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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5337 matches for " Susan Bull "
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An open learner model for trainee pilots
Inderdip Gakhal,Susan Bull
Research in Learning Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v16i2.10891
Abstract: This paper investigates the potential for simple open learner models for highly motivated, independent learners, using the example of trainee pilots. In particular we consider whether such users access their learner model to help them identify their current knowledge level, areas of difficulty and specific misconceptions, to help them plan their immediate learning activities; and whether they find a longer-term planning aid useful. The Flight Club open learner model was deployed in a UK flight school over four weeks. Results suggest that motivated users such as trainee pilots will use a system with a simple open learner model, and are interested in consulting their learner model information both to facilitate planning over time, and to understand their current knowledge state. We discuss the extent to which our findings may be relevant to learners in other contexts.
Raising learner awareness of progress towards UK-SPEC learning outcomes
Susan Bull,Peter Gardner
Engineering Education , 2010,
Abstract: This paper introduces UK-SpecIAL, developed to help engineering students better understand how their modules relate to each other and to the engineering professions towards which they are working, and to raise their awareness of their progress towards UK-SPEC learning outcomes. Our example is for electronic, electrical and computer engineering, but could be extended for other engineering subjects. Log data indicates that learners use the information provided about their general progress across modules and questionnaire responses suggest students consider UK-SpecIAL to be a useful support for their independent learning.
Theory-based Support for Mobile Language Learning: Noticing and Recording
Agnes Kukulska-Hulme,Susan Bull
International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM) , 2009, DOI: 10.3991/ijim.v3i2.740
Abstract: This paper considers the issue of 'noticing' in second language acquisition, and argues for the potential of handheld devices to: (i) support language learners in noticing and recording noticed features 'on the spot', to help them develop their second language system; (ii) help language teachers better understand the specific difficulties of individuals or those from a particular language background; and (iii) facilitate data collection by applied linguistics researchers, which can be fed back into educational applications for language learning. We consider: theoretical perspectives drawn from the second language acquisition literature, relating these to the practice of writing language learning diaries; and the potential for learner modelling to facilitate recording and prompting noticing in mobile assisted language learning contexts. We then offer guidelines for developers of mobile language learning solutions to support the development of language awareness in learners.
Computer-based formative assessment to promote reflection and learner autonomy
Susan Bull,Steven Quigley,Andrew Mabbott
Engineering Education , 2006,
Abstract: This paper introduces a computer-basedsystem primarily for formative assessmentto help learners identify their knowledge,difficulties and misconceptions in a subjectin order that they can focus their effortswhere most required. The system constructsa dynamic model of students’ understandingas they answer questions which iscontinually updated as they interact further.Students can view this individual ‘learnermodel’ which offers simple representationsof their knowledge state. They can alsocompare their knowledge level with thatof their peer group and with instructorexpectations for the current stage of thecourse. Instructors can set up their ownquestions to ensure that the environment issuitable for their specific courses. The aimis to help learners identify their knowledge,difficulties and misconceptions, engagein prompt reflection on their knowledgeand learning and facilitate planning, thusencouraging learner autonomy. We presentthe results of use of the system in fiveuniversity courses in Electronic, Electricaland Computer Engineering.
Ethical Data Release in Genome-Wide Association Studies in Developing Countries
Michael Parker ,Susan J. Bull,Jantina de Vries,Tsiri Agbenyega,Ogobara K. Doumbo,Dominic P. Kwiatkowski
PLOS Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000143
Abstract:
Impact of social stigma on the process of obtaining informed consent for genetic research on podoconiosis: a qualitative study
Fasil Tekola, Susan Bull, Bobbie Farsides, Melanie J Newport, Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles N Rotimi, Gail Davey
BMC Medical Ethics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-10-13
Abstract: We adapted a rapid assessment tool validated in The Gambia. The methodology was qualitative involving focus-group discussions (n = 4) and in-depth interviews (n = 25) with community members, fieldworkers, researchers and staff of the Mossy Foot Treatment and Prevention Association (MFTPA) working on prevention and treatment of podoconiosis.We found that patients were afraid of participation in a genetic study for fear the study might aggravate stigmatization by publicizing the familial nature of the disease. The MFTPA was also concerned that discussion about the familial nature of podoconiosis would disappoint patients and would threaten the trust they have in the organization. In addition, participants of the rapid assessment stressed that the genetic study should be approved at family level before prospective participants are approached for consent. Based on this feedback, we developed and implemented a consent process involving community consensus and education of fieldworkers, community members and health workers. In addition, we utilized the experience and established trust of the MFTPA to diminish the perceived risk.The study showed that the consent process developed based on issues highlighted in the rapid assessment facilitated recruitment of participants and increased their confidence that the genetic research would not fuel stigma. Therefore, investigators must seek to assess and address risks of research from prospective participants' perspectives. This involves understanding the issues in the society, the culture, community dialogues and developing a consent process that takes all these into consideration.Current national and international guidelines and regulations on research ethics stress the importance of consent as a requirement for conducting ethically sound research. The assumptions underlying the practice of informed consent include that decisions about research participation should be both appropriately informed and voluntary, and be made by som
Cognitive Constructivist Theory of Multimedia: Designing Teacher-Made Interactive Digital  [PDF]
Prince Hycy Bull
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.49088
Abstract: This paper discusses how educators could use the cognitive constructivist theory of multimedia (CCTM) to design interactive digital learning materials using Camtasia and Audacity. Camtasia allows educators to create videos that motivate students, inform parents and enhance learning. It allows educators to record live presentations or lectures and provide students with a file to review. Audacity is a free cross-platform audio editor and recorder for Windows, Mac OS X, GNU/Linux and other operating systems. CCTM advocates for the design of instruction using pictures, videos, audios and words that tap into the prior experiences of the learner, promote active learning, collaboration, personal autonomy, personal growth and alternative assessment that is aligned with multiple intelligences of learners as espoused by Gardener (1993) which are Linguistics, Logico-mathematics, Spatial, Musical, Bodily-kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal and Naturalist. Camtasia and Audacity promote use of CCTM because of their capabilities to construct knowledge through words, pictures, animations, videos and audio. Case studies show that use of teacher-made files could significantly impact students’ learning. Use of teacher-made interactive digital learning materials could revolutionize educational presentations and enhance e-learning delivery. CCMT produced by dynamic presentations creates a balance between the learners’ prior verbal and visual experiences, sensory repository, multiple intelligences and learning styles to construct new knowledge.
Tailoring Consent to Context: Designing an Appropriate Consent Process for a Biomedical Study in a Low Income Setting
Fasil Tekola ,Susan J. Bull,Bobbie Farsides,Melanie J. Newport,Adebowale Adeyemo,Charles N. Rotimi,Gail Davey
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000482
Abstract: Background Currently there is increasing recognition of the need for research in developing countries where disease burden is high. Understanding the role of local factors is important for undertaking ethical research in developing countries. We explored factors relating to information and communication during the process of informed consent, and the approach that should be followed for gaining consent. The study was conducted prior to a family-based genetic study among people with podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis) in southern Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings We adapted a method of rapid assessment validated in The Gambia. The methodology was entirely qualitative, involving focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews. Discussions were conducted with podoconiosis patients and non-patients in the community, fieldworkers, researchers, staff of the local non-governmental organisation (NGO) working on prevention and treatment of podoconiosis, and community leaders. We found that the extent of use of everyday language, the degree to which expectations of potential participants were addressed, and the techniques of presentation of information had considerable impact on comprehension of information provided about research. Approaching podoconiosis patients via locally trusted individuals and preceding individual consent with community sensitization were considered the optimal means of communication. Prevailing poverty among podoconiosis patients, the absence of alternative treatment facilities, and participants' trust in the local NGO were identified as potential barriers for obtaining genuine informed consent. Conclusions Researchers should evaluate the effectiveness of consent processes in providing appropriate information in a comprehensible manner and in supporting voluntary decision-making on a study-by-study basis.
Ethical issues in human genomics research in developing countries
Jantina de Vries, Susan J Bull, Ogobara Doumbo, Muntaser Ibrahim, Odile Mercereau-Puijalon, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Michael Parker
BMC Medical Ethics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-12-5
Abstract: We explore ethical issues in three key areas: protecting the interests of research participants, regulation of international collaborative genomics research and protecting the interests of scientists in low income countries. With regard to participants, important challenges are raised about community consultation and consent. Genomics research raises ethical and governance issues about sample export and ownership, about the use of archived samples and about the complexity of reviewing such large international projects. In the context of protecting the interests of researchers in low income countries, we discuss aspects of data sharing and capacity building that need to be considered for sustainable and mutually beneficial collaborations.Many ethical issues are raised when genomics research is conducted on populations that are characterised by lower average income and literacy levels, such as the populations included in MalariaGEN. It is important that such issues are appropriately addressed in such research. Our experience suggests that the ethical issues in genomics research can best be identified, analysed and addressed where ethics is embedded in the design and implementation of such research projects.Recent years have seen an explosion of scientific interest in the use of human genomic variation to study common complex diseases. The hypothesis is that human genetic diversity can be used as a tool to study the causal mechanisms of disease. Examples include Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) and, more recently, projects that make use of next-generation sequencing. Over the past 5 years, GWAS have proven very valuable in identifying regions of the genome that affect resistance or susceptibility to a wide range of common diseases, although the method provides simply a starting point, and a range of other approaches will be required in future to fully characterise and understand the complex genetic determinants of human health and disease. To date, whilst many su
Seeking consent to genetic and genomic research in a rural Ghanaian setting: A qualitative study of the MalariaGEN experience
Paulina Tindana, Susan Bull, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Jantina de Vries, Raymond Aborigo, Kwadwo Koram, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Michael Parker
BMC Medical Ethics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-13-15
Abstract: The study used a rapid assessment incorporating multiple qualitative methods including in depth interviews, focus group discussions and observations of consent processes. Differences between verbal information provided during community engagement processes, and consent processes during the enrolment of cases and controls were identified, as well as the factors influencing the tailoring of such information.MalariaGEN participants and field staff seeking consent were generally satisfied with their understanding of the project and were familiar with aspects of the study relating to malaria. Some genetic aspects of the study were also well understood. Participants and staff seeking consent were less aware of the methodologies employed during genomic research and their implications, such as the breadth of data generated and the potential for future secondary research.Moreover, trust in and previous experience with the Navrongo Health Research Centre which was conducting the research influenced beliefs about the benefits of participating in the MalariaGEN study and subsequent decision-making about research participation.It is important to recognise that some aspects of complex genomic research may be of less interest to and less well understood by research participants and that such gaps in understanding may not be entirely addressed by best practice in the design and conduct of consent processes. In such circumstances consideration needs to be given to additional protections for participants that may need to be implemented in such research, and how best to provide such protections.Capacity building for research ethics committees with limited familiarity with genetic and genomic research, and appropriate engagement with communities to elicit opinions of the ethical issues arising and acceptability of downstream uses of genome wide association data are likely to be important.
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