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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7591 matches for " Sung-il Cho "
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Epidemiological Characteristics of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in Antiviral Drug Users in Korea
Kyunghi Choi, Sung-il Cho, Masahiro Hashizume, Ho Kim
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047634
Abstract: Soon after the first novel influenza A (H1N1) death was documented in Korea on August 15, 2009, prompt treatment with antiviral drugs was recommended when an infection was suspected. Free antiviral drugs were distributed to patients who met the case definition in the treatment guidelines, and patients prescribed the antiviral drugs were included in the Antiviral Drug Surveillance System (ADSS). A total of 2,825,821 patients were reported to the ADSS from September 1 to December 31, 2009. Odds ratios were calculated to compare the risks of severe diseases, as indicated by general hospital admissions or intensive care unit (ICU) admissions according to demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, and behavioral factors. Approximately 6% of the total population received antiviral drugs during the study period. Of these, 2,709,611 (95.9%) were outpatients, 114,840 (4.06%) were hospitalized, and 1,370 (0.05%) were admitted to the ICU. Children aged 0–9 yr accounted for 33.94% of all reported cases, whereas only 3.89% of the patients were ≥ 60 yr. The estimated incidence of novel influenza A (H1N1) during the pandemic was 5.68/100 of all reported cases. Mortality due to influenza A (H1N1) during the pandemic was 0.33/100,000, with the highest mortality of 1.31/100,000 for patients aged ≥ 60 years. Severe pandemic H1N1 influenza was associated with the presence of one or more underlying medical conditions in elderly aged ≥ 60 years and with lower economic status. Moreover, influenza A (H1N1) appeared to be age-specific in terms of mortality. Although the incidence and admission rates of influenza A (H1N1) were higher in younger age groups, fatal cases were much more likely to occur in the elderly (≥60 years). In contrast to earlier influenza A (H1N1) reports, the risks of a severe outcome were elevated among those who were underweight (body mass index < 18.5 kg/m2).
A closer look at the increase in suicide rates in South Korea from 1986–2005
Jin-Won Kwon, Heeran Chun, Sung-il Cho
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-72
Abstract: We used data on total mortality and suicide rates from 1986 to 2005 published online by the Korean National Statistical Office (NSO) and extracted data for individuals under 80 years old. The analyses of the trends for 1) the sex-age-specific total mortality rate, 2) the sex-age-specific suicide rate, and 3) the sex-age-specific proportional suicide rate in 1986–2005 were conducted. To demonstrate the birth cohort effect on the proportional suicide rate, the synthetic birth cohort from 1924 to 1978 from the successive cross-sectional data was constructed.Age standardized suicide rates in South Korea increased by 98% in men (from 15.3 to 30.3 per 100,000) and by 124% in women (from 5.8 to 13.0 per 100,000). In both genders, the proportional increase in suicide rates was more prominent among the younger group aged under 45, despite the absolute increase being attributed to the older group. There were distinct cohort effects underlying increasing suicide rates particularly among younger age groups.Increasing suicide rates in Korea was composed of a greater absolute increase in the older group and a greater proportional increase in the younger group.Suicide is a dramatic example of individual behaviour influenced by social integration or regulation, as originally noted by Durkheim [1]. Therefore, not only individual factors but also socioeconomic changes should be considered to explain suicide patterns in a society. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) statistics from 1965 to 1999, suicide rates had a variation and showed mixed trends between countries and age-groups. While total suicide mortality rates in all ages have been decreasing or in a steady status in most developed countries after 1990s, it has been increasing in some countries especially which have suffered huge economic turmoil such as Russia. There are some reports on suicide rates by age group. In a few countries including New Zealand and Australia, there were rising trends in young people [2,3]. I
Social class, job insecurity and job strain in Korea
Sung-Il Cho,Ki-Do Eum,BongKyoo Choi,Domyung Paek
SJWEH Supplements , 2008,
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study explored the associations between social class, job insecurity, and job strain among Korean workers. METHODS: Data on 6143 participants (253 health care workers, 5113 subway workers, and 777 petrochemical refinery workers) from three Korean job-stress studies were used. Job strain and job insecurity were measured with the job content questionnaire. Job strain was defined as a continuous variable according to the demand-to-control ratio and as a binary variable as the highest quartile of this ratio. Social class was defined by indicators of socioeconomic status. The combined effects of job insecurity and socioeconomic status were examined with generalized linear models and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Job insecurity was relatively higher than in other countries (scale mean 5.8). Higher job insecurity was associated with lower social class, and it appeared to partially mediate the effect of socioeconomic status on job strain. Job insecurity and low social class independently elevated job strain. Job strain was the highest among those with a low social class and job insecurity for each socioeconomic indicator. According to the logistic regression models, the odds ratio for high strain was 2.0 (P<0.05) for low job security and low education, 2.4 (P<0.05) for low job security and low income, and 2.4 (P<0.05) for low job security and low occupational class, when compared with the baseline values. CONCLUSIONS: Low social class is associated with higher job strain. Job insecurity is higher among persons in a lower social class, the highest job strain occurring among workers with both factors. Job insecurity appears to intensify the overall effect of social class on job strain.
A genome-wide Asian genetic map and ethnic comparison: The GENDISCAN study
Young Ju, Hansoo Park, Mi Kyeong Lee, Jong-Il Kim, Joohon Sung, Sung-Il Cho, Jeong-Sun Seo
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-554
Abstract: We constructed the genetic map of a Mongolian population in Asia with CRIMAP software. This new map, called the GENDISCAN map, is based on genotype data collected from 1026 individuals of 73 large Mongolian families, and includes 1790 total and 1500 observable meioses. The GENDISCAN map provides sex-averaged and sex-specific genetic positions of 1039 microsatellite markers in Kosambi centimorgans (cM) with physical positions. We also determined 95% confidence intervals of genetic distances of the adjacent marker intervals.Genetic lengths of the whole genome, chromosomes and adjacent marker intervals are compared with those of Rutgers Map v.2, which was constructed based on Caucasian populations (Centre d'Etudes du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) and Icelandic families) by mapping methods identical to those of the GENDISCAN map, CRIMAP software and the Kosambi map function. Mongolians showed approximately 1.9 fewer recombinations per meiosis than Caucasians. As a result, genetic lengths of the whole genome and chromosomes of the GENDISCAN map are shorter than those of Rutgers Map v.2. Thirty-eight marker intervals differed significantly between the Mongolian and Caucasian genetic maps.The new GENDISCAN map is applicable to the genetic study of Asian populations. Differences in the genetic distances between the GENDISCAN and Caucasian maps could facilitate elucidation of genomic variations between different ethnic groups.Genetic maps provide specific positions of genetic markers, which are required for performing genetic studies. Linkage analyses, which aim to identify genetic loci related to human phenotypes and complex diseases, have been performed with Caucasian genetic maps even in Asian populations, because no comprehensive Asian genetic maps with dense markers have yet been introduced. Since multipoint methods are frequently used in linkage analyses, it is important to use correct maps for the population being studied [1].Distance between adjacent genetic markers in
Weight Change as a Predictor of Incidence and Remission of Insulin Resistance
Yoosoo Chang, Eunju Sung, Kyung Eun Yun, Hyun-Suk Jung, Chan-Won Kim, Min-Jung Kwon, Sung-Il Cho, Seungho Ryu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063690
Abstract: Objective The objective of this study was to assess the longitudinal relationship of weight change on incidence and remission of insulin resistance (IR). Methods We performed a cohort study in apparently healthy Korean men, 30 to 59 years of age, who underwent a health checkup and were followed annually or biennially between 2002 and 2009. The computer model of homeostasis model assessment, HOMA2-IR, was obtained at each visit, and IR was defined as HOMA2-IR ≥75th percentile. Results For IR development, 1,755 of the 6,612 IR-free participants at baseline developed IR (rate 5.1 per 100 person-years) during 34,294.8 person-years of follow-up. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident IR with weight changes of <?0.9 kg, 0.6–2.1 kg and ≥2.2 kg from visit 1 to visit 2 (average 1.8 years) compared to weight change of ?0.9–0.5 kg (reference) were 0.78 (0.68–0.90), 1.19 (1.04–1.35) and 1.26 (1.11–1.44), respectively. This association persisted in normal-weight individuals or those without any metabolic syndrome traits and remained significant after introducing weight categories and confounders as time-dependent exposures (P-trend <0.001). For IR remission, 903 of 1,696 IR participants had no IR (remission rate 10.3 per 100 person-years) during 8,777.4 person-years of follow-up. IR remission decreased with increasing quartiles of weight change (P-trend <0.001) and this association persisted in normal-weight individuals. Conclusions Weight gain was associated with increased IR development and decreased IR remission regardless of baseline BMI status. Preventing weight gain, even in healthy and normal-weight individuals, is an important strategy for reducing IR and its associated consequences.
Social Engagement, Health, and Changes in Occupational Status: Analysis of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA)
Jin-young Min, Kyung-jong Lee, Jae-beom Park, Sung-il Cho, Shin-goo Park, Kyoungbok Min
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046500
Abstract: Background We focused on whether changes in the occupational status of older male adults can be influenced by social engagement and health status measured at the baseline. Methods This study used a sample of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), and the study population was restricted to 1.531 men who were aged 55 to 80 years at the 2006 baseline survey and participated in the second survey in 2008. Social engagement and health status, measured by the number of chronic diseases, grip strength, and depressive symptoms as well as covariates (age, marital status, educational level, and household income) were based on data from the 2006 baseline survey. Occupational engagement over the first and second survey was divided into four categories: ‘consistently employed’ (n = 892), ‘employed-unemployed’ (n = 152), ‘unemployed-employed’ (n = 138), and ‘consistently unemployed’ (n = 349). Results In the multinomial model, the ‘consistently employed’ and ‘unemployed-employed’ groups had significantly higher social engagement (1.19 and 1.32 times, respectively) than the referent. The number of chronic diseases was significantly associated with four occupational changes, and the ‘unemployed-employed’ had the fewest chronic conditions. Conclusion Our finding suggests that social engagement and health status are likely to affect opportunities to continue working or to start working for older male adults.
Timeliness of national notifiable diseases surveillance system in Korea: a cross-sectional study
Hyo-Soon Yoo, Ok Park, Hye-Kyung Park, Eun-Gyu Lee, Eun-Kyeong Jeong, Jong-Koo Lee, Sung-Il Cho
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-93
Abstract: Six notifiable infectious diseases reported relatively frequently were included in this study. Five diseases were selected by the criteria of reported cases > 100 per year: typhoid fever, shigellosis, mumps, scrub typhus, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. In addition, dengue fever was also included to represent an emerging disease, despite its low number of cases. The diseases were compared for the proportion notified within the recommended time limits, median time lags, and for the cumulative distribution of time lags at each surveillance step between symptom onset and date of notification to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC).The proportion of cases reported in time was lower for disease groups with a recommended time limit of 1 day compared with 7 days (60%–70% vs. > 80%). The median time from disease onset to notification to KCDC ranged between 6 and 20 days. The median time from onset to registration at the local level ranged between 2 and 15 days. Distribution of time lags showed that main delays arose in the time from onset to diagnosis. There were variations in timeliness by disease categories and surveillance steps.Time from disease onset to diagnosis generally contributed most to the delay in reporting. It is needed to promote public education and to improve clinical guidelines. Rapid reporting by doctors should be encouraged, and unification of recommended reporting time limit can be helpful. Our study also demonstrates the utility of the overall assessment of time-lag distributions for disease-specific strategies to improve surveillance.Effective public health services for the control and prevention of infectious diseases involve surveillance as a critical element [1]. The aim of infectious diseases surveillance is to initiate public health action in response to changes in the incidence of the disease [2]. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed two key functions of any surveillance system: early detection of po
Application and evaluation of the MLVA typing assay for the Brucella abortus strains isolated in Korea
Moon Her, Sung-Il Kang, Dong-Hee Cho, Yun-Sang Cho, In-Yeong Hwang, Young-Ran Heo, Suk-Chan Jung, Han-Sang Yoo
BMC Microbiology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-230
Abstract: A total of 177 isolates originating from 105 cattle farms for the period 1996 to 2008 were selected as representatives for the nine provinces of South Korea. A dendrogram of strain relatedness was constructed in accordance with the number of tandem repeat units for 17 loci so that it was possible to trace back in the restricted areas. Even in a farm contaminated by one source, however, the Brucella isolates showed an increase or decrease in one TRs copy number at some loci with high DI values. Moreover, those 17 loci was confirmed in stability via in-vitro and in-vivo passage, and found to be sufficiently stable markers that can readily identify the inoculated strain even if minor changes were detected. In the parsimony analysis with foreign Brucella isolates, domestic isolates were clustered distinctively, and located near the Central and Southern American isolates.The MLVA assay has enough discrimination power in the Brucella species level and can be utilized as a tool for the epidemiological trace-back of the B. abortus isolates. But it is important to consider that Brucella isolates may be capable of undergoing minor changes at some loci in the course of infection or in accordance with the changes of the host.Brucellosis is an important disease that is causing economic losses in the cattle industry as well as health problems in humans. Bovine brucellosis in Korea was first detected from cattle in 1955 [1]. Since then, the disease had been occurred sporadically until 1983, and the most outbreaks had been reported in dairy cattle. In spite of the eradication program, the prevalence was continuously increased [2]. For the control and prevention of brucellosis, a new intensive national Brucella eradication program was established and has been executed from July, 2004 in Korea, employing the test-and-slaughter and/or stamp-out approach. All cattle raised in the farms in Korea are regularly tested for brucellosis and a test certificate is required before they could be
Mechanisms of Hearing Loss after Blast Injury to the Ear
Sung-Il Cho, Simon S. Gao, Anping Xia, Rosalie Wang, Felipe T. Salles, Patrick D. Raphael, Homer Abaya, Jacqueline Wachtel, Jongmin Baek, David Jacobs, Matthew N. Rasband, John S. Oghalai
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067618
Abstract: Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body’s most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction.
Cellular stress-induced up-regulation of FMRP promotes cell survival by modulating PI3K-Akt phosphorylation cascades
Se Jeon, Jung Seo, Sung-Il Yang, Ji Choi, David Wells, Chan Shin, Kwang Ko
Journal of Biomedical Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-18-17
Abstract: Apoptotic cell death was induced by etoposide treatment on Hela cells. After we transiently modulated FMRP expression (silencing or enhancing) by using molecular biotechnological methods such as small hairpin RNA virus-induced knock down and overexpression using transfection with FMRP expression vectors, cellular viability was measured using propidium iodide staining, TUNEL staining, and FACS analysis along with the level of activation of PI3K-Akt pathway by Western blot. Expression level of FMRP and apoptotic regulator BcL-xL was analyzed by Western blot, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry.An increased FMRP expression was measured in etoposide-treated HeLa cells, which was induced by PI3K-Akt activation. Without FMRP expression, cellular defence mechanism via PI3K-Akt-Bcl-xL was weakened and resulted in an augmented cell death by etoposide. In addition, FMRP over-expression lead to the activation of PI3K-Akt signalling pathway as well as increased FMRP and BcL-xL expression, which culminates with the increased cell survival in etoposide-treated HeLa cells.Taken together, these results suggest that FMRP expression is an essential part of cellular survival mechanisms through the modulation of PI3K, Akt, and Bcl-xL signal pathways.Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a well known neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of fragile X linked mental retardation protein (FMRP) which is encoded by Fmr1 gene [1]. FXS patients typically show a wide spectrum of cognitive and behavioral problems such as attention deficit, anxiety and mood disorder, increased risk of seizures, autistic spectrum behaviors, and mental retardation [1]. FMRP is expressed in many tissues including testis, placenta, and brain [2,3] and in a variety of cell types including HeLa [4].FMRP is a RNA binding protein, which regulates translation of target mRNAs. A wide range of potential target mRNAs have been suggested, most of which have been correlated to the regulation of synaptic function as well as neuronal deve
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