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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 472079 matches for " Susan A Smith "
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Thematic and Lexical Repetition in a Contemporary Screenplay  [PDF]
Starling Hunter, Susan Smith
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.31002

Several works on film theory and screenwriting practice take up the question of repetition within narrative. However, few if any, have articulated theories about the relationship between the repetition of the words that comprise the screenplay itself and repetition of the themes that lend coherence to the narrative. In this study we address this gap in the screenwriting and film literature. Specifically, we analyze repetition of words and themes in the screenplay of Sunshine Cleaning, a critically-acclaimed independent film. Based on our survey of the literature, we expect and we find several varieties of repetition among words associated with the major themes in Sunshine Cleaning. This repetition includes but is not limited to polyptoton (words formed by inflections, declensions, and conjugations of a common stem), homonymy, paregmenon (words sharing a common derivation), and compounding (words formed by combining two or more words). We further expect and find that the repetition of words linked to themes is extensive and found in the large majority of the scenes of the screenplay. Finally, we expect and find that words associated with the themes are repeated far more frequently than in a random sample of screenplays contained within the Corpus of Contemporary American English. We conclude the paper with a discussion of our study’s implications for the art and craft of screenwriting.

Proteoglycan 4 downregulation in a sheep meniscectomy model of early osteoarthritis
Allan A Young, Susan McLennan, Margaret M Smith, Susan M Smith, Martin A Cake, Richard A Read, James Melrose, David H Sonnabend, Carl R Flannery, Christopher B Little
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/ar1898
Abstract: Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), which is homologous to lubricin [1], superficial zone protein (SZP) [2], megakaryocyte-stimulating factor precursor [2] and camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxavara-pericarditis protein [3], is a lubricating glycoprotein believed to be primarily responsible for boundary lubrication in synovial joints [4]. As previously suggested [5], we also refer to these molecules with a common immunoreactivity as PRG4 in the present study. PRG4 is a component of synovial fluid and is synthesised by the superficial chondrocytes in both normal articular cartilage and synovial cells [6]. A thin layer of PRG4 is present at the surface of normal articular cartilage; however, the relative contributions of synthesis from superficial chondrocytes and from synovial cells to the formation of this layer remains to be established [7].Articular cartilage demonstrates zonal variation in both composition and structural arrangement of the extracellular matrix, reflecting its functional role [8]. The morphology of the chondrocytes also differs with depth from the surface, assuming a more flattened appearance in the superficial zone and aligning parallel to the articulating surface [8]. Alterations in the superficial zone are known to occur early in osteoarthritis (OA), a progressive and debilitating disease characterised by degeneration and loss of articular cartilage. Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix and alterations in resident chondrocyte synthetic activity results in disruption of the structural integrity of articular cartilage. Increased apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is also observed in OA and to a greater extent in the superficial zone(s) [9].Deficiency of PRG4 results in a loss of the chondroprotection normally provided to articulating surfaces; it has therefore been implicated in the pathogenesis of OA [10,11]. PRG4 has been shown to still be present in late-stage human OA [7]; however, little is known about the turnover of PRG4 during the early s
Comparison of the NEI-VFQ and OSDI questionnaires in patients with Sj?gren's syndrome-related dry eye
Susan Vitale, Linda A Goodman, George F Reed, Janine A Smith
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-2-44
Abstract: Forty-two patients fulfilling European / American diagnostic criteria for Sj?gren's syndrome underwent Schirmer testing without anesthesia, ocular surface vital dye staining; and measurement of tear film breakup time (TBUT). Subjects were administered the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and the 25-item National Eye Institute Vision Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ). Main outcome measures included ocular surface parameters, OSDI subscales describing ocular discomfort (OSDI-symptoms), vision-related function (OSDI-function), and environmental triggers, and NEI-VFQ subscales.Participants (aged 31–81 y; 95% female) all had moderate to severe dry eye. Associations of OSDI subscales with the ocular parameters were modest (Spearman r (ρ) < 0.22) and not statistically significant. Associations of NEI-VFQ subscales with the ocular parameters reached borderline significance for the near vision subscale with TBUT (ρ = 0.32, p = .05) and for the distance vision subscale with van Bijsterveld score (ρ = 0.33, p = .04). The strongest associations of the two questionnaires were for: ocular pain and mental function with OSDI-symptoms (ρ = 0.60 and 0.45, respectively); and general vision, ocular pain, mental function, role function, and driving with OSDI-function (ρ = 0.60, 0.50, 0.61, 0.64, 0.57, and 0.67, respectively).Associations between conventional objective measures of dry eye and VT-HRQ were modest. The generic NEI-VFQ was similar to the disease-specific OSDI in its ability to measure the impact of Sj?gren's syndrome-related dry eye on VT-HRQ.Dry eye is a common disorder of the ocular surface and tear film and is estimated to affect from 2% to over 15% of persons in surveyed populations, depending on the definition used [1-6]. Symptoms of dry eye are a major reason to seek ophthalmic care: a study by Nelson and co-workers found that 1.3% of Medicare patients had a primary diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca or dry eye [7]. Dry eye can range from mild to severe disea
Systematic Review of the Effect of Diet and Exercise Lifestyle Interventions in the Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease
Judith A. Cole,Susan M. Smith,Nigel Hart,Margaret E. Cupples
Cardiology Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/232351
Abstract: The effectiveness of lifestyle interventions within secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to determine their effectiveness and included randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions, in primary care or community settings, with a minimum follow-up of three months, published since 1990. 21 trials with 10,799 patients were included; the interventions were multifactorial (10), educational (4), psychological (3), dietary (1), organisational (2), and exercise (1). The overall results for modifiable risk factors suggested improvements in dietary and exercise outcomes but no overall effect on smoking outcomes. In trials that examined mortality and morbidity, significant benefits were reported for total mortality (in 4 of 6 trials; overall risk ratio (RR) 0.75 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.65, 0.87)), cardiovascular mortality (3 of 8 trials; overall RR 0.63 (95% CI 0.47, 0.84)), and nonfatal cardiac events (5 of 9 trials; overall RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.55, 0.84)). The heterogeneity between trials and generally poor quality of trials make any concrete conclusions difficult. However, the beneficial effects observed in this review are encouraging and should stimulate further research.
Serotyping Group B Streptococci in a Small Community Hospital: An Analysis of Distribution and Site of Isolation
Jennifer M. Smith,Jason A. Rexroth,David G. Chaffin,Susan H. Jackman
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/s1064744902000182
Abstract: Objective: To determine the prevalence and site of isolation of different serotypes of group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization or infection at a small community hospital.
Obstetrician-Assessed Maternal Health at Pregnancy Predicts Offspring Future Health
Debbie A. Lawlor, Susan Morton, G. David Batty, Sally Macintyre, Heather Clark, George Davey Smith
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000666
Abstract: Background We aimed to examine the association between obstetrician assessment of maternal physical health at the time of pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular disease risk. Methods and Principal Findings We examined this association in a birth cohort of 11,106 individuals, with 245,000 person years of follow-up. We were concerned that any associations might be explained by residual confounding, particularly by family socioeconomic position. In order to explore this we used multivariable regression models in which we adjusted for a range of indicators of socioeconomic position and we explored the specificity of the association. Specificity of association was explored by examining associations with other health related outcomes. Maternal physical health was associated with cardiovascular disease: adjusted (socioeconomic position, complications of pregnancy, birthweight and childhood growth at mean age 5) hazard ratio comparing those described as having poor or very poor health at the time of pregnancy to those with good or very good health was 1.55 (95%CI: 1.05, 2.28) for coronary heart disease, 1.91 (95%CI: 0.99, 3.67) for stroke and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.13, 2.18) for either coronary heart disease or stroke. However, this association was not specific. There were strong associations for other outcomes that are known to be related to socioeconomic position (3.61 (95%CI: 1.04, 12.55) for lung cancer and 1.28 (95%CI:1.03, 1.58) for unintentional injury), but not for breast cancer (1.10 (95%CI:0.48, 2.53)). Conclusions and Significance These findings demonstrate that a simple assessment of physical health (based on the appearance of eyes, skin, hair and teeth) of mothers at the time of pregnancy is a strong indicator of the future health risk of their offspring for common conditions that are associated with poor socioeconomic position and unhealthy behaviours. They do not support a specific biological link between maternal health across her life course and future risk of cardiovascular disease in her offspring.
The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene family of Anopheles gambiae
Susan Burnham, Judith A Smith, Alison J Lee, R Elwyn Isaac, Alan D Shirras
BMC Genomics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-6-172
Abstract: TBLASTN and sequence analysis of cDNAs revealed that the A. gambiae genome contains nine genes (AnoACE genes) which code for proteins with similarity to mammalian ACE. Eight of these genes code for putative single domain enzymes similar to other insect ACEs described so far. AnoACE9, however, has several features in common with mammalian somatic ACE such as a two domain structure and a hydrophobic C terminus. Four of the AnoACE genes (2, 3, 7 and 9) were shown to be expressed at a variety of developmental stages. Expression of AnoACE3, AnoACE7 and AnoACE9 is induced by a blood meal, with AnoACE7 showing the largest (approximately 10-fold) induction.Genes coding for two-domain ACEs have arisen several times during the course of evolution suggesting a common selective advantage to having an ACE with two active-sites in tandem in a single protein. AnoACE7 belongs to a sub-group of insect ACEs which are likely to be membrane-bound and which have an unusual, conserved gene structure.In mammals, angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC, ACE, peptidyl-dipeptidase A), an important member of the M2 peptidase family, is found on the surface of endothelial cells and is best known for its role in the biosynthesis of angiotensin II, as well as the degradation of circulating bradykinin and the haemoregulatory peptide, N-acetyl SDKP [1-3]. Mammalian ACE exists as two isoforms, a somatic form (sACE, 150–180 kDa) and a smaller protein (germinal ACE, 90–110 kDa) found exclusively in adult testes. The ACE gene comprises twenty-six exons and two promoters, and has clearly arisen by gene duplication [4]. The somatic promoter drives expression of the larger protein (exons 1–12 and exons 14–26), which consists of two very similar domains connected in tandem by a short inter-domain peptide. Each domain possesses a functional peptidase active site and they are commonly called the N- and C-domains after their relative position to the amino and carboxy termini. The bulk of the protein inclu
Brief Alcohol Intervention Among At-Risk Drinkers with Diabetes
Susan E. Ramsey,Patricia A. Engler,Magdalena Harrington,Robert J. Smith
Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment , 2010,
Abstract: Twenty-eight patients with diabetes who screened positive for at-risk drinking were assigned to brief alcohol intervention (BAI) (n = 14) or standard care (SC) (n = 14) treatment conditions. All participants completed a baseline interview and one-, three, and six-month follow-up interviews. Across the six-month follow-up period, there was a significantly greater reduction in quantity of alcohol consumed in the BAI group. At the six-month follow-up, the BAI group had a greater reduction in quantity of alcohol consumed, percentage of heavy drinking days, and frequency of drinking. Reductions in alcohol use were associated with improved adherence in certain components of diabetes self-care behavior. The results of this study suggest that brief alcohol interventions are efficacious in reducing alcohol use among at-risk drinkers with diabetes and that reductions in alcohol use may result in some improvements in adherence to diabetes self-care behavior.
The Luminous Starburst Ring in NGC 7771: Sequential Star Formation?
Denise A. Smith,Terry Herter,Martha P. Haynes,Susan G. Neff
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306605
Abstract: Only two of the twenty highly luminous starburst galaxies analyzed by Smith et al. exhibit circumnuclear rings of star formation. These galaxies provide a link between 10^11 L_sun systems and classical, less-luminous ringed systems. We report the discovery of a near-infrared counterpart to the nuclear ring of radio emission in NGC 7771. A displacement between the ~10 radio bright clumps and the ~10 near-infrared bright clumps indicates the presence of multiple generations of star formation. The estimated thermal emission from each radio source is equivalent to that of ~35000 O6 stars. Each near-infrared bright knot contains ~5000 red supergiants, on average. The stellar mass of each knot is estimated to be ~10^7 M_sun. The implied time-averaged star formation rate is \~40 M_sun per yr. Several similarities are found between the properties of this system and other ringed and non-ringed starbursts. Morphological differences between NGC 7771 and the starburst + Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469 suggest that NGC 7771 may not be old enough to fuel an AGN, or may not be capable of fueling an AGN. Alternatively, the differences may be unrelated to the presence or absence of an AGN and may simply reflect the possibility that star formation in rings is episodic.
Regional assessment of articular cartilage gene expression and small proteoglycan metabolism in an animal model of osteoarthritis
Allan A Young, Margaret M Smith, Susan M Smith, Martin A Cake, Peter Ghosh, Richard A Read, James Melrose, David H Sonnabend, Peter J Roughley, Christopher B Little
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/ar1756
Abstract: Articular cartilage exhibits unique hydrodynamic and viscoelastic properties that are largely attributable to its extracellular matrix (ECM), which equips diarthrodial joints with their weight-bearing properties and near frictionless articulation. Cartilage ECM is composed of a collagen network, predominantly type II, in which large chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate (KS) substituted proteoglycans (aggrecan) are entrapped. The negatively charged aggrecan glycosaminoglycan side-chains act to create an osmotic swelling pressure in the cartilage matrix that is resisted by tension developed in the collagen network [1]. The generation of a hydrostatic pressure within cartilage allows it to counteract the loads transmitted to it from the long bones during normal joint articulation.The ECM of cartilage also contains the small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) biglycan, decorin, fibromodulin and lumican, which have diverse functions as modulators of tissue organization, cellular proliferation, adhesion and responses to growth factors and cytokines [2,3]. The SLRPs all bind to fibrillar type I and/or II collagens [4-6] and, in the case of decorin, to fibromodulin and lumican; these interactions modulate the rate and ultimate diameter of collagen fibrils formed in vitro [7-9]. Decorin, biglycan and fibromodulin can also form complexes with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and modulate the action of this growth factor [10,11]. The physical presence of the SLRPs, in addition to the minor type IX and XI collagens, on the surface of type II collagen fibrils has been proposed to restrict sterically the access of collagenases to sites of cleavage on the collagen fibrils [12]. Complexes of matrilin-1 and decorin or biglycan have also been reported to connect type VI collagen to aggrecan and type II collagen, further stabilizing the cartilage ECM [13]. It is evident that there is a complex interplay between the collagenous and proteoglycan components of the cartilage ECM th
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