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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 301326 matches for " Susan J Semple "
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Quality and availability of consumer information on heart failure in Australia
Agnes I Vitry, Susan M Phillips, Susan J Semple
BMC Health Services Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-255
Abstract: The availability of consumer information was assessed through a questionnaire-based survey of the major organisations in Australia known, or thought, to be producing or using consumer materials on heart failure, including hospitals. The questionnaire was designed to explore issues around the use, production and dissemination of consumer materials. Only groups that had produced consumer information on heart failure were asked to complete the totality of the questionnaire.The quality of information booklets was assessed by using a standardised checklist.Of 101 organisations which were sent a questionnaire, 33 had produced 61 consumer resources on heart failure including 21 information booklets, 3 videos, 5 reminder fridge magnets, 7 websites, 15 self-management diaries and 10 self-management plans. Questionnaires were completed for 40 separate information resources. Most had been produced by hospitals or health services. Two information booklets had been translated into other languages. There were major gaps in the availability of these resources as more than half of the resources were developed in 2 of the 8 Australian states and territories, New South Wales and Victoria.Quality assessment of 19 information booklets showed that most had good presentation and language. Overall eight high quality booklets were identified. There were gaps in terms of topics covered, provision of references, quantitative information about treatment outcomes and quality and level of scientific evidence to support medical recommendations. In only one case was there evidence that consumers had been involved in the production of the booklets.Key findings arising from the study included the need to develop a nationally coordinated approach for increasing the dissemination of information resources on heart failure. While the more recent publication of a booklet by the National Heart Foundation may have improved the situation, dissemination of written information materials may remain sub-optima
Self-medication with over-the-counter drugs and complementary medications in South Australia's elderly population
Lynn Goh, Agnes I Vitry, Susan J Semple, Adrian Esterman, Mary A Luszcz
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-42
Abstract: The Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA) is an ongoing multidisciplinary prospective study of the older population which commenced in 1992 in South Australia. Data collected in 4 waves of ALSA between 1992 and 2004 were used in this study with a baseline sample of 2087 adults aged 65 years and over, living in the community or residential aged care. OTC medicines were classified according to the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. CAM were classified according a modified version of the classification adopted by the Therapeutics Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia.The prevalence of CAM or OTC use ranged from 17.7% in 2000-2001 to 35.5% in 2003-2004. The top classes of CAM and OTC medicines used remained relatively constant over the study period. The most frequent classes of CAM used were vitamins and minerals, herbal medicines and nutritional supplements while the most commonly used OTC were analgesics, laxatives and low dose aspirin. Females and those of younger age were more likely to be CAM users but no variable was associated with OTC use.Participants seemed to self-medicate in accordance with approved indications, suggesting they were informed consumers, actively looking after their own health. However, use of analgesics and aspirin are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events in the elderly. Future work should examine how self-medication contributes to polypharmacy and increases the risk of adverse drug reactions.In Australia, the proportion of adults over the age of 65 in 2005 was 13% and this figure is expected to more than double by 2051. South Australia has the highest percentage of people aged 65 and over of all Australian states and territories, and this age group is expected to make up 26.5% of the state's population by 2031[1].Increasing age is associated with increased prevalence of chronic medical conditions [2], a higher number of medicines used, and a higher demand for all medi
A Preclinical Assessment of Neural Stem Cells as Delivery Vehicles for Anti-Amyloid Therapeutics
eMalick G. Njie, Svetlana Kantorovich, Garrett W. Astary, Cameron Green, Tong Zheng, Susan L. Semple-Rowland, Dennis A. Steindler, Malisa Sarntinoranont, Wolfgang J. Streit, David R. Borchelt
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034097
Abstract: Transplantation of neural stems cells (NSCs) could be a useful means to deliver biologic therapeutics for late-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we conducted a small preclinical investigation of whether NSCs could be modified to express metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), a secreted protease reported to degrade aggregated Aβ peptides that are the major constituents of the senile plaques. Our findings illuminated three issues with using NSCs as delivery vehicles for this particular application. First, transplanted NSCs generally failed to migrate to amyloid plaques, instead tending to colonize white matter tracts. Second, the final destination of these cells was highly influenced by how they were delivered. We found that our injection methods led to cells largely distributing to white matter tracts, which are anisotropic conduits for fluids that facilitate rapid distribution within the CNS. Third, with regard to MMP9 as a therapeutic to remove senile plaques, we observed high concentrations of endogenous metalloproteinases around amyloid plaques in the mouse models used for these preclinical tests with no evidence that the NSC-delivered enzymes elevated these activities or had any impact. Interestingly, MMP9-expressing NSCs formed substantially larger grafts. Overall, we observed long-term survival of NSCs in the brains of mice with high amyloid burden. Therefore, we conclude that such cells may have potential in therapeutic applications in AD but improved targeting of these cells to disease-specific lesions may be required to enhance efficacy.
Statin therapy, myopathy and exercise--a case report
Stuart J Semple
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-11-40
Abstract: Reducing high cholesterol levels through pharmacotherapy is a key goal for patients with dyslipedemia. Despite the controversy surrounding statins they remain one of the most widely prescribed groups of lipid-lowering drugs simply because of their effectiveness [1]. Serious adverse side effects are rare, however, myopathy symptoms including fatigue, weakness, cramps and muscle pain are commonly reported by patients [2]. These symptoms may be exacerbated in patients who exercise [2] and be prevalent in as many as 75% of athletes who take the drug [3]. The underlying mechanism(s) responsible for the statin-induced myopathy is unclear, however there is evidence that statins may upregulate muscle cell apoptosis, inflammation and protein catabolism in response to eccentric exercise [4]. Whether or not 6 months of statin therapy induces skeletal muscle related changes such that indirect markers of muscle damage are exacerbated following 'normal' sessions that induce moderate muscle soreness, is yet to be established. Indeed some will argue that there are currently very few studies implicating inflammation as a factor that may exacerbate statin therapy induced complications [5].A 34 year old male (weight 63 kg; BMI 21.8 kg/m2) presented to his general practitioner (GP) for a routine medical check-up. The patient, a non-smoker, had no known/diagnosed chronic disease, injury or infection, was on no medication and was generally in good health. As a junior athlete the patient had participated competitively in endurance activities (cross-country, athletics, tri/duathlon) at provincial and national level, and for the last 13 years his motivation to engage in regular physical activity was driven by the health belief model. On average, his training over the last few years included 3 road running sessions per week (2 × 30-40 min during the week and 1 × 60-100 min on the weekend). These sessions were usually completed at moderate intensity with the odd session (1 out of every 4) bei
Recently published papers: Take your predictions with a drop of saline ... and breathe deeply before turning on your phone
David J Semple, Lui G Forni
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc2915
Abstract: He that would know what shall be must consider what has been.Thomas Fuller, MD, Gnomologia (1732)Scoring systems are beloved by some intensivists. They can provide a means by which patients may be compared between facilities, therefore enabling sensible trials to be conducted. They may also play a role in directing treatment plans for patients. However, the Holy Grail for many enthusiasts remains their potential use as prognostic tools among the critically ill in an attempt to predict the future. One would hope that clinical acumen also plays a role in determining treatment and the study by Rocker and coworkers [1] is somewhat reassuring in this respect. That prospective study, which included some 851 mechanically ventilated patients, was performed to evaluate the predictive ability of, and outcomes associated with, daily clinician estimates of a probability of intensive care unit (ICU) survival under 10%. The usual baseline characteristics were recorded, together with daily Acute Physiology and Chornic Health Evaluation II score and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score. After morning ward rounds the attending physician and each bedside nurse were asked to predict the clinical probability of ICU survival as one of the following: under 10%, 10–40%, 41–60%, 61–90%, or over 90%.Just over 35% of the cohort died on the ICU. Of those patients deemed to have a greater than 10% chance of surviving ICU, 87.8% survived. Of those with an expected survival chance of under 10%, 29% did actually survive their ICU stay, although no data are given regarding whether they survived their hospital stay. The physicians tended to have a bleaker outlook than the nursing staff, but when both observations were combined this was, unsurprisingly, a more powerful predictor. Indeed, the clinical prediction was more powerful than illness severity, use of inotropes and vasopressors, or organ dysfunction. However, the group thought to have a poor outlook was also more likely to have some form of life
Activation of Phospholipase C Mimics the Phase Shifting Effects of Light on Melatonin Rhythms in Retinal Photoreceptors
Susan Semple-Rowland, Irina Madorsky, Susan Bolch, Jonathan Berry, W. Clay Smith
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083378
Abstract: Many aspects of retinal photoreceptor function and physiology are regulated by the circadian clocks in these cells. It is well established that light is the primary stimulus that entrains these clocks; yet, the biochemical cascade(s) mediating light’s effects on these clocks remains unknown. This deficiency represents a significant gap in our fundamental understanding of photoreceptor signaling cascades and their functions. In this study, we utilized re-aggregated spheroid cultures prepared from embryonic chick retina to determine if activation of phospholipase C in photoreceptors in the absence of light can phase shift the melatonin secretion rhythms of these cells in a manner similar to that induced by light. We show that spheroid cultures rhythmically secrete melatonin and that these melatonin rhythms can be dynamically phase shifted by exposing the cultures to an appropriately timed light pulse. Importantly, we show that activation of phospholipase C using m-3M3FBS in the absence of light induces a phase delay in photoreceptor melatonin rhythms that mirrors that induced by light. The implication of this finding is that the light signaling cascade that entrains photoreceptor melatonin rhythms involves activation of phospholipase C.
"I Wish for More Than I Ever Get": Employers’ Perspectives on Employability Attributes of Architecture Graduates  [PDF]
Susan J. Shannon
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326153
Abstract: This research considers graduate recruitment for architecture graduates. Employers in small, medium and large Australian firms, from the private and public sector were surveyed about their graduate hiring practices. Through distilling the discipline specific Graduate Attributes for all Australian Architecture Schools’ Architecture Programs, and generic Graduate Attributes for their Universities, the researcher compiled a questionnaire which was administered to prospective employers of architecture graduates. The results reveal that the possession of technical knowledge is more highly rated as a Graduate Attribute in recruitment than the possession of design knowledge/skills, and that the possession of Computer Aided Design (CAD) representation skills is more important to graduate recruiters of all firm sizes than either technical or design knowledge and skills. The research further revealed that the presentation of a portfolio is a key recruitment tool for employers, and that the demonstration of team work is a highly valued generic attribute for employers.
A genome-wide screen in human embryonic stem cells reveals novel sites of allele-specific histone modification associated with known disease loci
James G D Prendergast, Pin Tong, David C Hay, Susan M Farrington, Colin A M Semple
Epigenetics & Chromatin , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-8935-5-6
Abstract: Using a statistically rigorous protocol, we investigated the genomic distribution of ASHM in hESCs, and their relationship to sites of allele-specific expression (ASE) and DNA methylation. We found that, although they were rare, sites of ASHM were substantially enriched at loci displaying ASE. Many were also found at known imprinted regions, hence sites of ASHM are likely to be better markers of imprinted regions than sites of ASM. We also found that sites of ASHM and ASE in hESCs colocalize at risk loci for developmental syndromes mediated by deletions, providing insights into the etiology of these disorders.These results demonstrate the potential importance of ASHM patterns in the interpretation of disease loci, and the protocol described provides a basis for similar studies of ASHM in other cell types to further our understanding of human disease susceptibility.In genome-wide studies of human chromatin, chromatin states are often assumed to be the same on both copies of a chromosome. However, an increasing number of studies has shown that a surprising level of heterogeneity can in fact exist between the chromatin states of different alleles. A recent study of allele-specific methylation (ASM) of DNA in various pluripotent and adult cell lines estimated that 23 to 37% of heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) displayed differing levels of methylation between alleles, with most ASM sites attributable to heterozygote polymorphisms disrupting the guanine nucleotide in CpG motifs [1].Although DNA methylation is the best-characterized mechanism [2], it is not the only level of chromatin that has been shown to exhibit genome-wide allele-specific patterns in humans. For example, the nuclease DNaseI has been shown to cleave at sites of open chromatin and to preferentially target regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers. Investigation of allele-specific patterns of DNaseI hypersensitivity has shown that 7% of DNaseI sites display allelic imbalances
Naturopaths practice behaviour: provision and access to information on complementary and alternative medicines
Caroline Smith, Karen Martin, Elizabeth Hotham, Susan Semple, Geraldine Bloustien, Deepa Rao
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-5-15
Abstract: A representative sample of 300 practicing naturopaths located nationally were sent a comprehensive survey which gathered data on self reported practice behaviour in relation to the provision of information on oral CAM to clients and the information needs of the practitioners themselvesA response rate of 35% was achieved. Most practitioners (98%) have a dispensary within their clinic and the majority of practitioners perform the dispensing themselves. Practitioners reported they provided information to clients, usually in the form of verbal information (96%), handwritten notes (83%) and printed information (75%). The majority of practitioners (over 75%) reported always giving information on the full name of the product, reason for prescribing, expected response, possible interactions and contraindications and actions of the product. Information resources most often used by practitioners included professional newsletters, seminars run by manufacturers, patient feedback and personal observation of patients. Most practitioners were positive about the information they could access but felt that more information was required in areas such as adverse reactions and safe use of CAM in children, pregnancy and breastfeeding. Most naturopaths (over 96%) were informed about adverse events through manufacturer or distributor newsletters. The barriers in the provision of information to clients were misleading or incorrect information in the media, time constraints, information overload and complex language used in printed information. The main barrier to the practitioner in information access was seen as the perceived division between orthodox and complementary medicine practitioners.Our data suggest most naturopaths were concerned about possible interaction between pharmaceuticals and CAM, and explore this area with their patients. There is scope to improve practitioners' access to information of adverse events including an increased awareness of sources of information such as th
Increasing Hippocampal Estrogen Receptor Alpha Levels via Viral Vectors Increases MAP Kinase Activation and Enhances Memory in Aging Rats in the Absence of Ovarian Estrogens
Christine F. Witty, Thomas C. Foster, Susan L. Semple-Rowland, Jill M. Daniel
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051385
Abstract: We previously demonstrated that aged ovariectomized rats that had received prior estradiol treatment in middle-age exhibited increased levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the hippocampus as well as enhanced hippocampal dependent memory as compared to aged rats that had not received mid-life estradiol treatment. These effects persisted long after the estradiol treatment had been terminated. The goal of the current experiment was to determine if increased expression of ERα in the hippocampus, in the absence of exogenously administered estrogens, can impact the hippocampus and cognitive function in aging ovariectomized rats. Middle-aged rats were trained for 24 days on an eight-arm radial maze spatial memory task. All rats were then ovariectomized. Forty days later, rats received either lentiviral delivery to the hippocampus of the gene encoding ERα (lenti-ERα) or a control virus. Rats were tested on delay trials in the radial-maze in which delays of varying lengths were imposed between the fourth and fifth arm choices. Following behavior testing, hippocampi were immunostained using western blotting for ERα, the ERα-regulated protein choline acetyltransferase, and phosphorylation of the ERα-regulated kinases, ERK/MAPK and Akt. Results revealed that aging ovariectomized rats that received delivery of lenti-ERα to the hippocampus exhibited enhanced spatial memory as indicated by increased arm-choice accuracy across delays as compared to ovariectomized rats that received control virus. Western blot data revealed that lenti-ERα delivery significantly increased levels of ERα and phosphorylated ERK/MAPK and had no impact on levels of ChAT or phosphorylation of Akt. Results indicate that increasing hippocampal levels of ERα in aging females in the absence of ovarian or exogenously administered estrogens leads to increases in phosphorylation of ERK/MAPK as well as in enhanced memory.
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