Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Any time

2019 ( 6 )

2018 ( 8 )

2017 ( 9 )

2016 ( 15 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5891 matches for " Susan Carlson "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /5891
Display every page Item
How Active Are Older Americans?
Judy Kruger, PhD,Susan A. Carlson, MS,David Buchner, MD
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2007,
Abstract: IntroductionRegular physical activity can reduce age-related functional decline, as well people’s risk for chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of participation in aerobic, muscle-strengthening, and flexibility activities among Americans aged 50 years or older.MethodsUsing population-based data from the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, we classified qualified respondents (N = 11,969) according to whether they met the activity criteria used in Healthy People 2010 goals for leisure-time participation in regular aerobic physical activity, vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, strength-training activity, and flexibility activity. We also classified respondents according to their level of aerobic activity (i.e., inactive, insufficiently active, and regularly active).ResultsWe estimated that 46.4% of older Americans engaged in no leisure-time aerobic activity; that 26.1% were regularly active (participated in light- to moderate-intensity aerobic activities at least 5 days per week for at least 30 minutes or vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes); that 16.2% participated in vigorous-intensity aerobic activities at least 3 days per week for at least 20 minutes; that 13.7% participated in strength-training activities at least 2 days per week; and that 24.5% participated in flexibility activities at least 1 day per week. Among the 26.1% of older Americans who were regularly active, 30.5% engaged in strengthen-training activities at least 2 days per week. Overall, only 8.2% of older Americans met the criteria for both aerobic and strength-training activity.ConclusionAs of 2001, the percentage of older Americans who met recommended activity levels of physical activity were well below the goals for U.S. adults in Healthy People 2010. Further efforts are needed to encourage older Americans to engage in aerobic activities and in strengthening and flexibility activities.
On the Existence of Constant Accrual Rates in Clinical Trials and Direction for Future Research
Byron J. Gajewski,Stephen D. Simon,Susan E. Carlson
International Journal of Statistics and Probability , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijsp.v1n2p43
Abstract: Many clinical trials fall short of their accrual goals. This can be avoided with accurate accrual prediction tools. Past researchers provide important methodological alternative models for predicting accrual in clinical trials. One model allows for slow accrual at the start of the study, which eventually reaches a threshold. A simpler model assumes a constant rate of accrual. A comparison has been attempted but we wish to point out some important considerations when comparing these two models. In fact, we can examine the reasonableness of a constant accrual assumption (simpler model) which had data 239 days into a three-year study. We can now update that and report accumulated from the full three years of accrual data and we can demonstrate that constant accrual rate assumption was met in this particular study. We will use this report to frame future research in the area of accrual prediction.
Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study
Tarah T Colaizy, Susan Carlson, Audrey F Saftlas, Frank H Morriss Jr
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-124
Abstract: Retrospective cohort study.171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, < 10th percentile) at birth, and 34% of infants were SGA at discharge. Infants fed >75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving < 75% (?0.6 vs, -0.4, p = 0.03). Protein and caloric supplementation beyond standard human milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor ?0.84, maternal ?0.56, mixed ?0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08).VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk.Maternal milk diets have been associated with advantages for extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants. ELBW infants fed maternal milk have lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) [1-3], the combined outcome of NEC or death [4], late onset sepsis [2,5,6], and have superior neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with those fed preterm formulas [7,8].However, maternal milk diets have also been associated with inferior in-hospital growth when compared with preterm formula. Studies performed prior to the current practice of human milk fortification demonstrated poorer growth in maternal–milk-fed infants compared with those fed formula [9], although neurodevelopmental advantages were associated with human milk intake [7,10]. Results of subsequent
Cerebellar Purkinje cells incorporate immunoglobulins and immunotoxins in vitro: implications for human neurological disease and immunotherapeutics
Kenneth E Hill, Susan A Clawson, John W Rose, Noel G Carlson, John E Greenlee
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-6-31
Abstract: To assess Purkinje cell uptake of immunoglobulins, organotypic cultures of rat cerebellum incubated with rat IgGs, human IgG, fluorescein-conjugated IgG, and rat IgM were studied by confocal microscopy in real time and following fixation. An IgG-daunorubicin immunotoxin was used to determine whether conjugation of pharmacological agents to IgG could be used to achieve Purkinje cell-specific drug delivery.IgG uptake was detected in Purkinje cell processes after 4 hours of incubation and in Purkinje cell cytoplasm and nuclei by 24-48 hours. Uptake could be followed in real time using IgG-fluorochrome conjugates. Purkinje cells also incorporated IgM. Intracellular immunoglobulin did not affect Purkinje cell viability, and Purkinje cells cleared intracellular IgG or IgM within 24-48 hours after transfer to media lacking immunoglobulins. The IgG-daunomycin immunotoxin was also rapidly incorporated into Purkinje cells and caused extensive, cell-specific death within 8 hours. Purkinje cell death was not produced by unconjugated daunorubicin or control IgG.Purkinje cells in rat organotypic cultures incorporate and clear host (rat) and non-host (human or donkey) IgG or IgM, independent of the immunoglobulin's reactivity with Purkinje cell antigens. This property permits real-time study of immunoglobulin-Purkinje cell interaction using fluorochrome IgG conjugates, and can allow Purkinje cell-specific delivery of IgG-conjugated pharmacological agents. Antibodies to intracellular Purkinje cell proteins could potentially be incorporated intracellularly to produce cell injury. Antibodies used therapeutically, including immunotoxins, may also be taken up and cause Purkinje cell injury, even if they do not recognize Purkinje cell antigens.Antibodies to cytoplasmic components of cerebellar Purkinje cells have been repeatedly described in sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients developing paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in the setting of systemic cancer, as well as in s
Perceptual similarity of visual patterns predicts the similarity of their dynamic neural activation patterns measured with MEG
Susan G. Wardle,Nikolaus Kriegeskorte,Seyed-Mahdi Khaligh-Razavi,Thomas A. Carlson
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: Perceptual similarity is a cognitive judgment that represents the end-stage of a complex cascade of hierarchical processing throughout visual cortex. Although it is intuitive that visual objects that appear similar may share similar underlying patterns of neural activation, a direct mapping between perceptual similarity and representational distance has not been demonstrated. Here we explore the relationship between the human brain's time-varying representation of visual patterns and behavioral judgments of perceptual similarity. The visual stimuli were abstract patterns constructed from identical perceptual units (oriented Gabor patches) so that each pattern had a unique global form or perceptual 'Gestalt'. The visual stimuli were decodable from evoked neural activation patterns measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG), however, stimuli differed in the similarity of their neural representation as estimated by differences in decodability. Early after stimulus onset (from 50ms), a model based on retinotopic organization predicted the representational similarity of the visual stimuli. Following the peak correlation between the retinotopic model and neural data at 80ms, the neural representations quickly evolved so that retinotopy no longer provided a sufficient account of the brain's time-varying representation of the stimuli. Overall the strongest predictor of the brain's representation was a model based on human judgments of perceptual similarity, which reached the theoretical limits of the maximum correlation with the neural data defined by the 'noise ceiling'. Our results show that large-scale brain activation patterns contain a neural signature for the perceptual Gestalt of composite visual features, and demonstrate a strong correspondence between perception and complex patterns of brain activity.
The Case for an M2 Growth Rate of 10%  [PDF]
William Carlson, Conway Lackman
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.43021

The recovery from the 2008-2009 recession has been much slower than the average recovery since the 1924 recession. As analysts who believe that the St. Louis model created by Leonall Andersen and Jerry Jordan still has relevance we believe that the slow rate of M2 growth since 2Q2009 is a major reason why GDP growth has been so slow. At the 9th Annual Missouri Economics Conference on March 27, 2009 we presented a paper, “Interwar Hoarding, Liquidity Traps, and the 2008 Solvency Trap” in which we recommended that the Federal Reserve attempt to maintain a 10% growth rate for M2 (or a growth rate of 6.80% on an inflation adjusted basis similar to the 1960, 1970, 1982 recoveries) with the hope that the plan would lead to a real GDP growth rate of 7% with an inflation rate of 3%.The title of that paper indicates two other factors hindering both M2 and GDP growth. Bank hoarding of excess reserves far in excess of ratios seen in the 1930s put the US into a liquidity trap. But in 2008 this was not an ordinary trap. We tried to coin the term “solvency trap” to indicate our belief that, using mark to market accounting, the financial system was insolvent. As Reinhart and Rogoff have noted, recoveries from financial crises tend to be slower than those from ordinary recessions. Analyses of each downturn since 1922 are conducted along with what has happened after the economy bottomed in 2Q09 including money supply analysis. Three years have passed. We continue to believe our original recommendation was correct.

A Note on Federal Reserve Policy Incongruencies  [PDF]
William Carlson, Conway Lackman
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.612116
Abstract: The incongruencies of Federal Reserve (Fed) policy is demonstrated where the Fed proposes to raise interest rates on excess reserves claiming that generally rising rates that follow will help households increase interest income. The resulting slowing of the economy, however, will cause slowing employment and income gains which are likely to more than offset any rising interest income.
Can Business Firms Have Too Much Leverage? M&M, RJR 1990, and the Crisis of 2008  [PDF]
William Carlson, Conway Lackman
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.72021
Abstract: In 1958 Modigliani and Miller published one of the most significant papers in finance on the cost of capital. It presented the capital structure irrelevance theorem which states that the cost of capital is independent of capital structure. It implies that there is no optimal structure and consequently denies the existence of non-optimal structures. If there are no non-optimal structures then there is no such thing as a business firm having too much leverage or debt. We disagree with that conclusion on both theoretical and empirical grounds supported by the evidence provided by the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission plus the basic logic behind Basel III. The model of this paper comes from Brigham and Houston’s Bigbee case using beta, the Hamada transformation and an interest rate function which is crucial, concepts not available to M&M in 1958. We show how the minimization of WACC (weighted average cost of capital) and maximization of stock price give identical solutions and their similarity to M&M Propositions I and II. It also shows the simple mechanism that causes non-optimality. M&M missed non optimal structures partly because their data base from 1948 and 1953 had only low and moderate debt/equity ratios. Non-optimal behavior appears at high (double digit) D/E ratios. We have examples of the consequences of excessive leverage not available to M&M, including RJR, Houdaille Industries, the casualties of the 2008 crisis and others. The RJR LBO is examined in detail because it is as close to a laboratory experiment as can be expected in economics. The analysis shows how extremely high leverage put RJR on the path to bankruptcy and how the Roberts-Gerstner plan restored profitability following the logic of Brigham’s Bigbee model.
Software Composition Using Behavioral Models of Design Patterns  [PDF]
Sargon Hasso, Carl Robert Carlson
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.72012

Given a set of requirements structured as design problems, we can apply design patterns to solve each problem individually. Much of the published literature on design patterns addresses this problem—pattern association; however, there is no systematic and practical way that shows how to integrate those individual solutions together. We propose a compositional model based on design patterns by abstracting their behavioral model using role modeling constructs. This approach describes how to transform a design pattern into a role model that can be used to assemble a software application. The role model captures the behavioral relationship between participant components in the design pattern. Our approach offers a complete practical design and implementation strategies, adapted from DCI (Data, Context, and Interaction) architecture. We demonstrate our technique by presenting a simple case study complete with design and implementation code. We also present a simple to follow process that provides guidelines of what to do and how to do it.

Accessing the Microscopic World
Charles Carlson
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030012
Page 1 /5891
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.