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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3345 matches for " Sunghee Cho "
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A role for spleen monocytes in post-ischemic brain inflammation and injury
Yi Bao, Eunhee Kim, Sangram Bhosle, Heeral Mehta, Sunghee Cho
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-7-92
Abstract: Ischemia-reperfusion causes inflammation that attracts monocyte/macrophage cells to infarct [1-3]. Monocytes are circulating antigen-presenting leukocytes that play an important role in inflammation, T-cell differentiation, phagocytosis, and innate immunity [4,5]. It has been shown that circulating and spleen monocytes are similar in their morphology, phagocytic capability, and gene expression profiles [6]. The study also identified the spleen as a monocyte reservoir and their numbers in the spleen are several folds higher than in circulation [6]. In addition, the number of monocytes that migrate to the infarct area after a myocardial infarction well exceeds the number in circulation under homeostatic conditions [4]. These studies suggest a potential role of the spleen in deploying monocytes upon cerebral ischemia.Human and mouse monocytes exhibit distinct subsets that are reminiscent of macrophage phenotypes [5,7,8]. In mice, the subset that expresses a high level of the hematopoietic cell differentiation antigen Ly-6C (Ly-6Chi) also expresses the G-protein linked membrane protein, CCR2. The Ly-6Chi/CCR2+ monocyte subset is specifically recruited to an injury site by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which is produced by the inflamed tissue, and become classically activated M1 macrophages. In contrast, the Ly-6Clow monocyte subset expresses CX3CR1, a receptor for the chemokine CX3CL1 (fractalkine), but is devoid of CCR2 expression. This anti-inflammatory Ly-6Clow/CCR2-/CX3CR1+ subset is recruited to normal tissue and develops into resident M2 macrophages that function in host defense and repair after injury [9,10]. Recruitment of the pro-inflammatory Ly-6Chi/CCR2+ subset to inflammatory sites is believed to be CCR2-dependent, since monocytes from CCR2-null mice do not traffic as efficiently into a myocardial infarct as CCR2+ monocytes [6]. Furthermore, CCR2-null mice were protective against cerebral inflammation following ischemia [11], suggesting that CC
Trends of Noninvasive Radiofrequency and Minimally Invasive Treatment for the Management of Facial Aging  [PDF]
Sunghee Kim, Moonjong Kim
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2019.91003
Abstract: Various treatments for the management of facial aging have been performed among which noninvasive radio-frequency (RF; i.e., thermage) treatment and minimally invasive treatments are on the rise. The purpose of this study was to analyze trends of the treatment of facial aging in Korea and to investigate relationships between the use of noninvasive RF and minimally invasive treatments. A retrospective analysis conducted on data from 4021 patients showed that thermage treatment increased by 134.9% over 5 years. As a person ages, the rate of facial treatment with both the botulinum toxin (for the masseter and lines of the glabella, lateral canthus, and forehead) and the PDO thread lift increases. The use of the treatments, nasolabial fold filler and Silhouette Soft Thread, however, was not associated with aging. The patients receiving thermage treatment were less likely to undergo any of the other treatments including PDO thread lift, Silhouette Soft Thread, nasolabial fold filler, or any of the botulinum toxin treatments. Overall, the results showed that patients who had received noninvasive RF tended to receive less minimally invasive treatment.
The interaction between Fe65 and Tip60 is regulated by S-nitrosylation on 440 cystein residue of Fe65  [PDF]
Eun Jeoung Lee, Sung Hwa Shin, Sunghee Hyun, Jaesun Chun, Sang Sun Kang
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2011.13013
Abstract: The S-Nitrosylation of protein thiol groups by NO is a widely recognized protein modification. The treat-ment of cells with NOBF4 induces the S-nitrosylation of FE65. In this study, we present evidence showing that FE65 modified by NO (Nitric Oxide) via S-nitrosylation induces functional changes in the protein that inhibits the HAT activity of Tip60. The results of mutational analysis of FE65 demonstrated further that the cysteine residue of FE65 (Cys440) is critical to the process of S-nitrosylation. The mutation of the cysteine residue which completely ablated the S-nitrosylation of FE65 also lost its inhibitory effects on Tip60 HAT activity. Thus, our findings show, for the first time, that the novel regulation mechanism of Tip60 activity may operate via FE65 binding, which is enhanced by S-nitrosylation on the FE65 Cys440 residue. This study describes the interaction between FE65 and Tip60, which is enhanced by a posttransla-tional modification of FE65 (through S-nitrosylation) by NO, promoting the association of the FE65-Tip60 protein complex and inhibiting both the HAT activity of Tip60 and cell death.
The analytical landscape of static and temporal dynamics in transcriptome data
Sunghee Oh,Seongho Song,Nupur Dasgupta
Frontiers in Genetics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00035
Abstract: Interpreting gene expression profiles often involves statistical analysis of large numbers of differentially expressed genes, isoforms, and alternative splicing events at either static or dynamic spectrums. Reduced sequencing costs have made feasible dense time-series analysis of gene expression using RNA-seq; however, statistical methods in the context of temporal RNA-seq data are poorly developed. Here we will review current methods for identifying temporal changes in gene expression using RNA-seq, which are limited to static pairwise comparisons of time points and which fail to account for temporal dependencies in gene expression patterns. We also review recently developed very few number of temporal dynamic RNA-seq specific methods. Application and development of RNA-specific temporal dynamic methods have been continuously under the development, yet, it is still in infancy. We fully cover microarray specific temporal methods and transcriptome studies in initial digital technology (e.g., SAGE) between traditional microarray and new RNA-seq.
Phosphorylation on TRPV4 Serine Residue 824 Enhances Its Association with PGM1  [PDF]
Sung Hwa Shin, Eun Jeoung Lee, Sunghee Hyun, Sang Sun Kang
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2016.61004
Abstract: The TRPV4 cation channel is expressed in a broad range of tissues and participates in the generation of a Ca2+ signal and/or depolarization of membrane potential. Here, human phosphoglucomutase- 1 (PGM1), an enzyme that converts glucose-6 phosphate to glucose-1 phosphate in the glycolysis pathway, as the first auxiliary protein of TRPV4 Ca2+ channels, is identified with yeast two hybrid system, coimmunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy, and GST pull-down assays. TRPV4 forms a complex with PGM1 through its C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Because it is demonstrated that TRPV4 serine residue 824 (S824) is phosphorylated by serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1, we elucidate the effect of TRPV4 S824 phosphorylation on TRPV association with PGM1. Even an inactivated mutant version of TRPV4, S824A, exhibited a decreased ability to bind PGM1, an activated phosphomimetic mutant version of TRPV4, S824D, exhibited enhanced binding to PGM1. Thus, formation of the TRPV4/PGM1 complex and localization of this complex to the plasma membrane appear to be regulated by the phosphorylation status of residue S824 in TRPV4. The newly identified interactor of TRPV4 may help the molecular pathways modulating transport activity or glucose metabolism, respectively.
Posturographic Evaluation of Dizziness Complaining Patients under Suspicion to Develop Parkinson's Disease  [PDF]
Hyun Cho
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2011.21004
Abstract: Although the typical clinical signs of Parkinson disease (PD) are tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability, PD is preceded by a preclinical phase during which neuronal degeneration develops without typical symptoms. More general nonspecific symptoms including dizziness have also been described to predate the typical PD signs for several years. All subjects were selected among patients in the Willis Hospital (Pusan, South of Korea), with complaints of diz-ziness from September 2009 to September 2010 and the baseline neurological screening and clinical ENT examination, to which the results were within the normal range. At baseline, 113 participants underwent neurological screening and provided information on dizziness. Of those participants, 103 were enrolled including 63 subjects in the control group. We used posturography. It allows quantitative assessment of vestibular-spinal component of body balance. The parame-ter of average speed of pressure center displacement to the lateral plan (VMX) and antero-posterior plan (VMY), which presented statistically significant differences between the groups except VMX with closed eyes. (p = 0.008 and p = 0.012, with closed eyes). With open eyes, only VMY showed significant difference between the groups (p = 0.010). In this study, the patients with dizziness and subjective complaints related to typical clinical signs of PD complaints presented higher instability in the orthostatic position than the control group of patients with dizziness and without such complaint. It could suggest that dizziness may be one symptom of preclinical PD and progress to overt postural instability. It is believed that a stepwise approach with a simple and inexpensive initial screening test of preclinical PD is required.
To Open or Not to Open: Korean Rice Market  [PDF]
Youngjeen Cho
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.54023
Abstract: Although the “tariff only” principle was adopted in the Uruguay Round (UR) negotiations on agricultural products, Korea was able to apply special treatment to its rice and postpone tariffication of rice imports. After two decades of delay, the Korean government officially announced its decision to open its rice market beginning in 2015. This paper examines whether it would be legally possible for the Korean government to postpone the tariffication of rice imports beyond 2014. In order to address the question, this paper outlines the status of Korean rice in the WTO for the last twenty years. Then, it analyzes the arguments of those who are against tarifficating rice and of those who are in support of it. Based on the analysis, it concludes that Korea cannot postpone tariffication under Annex 5 of the Agreement on Agriculture. While it may request for a waiver under Article IX of the WTO Agreement, a careful and thorough examination is required to decide whether to postpone the tariffication beyond 2014.
Revisiting WTO Fisheries Subsidies Negotiations  [PDF]
Youngjeen Cho
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.61002
Abstract: Fisheries subsidies negotiation was added to the negotiation agenda of the DDA largely by the concern for the depletion of fishery stocks. Some members, in particular, the Friends of Fish group countries, claimed that over-fishing and overcapacity caused by various fisheries subsidies program have resulted in the depletion of fishery stocks. Therefore, they argued that new disciplines should be introduced to address the situation. In 2007, after more than five years of negotiations, the chairman of the Rules Negotiations Group circulated a consolidated text. However, the negotiations have hardly made progress since then. This paper examines whether the Rule Negotiating Group chair’s text is legally and practically appropriate to serve as a basis for the fisheries subsidies negotiations. In order to address the question, this paper presents the brief history of fisheries subsidies negotiations at the WTO. Then, it analyzes critical issues of the Rule Negotiating Group chair’s text. It also explores the consolidated text of the TPP negotiations. Based on the analysis, it concludes that the basic concept and the principle of the chair’s text are inconsistent with those of the ASCM, and that the structure of the text does not conform those of the ASCM and other WTO agreements. Likewise, the TPP text bears similar problems. Therefore, it is highly questionable whether WTO members and TPP parties can actually achieve the goal to conserve fishery resources. WTO members as well as TPP parties should try to address these problems, so that they can make real progress in negotiations.
Targeting Phosphodiesterase 4 to Block the Link between Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and the Metabolic Complications  [PDF]
Eric Cho
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.311007
Abstract: The metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes are found to be more frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The chronic systemic inflammation orchestrated by macrophages constitutes one critical pathophysiological process underlying both acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) and its metabolic complications such as obesity and diabetes. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling controlled by phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 is a pivotal intracellular modulator for macrophages functions in immune inflammatory response underlying AECOPD as well as obesity and diabetes. Targeting PDE4/cAMP signaling has been suggested to be effective in treating AECOPD or the metabolic disorders of obesity and diabetes. It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that the chronic systemic inflammation can be a critical link between AECOPD and the metabolic disorders and targeting the PDE4/cAMP signaling can be effective to block this link between AECOPD and the associated metabolic complications.
The Concept of “Developing Countries” in the Context of the WTO Fisheries Subsidies Negotiation  [PDF]
Youngjeen Cho
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.92010
Abstract: This paper explores the concept of developing countries in the context of the WTO DDA fisheries subsidies negotiations. It raises a question whether the concept of developing countries that is widely used in other WTO agreement should be applicable to the new disciplines on fisheries subsidies. In order to address the question, this paper outlines the history of the DDA fisheries subsidies negotiations and discusses the goal of fisheries subsidies negotiations. Then, it presents the concept of developing countries in the GATT, the WTO and other international institutions, and finds that it is almost exclusively based on economic indicators. Then, it reviews global fish production and the amount of global fisheries subsidies. On the basis of its analysis, this paper finds that, in order to achieve the proposed goal of the new disciplines on fisheries subsidies, and to strike a balance between the environmental and the developmental dimensions of fisheries subsidies, the concept of “developing countries” in the context of fisheries subsidies should be different from that in other WTO agreements. It should not include countries that have leading fishing industry for which the governments provide large amount of subsidies, in particular, fishing capacity-enhancing subsidies.
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