.[2] Sexual harassment is an abusive behaviour perpetrated by those with power on the more vulnerable. The victimization of female doctors could only occur if the offending male patients saw their
Characterization of MSB Synapses in Dissociated Hippocampal Culture with Simultaneous Pre- and Postsynaptic Live Microscopy
James E. Reilly, Hugo H. Hanson, Mónica Fernández-Monreal, Susan L. Wearne, Patrick R. Hof, Greg R. Phillips
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026478
Abstract: Multisynaptic boutons (MSBs) are presynaptic boutons in contact with multiple postsynaptic partners. Although MSB synapses have been studied with static imaging techniques such as electron microscopy (EM), the dynamics of individual MSB synapses have not been directly evaluated. It is known that the number of MSB synapses increases with synaptogenesis and plasticity but the formation, behavior, and fate of individual MSB synapses remains largely unknown. To address this, we developed a means of live imaging MSB synapses to observe them directly over time. With time lapse confocal microscopy of GFP-filled dendrites in contact with VAMP2-DsRed-labeled boutons, we recorded both MSBs and their contacting spines hourly over 15 or more hours. Our live microscopy showed that, compared to spines contacting single synaptic boutons (SSBs), MSB-contacting spines exhibit elevated dynamic behavior. These results are consistent with the idea that MSBs serve as intermediates in synaptic development and plasticity.
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