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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 36833 matches for " Sun Young Kyung "
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The Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases in Idiopathic Interstitisal Pneumonia  [PDF]
Ji Young Shin, Yu Jin Kim, Sun Young Kyung, Seung Yeon Ha, Sung Hwan Jeong
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2014.43014
Background: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is characterized by fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) have been shown to regulate remodeling of the ECM, which indicates that they are important factors in the process of lung fibrosis. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of MMPs and TIMPs in tissues obtained from patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and control tissues. Methods: Thirty-seven patients who were diagnosed with IIP (22: IPF, 13: NSIP, 2: COP) and 5 controls were enrolled in this study. The MMP-2 and -9 activity in lung tissue obtained from these patients was analyzed using gelatin zymography and the levels of TIMP-1 and -2 were measured by western blotting. We also evaluated the expression of MMP-2 and -9, as well as that of TIMP-1 and -2 in lung tissue using immunohistochemistry. Results: The levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly increased in patients with IPF compared to those with NSIP and COP. The activities of TIMP-1 and -2 were also higher in patients with IPF than NSIP/COP patients and control subjects. There were no significant differences observed in the activities of MMPs and TIMPs obtained from patients with NSIP/COP and control subjects. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that TIMP-2 and MMP-2 were strongly stained at the fibroblasts of the fibroblastic foci in patients with IPF. Conclusions: These results suggest that over-expression of gelatinases and TIMPs in patients with IPF are important factors in the irreversible fibrosis that is associated with lung parenchyma.
An Alternative Path for the Preparation of Triacetylcellulose from Unrefined Biomass  [PDF]
Hee Kyung Lim, Ha Young Song, Dal Rye Kim, Jeong Ho Ko, Sun Ah Lee, Kee-In Lee, In Taek Hwang
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2015.51004
Abstract: An alternative path for the preparation of triacetylcellulose (TAC) from unrefined biomass Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) has been found with environmental benefits. The method comprises separation and regeneration of cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass dissolved in ionic liquid BMIMCl, and also modification of cellulose to TAC. The triacetylcellulose with a degree of substitution of 2.93 was obtained by the reaction of acetic anhydride at 55C with drastically reducing number of steps currently required to produce this derivative from raw materials itself. TAC was characterized using NMR analysis. The triacetate cellulose is typically used for the creation of fibers and film base.
Transparent (1–x)TiO2–xFe2O3 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%) thin films prepared by sol-gel process
Kyu-Seog HWANG,Young-Sun JEON,Kyung-Ok JEON,Byung-Hoon KIM
Optica Applicata , 2005,
Abstract: Transparent iron-doped titanium oxide thin films were prepared on soda-lime-silica glass substrate from a titanium naphthenate precursor. Films prefired at 500°C for 10 min were finally annealed at 500°C for 30 min in air. Field emission–scanning electron microscope and scanning probe microscope were used for characterizing the surface structure of the film. A sharp absorption edge of the film was observed. The film containing iron showed a shift towards the visible in the absorption threshold.
Rgs13 Constrains Early B Cell Responses and Limits Germinal Center Sizes
Il-Young Hwang, Kyung-Sun Hwang, Chung Park, Kathleen A. Harrison, John H. Kehrl
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060139
Abstract: Germinal centers (GCs) are microanatomic structures that develop in secondary lymphoid organs in response to antigenic stimulation. Within GCs B cells clonally expand and their immunoglobulin genes undergo class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. Transcriptional profiling has identified a number of genes that are prominently expressed in GC B cells. Among them is Rgs13, which encodes an RGS protein with a dual function. Its canonical function is to accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of heterotrimeric G-protein α subunits at the plasma membrane, thereby limiting heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. A unique, non-canonical function of RGS13 occurs following translocation to the nucleus, where it represses CREB transcriptional activity. The functional role of RGS13 in GC B cells is unknown. To create a surrogate marker for Rgs13 expression and a loss of function mutation, we inserted a GFP coding region into the Rgs13 genomic locus. Following immunization GFP expression rapidly increased in activated B cells, persisted in GC B cells, but declined in newly generated memory B and plasma cells. Intravital microscopy of the inguinal lymph node (LN) of immunized mice revealed the rapid appearance of GFP+ cells at LN interfollicular regions and along the T/B cell borders, and eventually within GCs. Analysis of WT, knock-in, and mixed chimeric mice indicated that RGS13 constrains extra-follicular plasma cell generation, GC size, and GC B cell numbers. Analysis of select cell cycle and GC specific genes disclosed an aberrant gene expression profile in the Rgs13 deficient GC B cells. These results indicate that RGS13, likely acting at cell membranes and in nuclei, helps coordinate key decision points during the expansion and differentiation of naive B cells.
The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion
Sun-Jin Hur,Young-Chan Kim,Inwook Choi,Si-Kyung Lee
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms140816333
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.
Regulation of Adipose Tissue Stromal Cells Behaviors by Endogenic Oct4 Expression Control
Jung Hwan Kim, Min Ki Jee, So Young Lee, Tae Hee Han, Bong Sun Kim, Kyung Sun Kang, Soo Kyung Kang
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007166
Abstract: Background To clarify the role of the POU domain transcription factor Oct4 in Adipose Tissue Stromal Cells (ATSCs), we investigated the regulation of Oct4 expression and other embryonic genes in fully differentiated cells, in addition to identifying expression at the gene and protein levels. The ATSCs and several immature cells were routinely expressing Oct4 protein before and after differentiating into specific lineages. Methodology/Principal Findings and Conclusions Here, we demonstrated the role of Oct4 in ATSCs on cell proliferation and differentiation. Exogenous Oct4 improves adult ATSCs cell proliferation and differentiation potencies through epigenetic reprogramming of stemness genes such as Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1. Oct4 directly or indirectly induces ATSCs reprogramming along with the activation of JAK/STAT3 and ERK1/2. Exogenic Oct4 introduced a transdifferentiation priority into the neural lineage than mesodermal lineage. Global gene expression analysis results showed that Oct4 regulated target genes which could be characterized as differentially regulated genes such as pluripotency markers NANOG, SOX2, and KLF4 and markers of undifferentiated stem cells FOXD1, CDC2, and EPHB1. The negatively regulated genes included FAS, TNFR, COL6A1, JAM2, FOXQ1, FOXO1, NESTIN, SMAD3, SLIT3, DKK1, WNT5A, BMP1, and GLIS3 which are implicated in differentiation processes as well as a number of novel genes. Finally we have demonstrated the therapeutic utility of Oct4/ATSCs were introduced into the mouse traumatic brain, engrafted cells was more effectively induces regeneration activity with high therapeutic modality than that of control ATSCs. Engrafted Oct4/ATSCs efficiently migrated and transdifferentiated into action potential carrying, functionally neurons in the hippocampus and promoting the amelioration of lesion cavities.
Successful mobilization using a combination of plerixafor and G-CSF in pediatric patients who failed previous chemomobilization with G-CSF alone and possible complications of the treatment
Kyung Taek Hong, Hyoung Jin Kang, Nam Hee Kim, Min Sun Kim, Ji Won Lee, Hyery Kim, Kyung Duk Park, Hee Young Shin, Hyo Seop Ahn
Journal of Hematology & Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-8722-5-14
Abstract: Plerixafor has been introduced for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells to peripheral blood, by interfering with the SDF1-CXCR4 interaction. Although it has been FDA-approved in adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or multiple myeloma [1,2], the pediatric data usage are scarce, particularly in Asian children [3-8].We retrospectively reviewed all 6 patients (3 males, 3 females), who received plerixafor-based mobilization at our center after obtaining the Institutional Review Board approval (H-1108-103-374). They had all previously failed peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization by chemotherapy and G-CSF. The patient's characteristics, previous treatments and mobilization chemotherapies are shown. (Table 1) All patients received G-CSF (10 μg/kg) for 4 days, without prior chemotherapy. Then plerixafor (240 μg/kg; Mozobil, Genzyme Inc, Naarden, The Netherlands) and G-CSF (10 μg/kg) were administered subcutaneously, at 10 and 2 hours before each apheresis. CD34+ cells (median, 11.08 × 106/kg; range, 6.34-28.97 × 106/kg) were mobilized successfully in all patients, after 2 to 3 apheresis without immediate complications (for each apheresis: mean, 6.28 × 106/kg: range, 3.17-14.49 × 106/kg). Seven autologous stem cell transplantations were performed, including 1 tandem transplantation, and the results of engraftment were acceptable. (Table 2)Patients #1, #3 and #6 were disease-free at the last follow-up (28, 12 and 3 months after transplantation, respectively), however, patient #4 died on day 3, due to sudden cardiac arrest. Interestingly, two medulloblastoma patients (patients #2 and #5) showed serious lung problems, which include spontaneous pneumomediastinum on day 56 and 11, died on day 102 and 89, respectively. The cause of death of both patients showed to be respiratory failure, of which, the pathogen was not revealed by bronchoalveolar lavage or lung biopsy. The pathologic finding was consistent with a diffuse alveolar damage. In our center, 6 other
Effects of Annealing and Removal of the Water-Soluble Fraction of Dry-Milled Rice Flour on the Texture of Cooked Rice Noodles  [PDF]
Soo Young Choi, Bong Kyung Koh
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.810064
Abstract: Rice noodles were prepared using dry-milled rice flours, which were treated by annealing and removing the water-soluble fraction to improve the quality of noodles without using chemical additives. The combined treatment (TC) with annealing and water-soluble fraction removal decreased the cooking losses for Goamibyeo but not for Chenmaai and Milyang260, which had soft kernels and contained less damaged starch than the hard kernel rice after milling. TC significantly reduced the hardness and adhesiveness of cooked noodles, and increased the cohesiveness according to the texture profile analysis. A sensory evaluation detected an increase in mouth feel firmness and elasticity of cooked TC noodles. These results indicate that annealing at room temperature for 3 h followed by the removal of the water-soluble fraction is effective for reducing the cooking losses and improving the textural properties of noodles made from rice flour with high starch damage.
Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Cell Death Process in Candida albicans Treated by Antifungal Agents
Kyung Sook Kim,Young-Sun Kim,Ihn Han,Mi-Hyun Kim,Min Hyung Jung,Hun-Kuk Park
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028176
Abstract: The death process of Candida albicans was investigated after treatment with the antifungal agents flucytosine and amphotericin B by assessing morphological and biophysical properties associated with cell death. C. albicans was treated varying time periods (from 6 to 48 hours) and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM and AFM images clearly showed changes in morphology and biophysical properties. After drug treatment, the membrane of C. albicans was perforated, deformed, and shrunken. Compared to the control, C. albicans treated with flucytosine was softer and initially showed a greater adhesive force. Conversely, C. albicans treated with amphotericin B was harder and had a lower adhesive force. In both cases, the surface roughness increased as the treatment time increased. The relationships between morphological changes and the drugs were observed by AFM clearly; the surface of C. albicans treated with flucytosine underwent membrane collapse, expansion of holes, and shrinkage, while the membranes of cells treated with amphotericin B peeled off. According to these observations, the death process of C. albicans was divided into 4 phases, CDP0, CDP1, CDP2, and CDP4, which were determined based on morphological changes. Our results could be employed to further investigate the antifungal activity of compounds derived from natural sources.
Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Antifungal Activity of Allicin Alone and in Combination with Antifungal Drugs
Young-Sun Kim, Kyung Sook Kim, Ihn Han, Mi-Hyun Kim, Min Hyung Jung, Hun-Kuk Park
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038242
Abstract: The antifungal activity of allicin and its synergistic effects with the antifungal agents flucytosine and amphotericin B (AmB) were investigated in Candida albicans (C. albicans). C. albicans was treated with different conditions of compounds alone and in combination (allicin, AmB, flucytosine, allicin + AmB, allicin + flucytosine, allicin + AmB + flucytosine). After a 24-hour treatment, cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure morphological and biophysical properties associated with cell death. The clearing assay was conducted to confirm the effects of allicin. The viability of C. albicans treated by allicin alone or with one antifungal drug (AmB, flucytosine) in addition was more than 40% after a 24-hr treatment, but the viability of groups treated with combinations of more than two drugs was less than 32%. When the cells were treated with allicin alone or one type of drug, the morphology of the cells did not change noticeably, but when cells were treated with combinations of drugs, there were noticeable morphological changes. In particular, cells treated with allicin + AmB had significant membrane damage (burst or collapsed membranes). Classification of cells according to their cell death phase (CDP) allowed us to determine the relationship between cell viability and treatment conditions in detail. The adhesive force was decreased by the treatment in all groups compare to the control. Cells treated with AmB + allicin had a greater adhesive force than cells treated with AmB alone because of the secretion of molecules due to collapsed membranes. All cells treated with allicin or drugs were softer than the control cells. These results suggest that allicin can reduce MIC of AmB while keeping the same efficacy.
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