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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145122 matches for " Summer B Cook "
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Skeletal muscle volume following dehydration induced by exercise in heat
Kyle J Hackney, Summer B Cook, Timothy J Fairchild, Lori L Ploutz-Snyder
Extreme Physiology & Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2046-7648-1-3
Abstract: Twelve participants (seven men, five women) cycled in the heat under two conditions: (1) dehydration (DHYD) resulting in 3% and 5% losses of estimated total body water (ETBW), which was assessed by changes in body mass, and (2) fluid replacement (FR) where 3% and 5% losses of ETBW were counteracted by intermittent (20 to 30 min) fluid ingestion via a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. During both conditions, serum osmolality and skeletal muscle volume (assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) were measured at baseline and at the 3% and 5% ETBW loss measurement points.In DHYD, serum osmolality increased at 3% (p?=?0.005) and 5% (p?<?0.001) ETBW losses, while FR decreased serum osmolality at the 5% loss of ETBW time point (p?=?0.009). In DHYD, KE muscle volume declined from 1,464?±?446 ml to 1,406?±?425 ml (3.9%, p?<?0.001) at 3% ETBW loss and to 1,378?±?421 ml (5.9%, p?<?0.001) at 5% ETBW loss. The largest decline in KE volume in DYHD occurred in the mid-belly (31 ml, p?=?0.001) and proximal (24 ml, p?=?0.001) regions of the grouped vasti muscles. There were no changes in volume for the biceps/triceps (p?=?0.35) or deltoid (p?=?0.92) during DHYD. FR prevented the loss of KE muscle volume at 3% (1,430?±?435 ml, p?=?0.074) and 5% (1,431?±?439 ml, p?=?0.156) ETBW loss time points compared to baseline (1,445?±?436 ml).Following exercise in the heat, the actively contracting muscles lost volume, while replacing lost fluids intermittently during exercise in heat prevented this decline. These results support the use of muscle volume as a marker of water loss.Water accounts for 50% to 60% of the total body mass [1] and approximately 75% of the muscle mass [2]. A loss of total body water (TBW) equivalent or greater than 2% of body mass can significantly reduce performance on prolonged submaximal tasks [2,3] and impaired muscular strength and power [4]. Interestingly, the extent of water loss from specific tissue compartments including the skeletal muscle is not well understood
Three-dimensional initial data for the collision of two black holes II: Quasi-circular orbits for equal-mass black holes
Gregory B. Cook
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.50.5025
Abstract: The construction of initial-data sets representing binary black-hole configurations in quasi-circular orbits is studied in the context of the conformal-imaging formalism. An effective-potential approach for locating quasi-circular orbits is outlined for the general case of two holes of arbitrary size and with arbitrary spins. Such orbits are explicitly determined for the case of two equal-sized nonrotating holes, and the innermost stable quasi-circular orbit is located. The characteristics of this innermost orbit are compared to previous estimates for it, and the entire sequence of quasi-circular orbits is compared to results from the post-Newtonian approximation. Some aspects of the numerical evolution of such data sets are explored.
Corotating and irrotational binary black holes in quasi-circular orbits
Gregory B. Cook
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.65.084003
Abstract: A complete formalism for constructing initial data representing black-hole binaries in quasi-equilibrium is developed. Radiation reaction prohibits, in general, true equilibrium binary configurations. However, when the timescale for orbital decay is much longer than the orbital period, a binary can be considered to be in quasi-equilibrium. If each black hole is assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium, then a complete set of boundary conditions for all initial data variables can be developed. These boundary conditions are applied on the apparent horizon of each black hole, and in fact force a specified surface to be an apparent horizon. A global assumption of quasi-equilibrium is also used to fix some of the freely specifiable pieces of the initial data and to uniquely fix the asymptotic boundary conditions. This formalism should allow for the construction of completely general quasi-equilibrium black hole binary initial data.
Initial Data for Numerical Relativity
Gregory B. Cook
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.12942/lrr-2000-5
Abstract: Initial data are the starting point for any numerical simulation. In the case of numerical relativity, Einstein's equations constrain our choices of these initial data. We will examine several of the formalisms used for specifying Cauchy initial data in the 3+1 decomposition of Einstein's equations. We will then explore how these formalisms have been used in constructing initial data for spacetimes containing black holes and neutron stars. In the topics discussed, emphasis is placed on those issues that are important for obtaining astrophysically realistic initial data for compact binary coalescence.
An Historical Perspective: Humble Beginnings
Lisa Summer
Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy , 2001,
Abstract: A brief historical sketch of international music from the International Newsletter of Music Therapy
Music: The Aesthetic Elixir
Lisa Summer
Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy , 2010,
Abstract: Music therapy is seen as akin to the healthy re-enactment of the parent-child dyad in which the music stimulates “me and not-me” experiences (Winnicott). Sympathetic music structures stimulate the “me” state, whereas the “not-me” state is stimulated through music that is unfamiliar, evocative, and contains significant tension. The GIM process begins with a “me” experience and then moves beyond it, to the “not-me.” Subsequently, the article describes how classical music in GIM creates a transpersonal experience through an altered states of consciousness and the transcendence of time. Through this process the client’s boundaries are loosened, and the client becomes “one” with the music and its healthful structures.
Preliminary measurement of the 2$νββ$ decay half-life of $^{150}$Nd to $^{150}$Sm
Summer Blot
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The NEMO-3 experiment searches for neutrino-less double beta (0$\nu\beta\beta$) decay in seven different isotopes simultaneously by reconstructing the full event topology of each decay. One of the investigated isotopes is Nd-150, which has the second highest Q-value (3.37 MeV) of all 0$\nu\beta\beta$ candidate isotopes, as well as a favourable phase space factor and matrix element. The largest sources of background in the search for this rare decay process in Nd-150 are Tl-208 and the irreducible 2$\nu\beta\beta$ decay. Using the full data set from NEMO-3 detector, a complete description of the background model is presented, along with a preliminary measurement of the 2$\nu\beta\beta$ decay rate for Nd-150 to the ground state of Sm-150.
Natural Experiment Demonstrates That Bird Loss Leads to Cessation of Dispersal of Native Seeds from Intact to Degraded Forests
Eleanor M. Caves, Summer B. Jennings, Janneke HilleRisLambers, Joshua J. Tewksbury, Haldre S. Rogers
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065618
Abstract: In healthy forests, vertebrate frugivores move seeds from intact to degraded forests, aiding in the passive regeneration of degraded forests. Yet vertebrate frugivores are declining around the world, and little is known about the impact of this loss on regeneration of degraded areas. Here, we use a unique natural experiment to assess how complete vertebrate frugivore loss affects native seed rain in degraded forest. All native vertebrate frugivores (which were primarily avian frugivores) have been functionally extirpated from the island of Guam by the invasive brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), whereas the nearby island of Saipan has a relatively intact vertebrate frugivore community. We captured seed rain along transects extending from intact into degraded forest and compared the species richness, density and condition of the seed rain from native bird-dispersed tree species between the two islands. Considering seeds from native bird-dispersed species, approximately 1.66 seeds landed per 26 days in each square meter of degraded forest on Saipan, whereas zero seeds landed per 26 days per square meter in degraded forest on Guam. Additionally, on Saipan, 69% of native bird-dispersed seeds in intact forest and 77% of seeds in degraded forest lacked fleshy fruit pulp, suggesting ingestion by birds, compared to 0% of all seeds on Guam. Our results show an absence of seed rain in degraded forests on Guam, correlated with the absence of birds, whereas on Saipan, frugivorous birds regularly disperse seeds into degraded forests, providing a mechanism for re-colonization by native plants. These results suggest that loss of frugivores will slow regeneration of degraded forests on Guam.
Investor Na?veté and Asset Prices  [PDF]
Jonathan Cook
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.34047
Abstract:

This paper describes strategic behavior in a nonequilibrium model of asset pricing with heterogeneous sophistication. Both risk and return are increasing in the na?veté of investors in the market. Optimal investment involves in considering the effect that na?e investors have on the market. Further, we derive a simple characterization of the asset price dynamics that results from an arbitrary combination of a countably infinite set of investor types.

Race, gender, and lifestyle discussions in geriatric primary care medical visits  [PDF]
B. Mitchell Peck, Margo-Lea Hurwicz, Marcia Ory, Paula Yuma, Mary Ann Cook
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.210168
Abstract: Increasingly, healthcare providers are required to spend more time and effort aimed at prevention and lifestyle modification. Many argue that providers are in a unique position to provide information for effective lifestyle and behavior change. Yet, relatively little is known about how in- terpersonal provider and patient characteristics, such as race and gender, affect discussions of lifestyle choices about public health issues. To understand better how patient and physician characteristics influence discussions of lifestyle behaviors, we conducted a prospective, cohort study of interactions between primary care physicians and their geriatric patients. We videotaped 381 elderly patient visits with 35 primary care physicians. We coded the encounters to indicate whether the patient and physician discussed lifestyle issues around nutrition, physical activity, and smoking. The independent variables were patient and physician race, gender, and concordant status. Discussions about nutrition were the most common lifestyle topic (47.8%), followed by physical activity (40.3%) and smoking (14.2%). Multivariate analysis indicate white patients are significantly less likely to have discussions with their physicians about nutrition (OR = 0.32, p = 0.02) and same gender encounters are also less likely to discuss diet/nutrition (OR = 0.59, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences for discussions about physical activity or smoking. Previous research has shown that differences persist in the quality of care and certain outcomes. Our results suggest these differrences are not exclusively the result of differences in the prevalence of lifestyle discussions based on patient and physician race or gender.
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