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MAEB: Routing Protocol for IoT Healthcare  [PDF]
Haoru Su, Zhiliang Wang, Sunshin An
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2013.32A002

Healthcare is one of the most promising applications of Internet of Things. This paper describes a prototype for the IoT healthcare systems. We propose the Movement-Aided Energy-Balance (MAEB) routing protocol. The movement and energy information of the neighbor Coordinators are collected and stored in the neighbor discovery procedure. The MAEB forwarding is used to select the most suitable neighbor to forward the data. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol has better performance than the other three routing protocols.

One-Step Synthesis of PEG-Coated Gold Nanoparticles by Rapid Microwave Heating
Seung Kwon Seol,Daeho Kim,Sunshin Jung,Won Suk Chang
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/531760
Involvement of Cox-2 in the metastatic potential of chemotherapy-resistant breast cancer cells
Ju-Hee Kang, Ki-Hoon Song, Kyung-Chae Jeong, Sunshin Kim, Changsun Choi, Chang Lee, Seung Oh
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-334
Abstract: We used MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, flow cytometry assays, DNA fragmentation assays, Western blot analysis, cell invasion assays, small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, experimental lung metastasis models, and gelatin and fibrinogen/plasminogen zymography to study the molecular mechanism of metastatic activities in MCF-7/DOX cells.We found that MCF-7/DOX acquired invasive activities. In addition, Western blot analysis showed increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Cox-2 in MCF-7/DOX cells. Inhibition of Cox-2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways effectively inhibited the invasive activities of MCF-7/DOX cells. Gelatin and fibrinogen/plasminogen zymography analysis showed that the enzymatic activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were markedly higher in MCF-7/DOX cells than in the MCF-7 cells. In vitro invasion assays and mouse models of lung metastasis demonstrated that MCF-7/DOX cells acquired invasive abilities. Using siRNAs and agonists specific for prostaglandin E (EP) receptors, we found that EP1 and EP3 played important roles in the invasiveness of MCF-7/DOX cells.We found that the invasive activity of MCF-7/DOX cells is mediated by Cox-2, which is induced by the EGFR-activated PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways. In addition, EP1 and EP3 are important in the Cox-2-induced invasion of MCF-7/DOX cells. Therefore, not only Cox-2 but also EP1 and EP3 could be important targets for chemosensitization and inhibition of metastasis in breast cancers that are resistant to chemotherapy.Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and a major cause of death among women in the Western world [1]. Many anticancer agents, including 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, and monoclonal antibodies such as trastuzumab, have shown efficacy in extending the
Ouabain, a Cardiac Glycoside, Inhibits the Fanconi Anemia/BRCA Pathway Activated by DNA Interstrand Cross-Linking Agents
Dong Wha Jun, Mihwa Hwang, Hyun Jung Kim, Soo Kyung Hwang, Sunshin Kim, Chang-Hun Lee
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075905
Abstract: Modulation of the DNA repair pathway is an emerging target for the development of anticancer drugs. DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs), one of the most severe forms of DNA damage caused by anticancer drugs such as cisplatin and mitomycin C (MMC), activates the Fanconi anemia (FA)/BRCA DNA repair pathway. Inhibition of the FA/BRCA pathway can enhance the cytotoxic effects of ICL-inducing anticancer drugs and can reduce anticancer drug resistance. To find FA/BRCA pathway inhibitory small molecules, we established a cell-based high-content screening method for quantitating the activation of the FA/BRCA pathway by measuring FANCD2 foci on DNA lesions and then applied our method to chemical screening. Using commercial LOPAC1280 chemical library screening, ouabain was identified as a competent FA/BRCA pathway inhibitory compound. Ouabain, a member of the cardiac glycoside family, binds to and inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase and has been used to treat heart disease for many years. We observed that ouabain, as well as other cardiac glycoside family members―digitoxin and digoxin―down-regulated FANCD2 and FANCI mRNA levels, reduced monoubiquitination of FANCD2, inhibited FANCD2 foci formation on DNA lesions, and abrogated cell cycle arrest induced by MMC treatment. These inhibitory activities of ouabain required p38 MAPK and were independent of cellular Ca2+ ion increase or the drug uptake-inhibition effect of ouabain. Furthermore, we found that ouabain potentiated the cytotoxic effects of MMC in tumor cells. Taken together, we identified an additional effect of ouabain as a FA/BRCA pathway-inhibiting chemosensitization compound. The results of this study suggest that ouabain may serve as a chemosensitizer to ICL-inducing anticancer drugs.
An In Vivo C. elegans Model System for Screening EGFR-Inhibiting Anti-Cancer Drugs
Young-Ki Bae, Jee Young Sung, Yong-Nyun Kim, Sunshin Kim, Kyeong Man Hong, Heung Tae Kim, Min Sung Choi, Jae Young Kwon, Jaegal Shim
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042441
Abstract: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a well-established target for cancer treatment. EGFR tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors, such as gefinitib and erlotinib, have been developed as anti-cancer drugs. Although non-small cell lung carcinoma with an activating EGFR mutation, L858R, responds well to gefinitib and erlotinib, tumors with a doubly mutated EGFR, T790M-L858R, acquire resistance to these drugs. The C. elegans EGFR homolog LET-23 and its downstream signaling pathway have been studied extensively to provide insight into regulatory mechanisms conserved from C. elegans to humans. To develop an in vivo screening system for potential cancer drugs targeting specific EGFR mutants, we expressed three LET-23 chimeras in which the TK domain was replaced with either the human wild-type TK domain (LET-23::hEGFR-TK), a TK domain with the L858R mutation (LET-23::hEGFR-TK[L858R]), or a TK domain with the T790M-L858R mutations (LET-23::hEGFR-TK[T790M-L858R]) in C. elegans vulval cells using the let-23 promoter. The wild-type hEGFR-TK chimeric protein rescued the let-23 mutant phenotype, and the activating mutant hEGFR-TK chimeras induced a multivulva (Muv) phenotype in a wild-type C. elegans background. The anti-cancer drugs gefitinib and erlotinib suppressed the Muv phenotype in LET-23::hEGFR-TK[L858R]-expressing transgenic animals, but not in LET-23::hEGFR-TK[T790M-L858R] transgenic animals. As a pilot screen, 8,960 small chemicals were tested for Muv suppression, and AG1478 (an EGFR-TK inhibitor) and U0126 (a MEK inhibitor) were identified as potential inhibitors of EGFR-mediated biological function. In conclusion, transgenic C. elegans expressing chimeric LET-23::hEGFR-TK proteins are a model system that can be used in mutation-specific screens for new anti-cancer drugs.
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