Abstract:
Richard
Feynman once said, “I think it is safe to say that no one understands Quantum
Mechanics”. The well-known article on the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox
brought forth further doubts on the interpretation of quantum theory. Einstein’s
doubt on quantum theory is a doubleedged sword: experimental verification of
quantum theory would contradict the hypothesis that speed of light is finite.
It has been almost a century since the creation of quantum theory and special
relativity, and the relevant doubts brought forward remain unresolved. We posit
that the existence of discontinuity points and quantum wormholes would imply
superluminal phenomenon or infinite speed of light, which provides for an important
supplement to the invariance principle of the speed of light and superluminal
phenomena. This can potentially resolve the inconsistency between special
relativity and quantum theory.

只有在没有反射或反射因素极小的情况下，在发射端和接收端电磁场的时间差可以用于计算电磁场从反射端到接收端的传播相速度。由于反射，测量到的合成波的相位是入射波和反射波相位的合成，由反射而引入的相位变化导致发射和接收端之间的同相位电磁波的时间差的移动。这种两点间的合成波的时间差由于反射既能增加也可能减小，在一定的情况下，时间差还可以是负数。由于忽视因反射而引起的相位差或时间差的变化，最近发表在《现代物理》上的两篇文章的作者们用带有反射的合成波的时间差计算电场传播速度，并和光在自由空间里传播相速度比较，进而在两篇文章中错误地宣称：“交变电场的速度超过光速20倍以上。”这两篇在《现代物理》上发表的文章是：“导线中交流电场时间延迟的测定”(现代物理，2015，5，29-34)和“交变电场速度测量的物理原理”(现代物理，2015，5，35-39)。此评论文章用理论和实验数据推翻其文章“超光速20倍”的结论。
The time shift of an electromagnetic wave at a single frequency between a transmitter and a re-ceiver can be used to determine the phase velocity of the wave propagation only if there is no reflection at the receiver or the reflection is very small. The reflection adds additional phase shifts to the composted wave of an incident wave and a reflected wave so that the time difference of the composted wave is shifted between the transmitter and the receiver. This time difference may be either decreased or increased and even negative in a certain condition. Ignoring the phase shift and time shift induced by the reflection, the authors of two articles recently published on “Modern Physics” wrongly claim of “the speed of alternating electric field can be 20 times faster than the speed of light”. The two articles are: “Measurement of Time Delay of Alternating Electrical Field in Wires” (Modern Physics, 2015, 5, 29-34) and “Physical Principles of Measuring the Speed of Alternating Electrical Field” (Modern Physics, 2015, 5, 35-39). In this communication note, theory and experiments are presented to falsify their claim.

交流电源产生的电动势在电路内产生了电势差以及交变纵向电场。交变电场在金属导线内的速度不是常数，它与电路参数相关。在大多数情况下，交变电场的速度是低于光速的。可是，在特定的电路参数情况下，交变电场的速度超过光速20倍以上。本文分析了RL电路中交变电场的时间延迟问题，并且推导出了导线中交变电场的速度公式。 AC electromotive force generates alternating potential differences and longitudinal electric fields in a circuit. The speed of alternating electric field within the metal wire is not constant, which is related to the circuit parameters. In most cases, the speed of alternating electric field is lower than the speed of light. However, under certain circuit parameters, the speed of alternating electric field can be 20 times more than the speed of light. This paper analyzes the time delay of the alternating electric field in RL circuits. The formula of the speed of alternating electric field in a wire is deduced.

Abstract:
Our experiment to measure the speed of alternating electricity is briefly reported here. It is found that the speed of alternating electricity within the metal wire is not constant, which is depended on the circuit parameters. In most cases, the speed of alternating electricity is less than the speed of light. However, our recent experimental results show that at less than 3 MHz frequency region and under our circuit parameters, the speed of alternating electric field can be 20 times more than the speed of light.

交流电源产生的电动势在电路的金属导线内产生了电势差以及纵向电场。纵向电场驱动了电子，形成了电流。纵向电场是非局域的。由于金属导线自身分布电感的存在，产生了时间延迟。这篇论文给出了电路中低频交流电场的时间延迟的初步测量结果。实验结果表明，在小于3 MHz的频率区，纵向电场的速度超过光速20倍以上。 AC electromotive force generates a potential difference and a longitudinal electric field in a circuit. The longitudinal electric field drives the electrons, and forms a current. Longitudinal electric field is non-localized. Due to the distributed self-inductance of the metal wire, it generates a time delay. This paper gives the results of preliminary measurements of time delay of low-frequency AC electric field. Experimental results show that, in less than 3 MHz frequency region, the speed of longitudinal electric field is more than 20 times of the speed of light.

We digress on the implications of recent claims of superluminal neutrino propagation. No matter how we turn it around such behaviour is very odd and sits uncomfortably even within “far-fetched” theories. In the context of non-linear realizations of the Lorentz group (where superluminal misbehaviour is run of the mill) one has to accept rather contrived constructions to predict superluminal properties for the neutrino. The simplest explanation is to require that at least one of the mass states be tachyonic. We show that due to neutrino mixing, the flavor energy does not suffer from the usual runaway pathologies of tachyons. For non-tachyonic mass states the theories become more speculative. A neutrino specific dispersion relation is exhibited, rendering the amplitude of the effect reasonable for a standard Planck energy. This uses the fact that the beam energy is close to the geometrical average of the neutrino and Planck mass; or, seen in another way, the beam energy is unexceptional but its gamma factor is very large. A dispersion relation crossing over from a low energy bradyonic branch to a high energy tachyonic one is also considered. We comment on consistency with SN 1987Awithin these models.

Based on parity violation in the weak interaction and evidences from neutrino oscillation, a natural choice is that neutrinos may be superluminal particles with tiny mass. To keep causality for Superluminal particles, a kinematic time under a non-standard form of the Lorentz transformation is introduced. A Dirac-type equation for Superluminal neutrinos is further investigated, and its solution is brief discussed. This equation can be written in two spinor equations coupled together via tiny mass while respecting maximum parity violation. As a consequence, parity violation implies that the principle of relativity is violated in the weak interaction.

Abstract:
In this work we continue to set up the theory of universal space and time and derive the Euclidean form of the scaling transformations. Two types of velocities emerge, inertial and universal, with the former bound by the light velocity c whereas the latter is unbound, and may accommodate consistently particles’ velocities possibly exceeding c. The inertial velocity is the ratio of the simultaneous source’s displacement and the corresponding length of the light trip to the observer, whereas the universal velocity has its familiar meaning for motion in a synchronous inertial frame. Defining the momentum as the product of universal velocity and mass, and utilizing the already established mass-energy equivalence, the mechanics constructed on the bases of the new concepts, named universal mechanics, admits superluminal velocities but yet coincides with the relativistic mechanics in its basic dynamical components and their inter-relations. The possibility of superluminal velocities provides a straight forward explanation of the presence of the μ-meson particles abundantly at the sea level despite their generation at high altitude and their short lifetime.

根据时空阶梯理论，光子或者电子是形而下时空粒子和形而上时空的矛盾统一体，是复合结构，其中，光子的复合结构是：光子以及对应的神时空，还有物质质量(m)和对应的能气场。当光子在物理时空中传播的时候，其中的形而上时空的最高时空——神时空不断散发能量，从而导致光子的复合结构的频率发生改变。这个过程可以用普朗克–爱因斯坦关系式E = hf来计算，其中，E是光子的复合结构的总能量，f是光子的复合结构的频率，h是普朗克常数。测量导致一列波的神时空更快地散发能量，从而导致频率降低，而没有测量的一列波的神时空没有更快地散发能量，频率相对不变，这样，导致两列波的频率不一样，从而让干涉条纹消失。假如两列波都有测量，两列波的频率会有相同的降低，最后两列波的频率还是相等的，所以，最后还是有干涉条纹。根据时空阶梯理论，神时空是暗能量，而能气场是暗物质，所以光子的复合结构其实包含了物质(m)、暗物质和暗能量。其中最难理解的就是光子的复合结构的能量降低是暗能量的超光速降低，这个超光速的能量改变让我们误以为，在延迟选择量子擦除实验(Delayed choice quantum eraser experiment)中未来决定过去，其实不然，双缝实验的结果都是按照时间顺序来完成的。暗能量是超光速的膨胀态能量，影响光子复合结构的频率，而暗物质和物质是等于光速或者小于光速的收缩态能量，是形成干涉条纹的主要贡献者(形而下时空就是具有物质性，而干涉条纹是物质性的)。也就是说，形成干涉条纹的主要是能气场和形而下时空，而暗能量的膨胀态能量不形成干涉条纹。强调这些，就是说明干涉条纹的形成是等于或者小于光速的，而频率改变是超光速的。这是解释延迟选择量子擦除实验的秘密所在。延迟选择量子擦除实验看似是测量在后，其实从计算时间上看，还是频率改变在先，干涉条纹形成在后。能量降低和频率改变是暗能量的超光速改变，这是时空阶梯理论的核心解释。有了这个核心解释，其余的双缝实验的秘密都迎刃而解。
According to the theory of space-time ladder, photon or electron is a contradictory unity of physical space-time particles and metaphysical space-time. It is a composite structure. The composite structure of photons is: photons and corresponding spirit space-time, as well as material mass (m) and corresponding Energy Qi field. When the photon propagates in the physical space and time, the highest space-time in the metaphysical space-time—spirit space-time constantly dissipate energy, which leads to the change of the frequency of the photon composite structure. This process can be calculated by the Planck-Einstein relation E = hf, where E is the total energy of the photon composite structure, f is the frequency of the photon composite structure, and h is Planck constant. The measurement causes the spirit space-time of a series of waves to dissipate energy more quickly, resulting in a lower frequency, while the unmeasured the spirit space-time of a series of waves does not dissipate energy more quickly, and the frequency is relatively constant, thus causing the frequencies of the two series of waves to be different. Thereby the interference fringes disappear. If both series of waves are measured, the frequencies of both series of waves will be the same, and the frequencies of both series of waves at last will be equal, so there will be interference fringes at the end. According to the theory of space-time ladder, the spirit space-time is dark energy, and the Energy Qi field is dark matter, so the composite structure of photons actually contains matter (m), dark matter and dark energy. The most difficult to understand is that the energy reduction of the photon composite structure is the reduction of the

Abstract:
This brief paper traces comments on the article [arXiv:1110.2685]. This article, a preprint, has recently received an attention, raising errors related to the timing process within the OPERA Collaboration results in [arXiv:1109.4897], that turns out to be a wrong route by which serious science should not be accomplished. A peer-reviewed status should be previously considered to assert that [arXiv:1110.2685] claims a solution for the superluminal results in [arXiv:1109.4897]. Within [arXiv:1110.2685], it seems there is an intrinsical misconception within its claimed solution, since an intrinsical proper time reasoning leads to the assumption the OPERA collaboration interprets a time variation as a proper time when correcting time intervals between a GPS frame and the grounded baseline frame. Furthermore, the author of [arXiv:1110.2685] seems to double radio signals, doubling the alleged half of the truly observed time of ight, since the Lorentz transformations do consider radio signals intrinsically by construction.