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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5191 matches for " Susan Ingle "
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Genetic diversity among Indian phytopathogenic isolates of Fusarium semitectum Berkeley and Ravenel  [PDF]
Avinash Ingle, Mahendra Rai
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2011.23023
Abstract: We report total ten isolates of F. semitectum recovered from different hosts. Identity of these isolates was determined by morphological and cultural characteristics and confirmed by RAPD-PCR analysis using forty random primers. Morphologically all the ten isolates showed similarity, but based on RAPD-PCR analysis, these isolates can be categorized in three groups depending upon similarity co-efficient. Genetic similarity coefficients between pair wise isolates varied from 0.00 to 1.95 based on an unweighted paired group method of arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. RAPD-PCR technique can be used as an important tool for the genetic differentiation among isolates of F. semitectum.
Preparing for rural surgery: Procedure or skills?
RF Ingle
South African Family Practice , 2003,
Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping
Jean E Abraham, Mel J Maranian, Inmaculada Spiteri, Roslin Russell, Susan Ingle, Craig Luccarini, Helena M Earl, Paul DP Pharoah, Alison M Dunning, Carlos Caldas
BMC Medical Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8794-5-19
Abstract: Patients were recruited from the Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy (PGSNPS) study. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 79 study participants. The Oragene DNA Self-Collection kit (DNAgenotek?) was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. DNA from EDTA blood samples (median volume 8 ml) was extracted by Gen-Probe, Livingstone, UK. DNA yields, standard measures of DNA quality, genotype call rates and genotype concordance between paired, duplicated samples were assessed.Total DNA yields were lower from saliva (mean 24 μg, range 0.2–52 μg) than from blood (mean 210 μg, range 58–577 μg) and a 2-fold difference remained after adjusting for the volume of biological material collected. Protein contamination and DNA fragmentation measures were greater in saliva DNA. 78/79 saliva samples yielded sufficient DNA for use on Illumina Beadchip arrays and using Taqman assays. Four samples were randomly selected for genotyping in duplicate on the Illumina Beadchip arrays. All samples were genotyped using Taqman assays. DNA quality, as assessed by genotype call rates and genotype concordance between matched pairs of DNA was high (>97%) for each measure in both blood and saliva-derived DNA.We conclude that DNA from saliva and blood samples is comparable when genotyping using either Taqman assays or genome-wide chip arrays. Saliva sampling has the potential to increase participant recruitment within clinical trials, as well as reducing the resources and organisation required for multicentre sample collection.
Genome-wide case-control study of musculoskeletal adverse events and functional genomics in women receiving aromatase inhibitors: going beyond associations
James N Ingle
Breast Cancer Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2746
Abstract: Despite the proven value of the AIs, many women are not adherent [10]. About one-half of women treated with an AI have new or worsening joint complaints [11]. The importance of musculoskeletal complaints was identified in reviewing the experience with MA.27, a large phase III trial comparing the non-steroidal AI anastrozole with the steroidal AI exemestane as adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. These musculoskeletal adverse events (MS-AEs) were the most common reason why patients discontinued AI therapy. We had previously demonstrated marked variability in metabolism and pharmacodynamics of one of the AIs, anastrozole [12]. We hypothesized that the variability seen with respect to MS-AEs in women treated with anastrozole or exemestane on MA.27 could be related to genetic variability of the patients. We proceeded to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed at identifying SNPs associated with MS-AEs. The results of this GWAS and the functional genomic laboratory studies performed have recently been published [13]. This short communication summarizes the highlights of this work plus a commentary on future pharmacogenomic studies of anti-cancer agents.MA.27 is a randomized clinical trial conducted by the Breast Cancer Intergroup of North America that was coordinated by the NCIC Clinical Trials Group [13]. Eligible patients were those with a postmenopausal status and resected American Joint Committee on Cancer (version 6) stage I to III breast cancer that was hormone receptor positive. Patients were randomized to anastrozole or exemestane for a period of 5 years. A total of 6,827 women in North America were randomized and the majority provided DNA and consent for its use in genetic studies.Cases were defined as those patients who developed a MS-AE, as previously defined [13], and each case was matched to two controls. The design utilized was a nested matched case-control study and the primary analyses were based on conditional logistic regression. The R
Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics of endocrine agents for breast cancer
James N Ingle
Breast Cancer Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2177
Abstract: Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics involve the study of the role played by inheritance in individual variation in drug response phenotypes such as disease outcomes and end organ effects, including adverse events. These terms are often used interchangeably but, strictly speaking, pharmacogenetics refers to the study of a gene or a number of genes, such as those involved with a pathway, whereas pharmacogenomics involves the entire genome. We have truly entered the era of pharmacogenomics with the introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics have the clinical goals of better selecting responsive patients, maximizing drug efficacy and minimizing adverse reactions. Pharmacokinetics considers factors such as metabolism and transport that influence drug concentrations at the target(s), whereas pharmacodynamics considers factors that influence the response of the target(s), for example receptors, enzymes, transporters and downstream signalling molecules, to the drug.Endocrine therapy represents the most important therapeutic modality for those women whose tumours are potentially endocrine sensitive, as indicated by expression of the ER and/or progesterone receptor. The selective ER modulator tamoxifen has been the most important therapeutic agent in breast cancer for the past three decades. Tamoxifen has received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for the full spectrum of breast cancer from metastatic disease to those women who are at higher risk for developing breast cancer. In addition, tamoxifen has received approval for treatment of men with metastatic breast cancer and is commonly used in the adjuvant setting. During the past decade the third generation AIs anastrozole, exemestane and letrozole have emerged as important additions to the clinician's armamentarium against breast cancer. They appear to be more efficacious than tamoxifen in the advanced disease setting [1], have become clearly established in t
Introduction to sessions on 'Endocrine therapy: where have we come from, where are we at and where are we going to?'
James N Ingle
Breast Cancer Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2175
Abstract: Professor Craig Jordan [1] considered the most important lessons learned from studying the action of oestrogen on breast cancer cells as a basis for future research. He reviewed the mechanisms of action of oestrogen through the oestrogen receptor (ER) and the complexity of these interactions. A new concept of evolution of resistance to selective ER modulators was considered, and it was noted that oestradiol can kill both selective ER modulator stimulated and aromatase inhibitor (AI) resistant cells. The current status of endocrine therapy in the adjuvant and prevention settings was reviewed, and angiogenesis inhibition and apoptosis induction were considered as future promising areas of research.Professor James Ingle [2] emphasized the fact that variability exists in how patients respond to endocrine therapy, and that there is variability in terms of the effects of endocrine agents on end organs and adverse events. He reviewed the concepts of pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The field of pharmacogenetics/genomics addresses the genetic factors of the host and has the goal of identifying the right drug at the right dose for the right patient. It is clear that the field is at an early stage for endocrine therapy of breast cancer, but there is emerging evidence that cytochrome P450-2D6 metabolizer status is of predictive value in patients considering tamoxifen therapy. Further validation of these findings is needed before there can be widespread acceptance. The field is at an earlier stage of development for the AIs but research is ongoing.Professor Daniel Hayes [3] addressed the issue of markers of endocrine sensitivity. He considered the topics of endocrine resistance and definitions of tumour markers, including levels of evidence and the importance of determining whether a marker is prognostic or predictive. The ER was considered to be the most important predictive factor for endocrine therapy, and he reviewed the weaknesses
Estrogen as therapy for breast cancer
James N Ingle
Breast Cancer Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/bcr436
Abstract: High-dose estrogen was the endocrine treatment of choice in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer prior to the introduction of tamoxifen in the 1970s. Cole et al. reported the first clinical trial of tamoxifen in women with late or recurrent breast cancer [1], and compared their findings with those from another similarly conducted trial in which women received diethylstilbestrol (DES) or an androgen. They concluded that the level of response was of the same order for the three agents but that an advantage for tamoxifen was the low incidence of 'troublesome side effects'.Consistent with these early findings, the acceptance of tamoxifen as preferable to estrogen therapy was based not on a superior efficacy, but rather on an improved tolerability demonstrated in phase III trials [2,3]. It is common practice to employ a series of endocrine agents in patients who remain candidates for such therapy on the basis of sites, extent, and tempo of disease and clinical status. It is remarkable given the prior importance of estrogens that, following the establishment of tamoxifen as the standard, estrogens largely disappeared from the endocrine therapy mindset of practicing oncologists, being relegated to the end of a list of agents that included aromatase inhibitors (AIs), progestins, and androgens.We have recently updated our trial of DES versus tamoxifen. Although the trial is small in size by today's standards, it provided mature survival data in that 95% of the 143 eligible patients had died [4]. There was no significant difference between the two agents in terms of response rates and time to progression. However, survival was modestly and significantly better for women initially treated with DES (adjusted P = 0.039), with median survivals of 3.0 years versus 2.4 years, and 5-year survivals of 35% and 16%, respectively.A recent report by L?nning et al. described the use of high-dose DES in women with prior endocrine exposure [5]. This was a prospective phase II cl
A comparison of the referral rates of trainees and trainers in an academic teaching practice
RF Ingle, JB Levin
South African Family Practice , 2004,
Abstract: Objective: To compare the referral rates of trainee and trainer family physicians. Setting: The practice of the Department of Family Medicine at the Medical University of Southern Africa, Pretoria. Design: Analysis of 43 028 problem encounters selected from one in-service practice database. Participants: Thirteen junior registrars, seven senior registrars in a Master's programme and seven senior physicians. Main measure: Referral rates compared by the Generalised Linear Mixed Model to allow for case mix and variation between the three study groups. Results: Adjusted referral rates per thousand problem encounters were 97.7 for junior registrars (95% CI 79.4 - 120.7), 77.1 for senior registrars (95%CI 59.3 - 99.5) and 73.7 for senior physicians (95% CI 54.4 - 99.2). Differences between the groups were not statistically significant (Wald chi-square = 3.90; df = 2; P = 0.195). There was insufficient evidence to show that the large amount of variation in the referral rates of doctors within study groups was different between the three groups. Conclusions: Using a performance-oriented database and an advanced method for adjusting for case mix makes a difference to referral rates. There was no significant difference between the mean referral rates of trainees and trainers. There was a large amount of variation within all three groups. Together, these findings support the thesis that factors other than clinical diagnosis in the behaviour of doctors or their interaction with patients are determinants of the referral decision. This points to the value of peer reviewing of referral rates for both trainees and trainers during vocational training, as well as in group practices. Key Words: General practice, family medicine, referral, trainee For full text, click here: SA Fam Pract 2004;46(4):21-25
Performance Analysis of Embedded Linux in Embedded System
Charulata Pravin Ingle
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Nowadays, embedded systems with Linux OS are commonly applied in automotive industry. This paper represents two features of embedded system namely multithreading and semaphore in embedded linux. The flow charts are used to represent the program written in ‘C’, run on linux operating system .In multithreading the same string is printed continuously till you print ‘stop’ while by using semaphore the string will print only once and asking for another one. By using this we can build our own embedded system using linux as the kernel and freely available open source.
Integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: An overview
Ingle G,Malhotra Chetna
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2007,
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