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Swine influenza virus infection in different age groups of pigs in farrow-to-finish farms in Thailand
Nobuhiro Takemae, Sujira Parchariyanon, Ruttapong Ruttanapumma, Yasuaki Hiromoto, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Yuko Uchida, Takehiko Saito
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-537
Abstract: We conducted longitudinal monitoring in 6 farrow-to-finish farms in the central region of Thailand from 2008 to 2009. Nasal swabs and serum samples were collected periodically from clinically healthy pigs consisting of sows, fattening pigs, weaned piglets and pigs transferred from other farms. A total of 731 nasal swabs were subjected to virus isolation and 641 serum samples were subjected to detection of SIV antibodies against H1 and H3 subtypes using the hemagglutination inhibition test and ELISA. Twelve SIVs were isolated in this study and eleven were from piglets aged 4 and 8 weeks. Phylogenetical analysis revealed that SIVs isolated from different farms shared a common ancestor. Antibodies against SIVs were detected in fattening pigs on farms with no SIV isolation in the respective periods studied. These observations suggested that piglets aged 8 weeks or younger could be a main target for SIV isolation. Farm-to-farm transmission was suggested for farms where pigs from other farms are introduced periodically. In addition, antibodies against SIVs detected in fattening pigs could be a marker for SIV infection in a farm.The present study provided important information on SIV surveillance that will enable better understanding of SIV ecology in farrow-to-finish farms.Swine influenza virus (SIV) is one of the pathogens that cause respiratory diseases accompanied with coughing and sneezing in pigs [1]. This virus is considered an important pathogen not only from the viewpoint of animal health but also from that of public health [1-3]. Pigs can play the role of a 'mixing vessel' producing a novel influenza virus by genetic reassortment [4] as they have dual susceptibility to both human and avian influenza viruses [5]. Both receptors, namely, the sialic acid linked to galactose by an α2,6 linkage (SAα2,6Gal) for human viruses and an SAα2,3Gal for avian viruses, are expressed on epithelial cells of the tracheal and pulmonary structures of pigs [6,7]. The segmented nature
Genetic variations of nucleoprotein gene of influenza A viruses isolated from swine in Thailand
Nattakarn Thippamom, Donreuthai Sreta, Pravina Kitikoon, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech, Yong Poovorawan, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Kamol Suwannakarn, Sujira Parchariyanon, Sudarat Damrongwatanapokin, Alongkorn Amonsin
Virology Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-7-185
Abstract: Twelve influenza A virus specimens were isolated from Thai swine. All samples were subjected to nucleotide sequencing of the complete NP gene. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted by comparing the NP gene of swine influenza viruses with that of seasonal and pandemic human viruses and highly pathogenic avian viruses from Thailand (n = 77). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the NP gene from different host species clustered in distinct host specific lineages. The NP gene of swine influenza viruses clustered in either Eurasian swine or Classical swine lineages. Genetic analysis of the NP gene suggested that swine influenza viruses circulating in Thailand display 4 amino acids unique to Eurasian and Classical swine lineages. In addition, the result showed 1 and 5 amino acids unique to avian and human lineages, respectively. Furthermore, nucleotide substitution rates showed that the NP gene is highly conserved especially in avian influenza viruses.The NP gene sequence of influenza A in Thailand is highly conserved within host-specific lineages and shows amino acids potentially unique to distinct NP lineages. This information can be used to investigate potential interspecies transmission of influenza A viruses. In addition, the genetic variations of the NP gene will be useful for monitoring the viruses and preparing effective prevention and control strategies for potentially pandemic influenza outbreaks.Influenza A virus poses a serious threat to public health worldwide, particularly the virus circulating in humans and animal species such as birds, pigs and horses. Influenza A subtypes H1-3 and N1-2 have been circulating in the human population, while Influenza A subtypes H1 and 3 and N1-2 have been reported in swine. On the other hand, all H1-16 and N1-9 can be found in avian species [1,2]. The virus genome contains 8 segments of single-stranded RNA that encode 10-11 proteins. Among those genes, the NP gene plays a major role with regard to host range or host species barri
Host Cytokine Responses of Pigeons Infected with Highly Pathogenic Thai Avian Influenza Viruses of Subtype H5N1 Isolated from Wild Birds
Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Yasuaki Hiromoto, Kridsada Chaichoune, Tuangthong Patchimasiri, Warunya Chakritbudsabong, Natanan Prayoonwong, Natnapat Chaisilp, Witthawat Wiriyarat, Sujira Parchariyanon, Parntep Ratanakorn, Yuko Uchida, Takehiko Saito
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023103
Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of the H5N1 subtype has been reported to infect pigeons asymptomatically or induce mild symptoms. However, host immune responses of pigeons inoculated with HPAIVs have not been well documented. To assess host responses of pigeons against HPAIV infection, we compared lethality, viral distribution and mRNA expression of immune related genes of pigeons infected with two HPAIVs (A/Pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004; Pigeon04 and A/Tree sparrow/Ratchaburi/VSMU-16-RBR/2005; T.sparrow05) isolated from wild birds in Thailand. The survival experiment showed that 25% of pigeons died within 2 weeks after the inoculation of two HPAIVs or medium only, suggesting that these viruses did not cause lethal infection in pigeons. Pigeon04 replicated in the lungs more efficiently than T.sparrow05 and spread to multiple extrapulmonary organs such as the brain, spleen, liver, kidney and rectum on days 2, 5 and 9 post infection. No severe lesion was observed in the lungs infected with Pigeon04 as well as T.sparrow05 throughout the collection periods. Encephalitis was occasionally observed in Pigeon04- or T.sparrow05-infected brain, the severity, however was mostly mild. To analyze the expression of immune-related genes in the infected pigeons, we established a quantitative real-time PCR analysis for 14 genes of pigeons. On day 2 post infection, Pigeon04 induced mRNA expression of Mx1, PKR and OAS to a greater extent than T.sparrow05 in the lungs, however their expressions were not up-regulated concomitantly on day 5 post infection when the peak viral replication was observed. Expressions of TLR3, IFNα, IL6, IL8 and CCL5 in the lungs following infection with the two HPAIVs were low. In sum, Pigeon04 exhibited efficient replication in the lungs compared to T.sparrow05, but did not induce excessive host cytokine expressions. Our study has provided the first insight into host immune responses of pigeons against HPAIV infection.
Development of green curry paste marinade for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
Sunisa Siripongvutikorn,Naiyana Pengseng,Sujira Ayusuk,Worapong Usawakesmanee
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: Green-curry paste with additional amount of garlic was developed and its consumer acceptability was investigated.Quality changes in the marinated white shrimp stored at 4±2oC for 15 d was monitored. Total viable count in the marinated shrimp was 106 cfu/g while that of un-marinated shrimp (control) was 107 cfu/g at the end of the storage. Total volatile basicnitrogen (TVB-N) of the marinated shrimp and the control increased from 7.39 and 7.69 mgN/100 g sample to 48.95 and 125.15 mg/100 g sample, respectively, at the end of the storage. Trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) of the marinated shrimp increased from 1.01 mgN/100 g sample to 12.88 mgN/100 g sample, while that of the control increased from 3.08 mgN/100 g sample to 35.76 mgN/100 g sample on day 15. Consumer acceptability of the marinated shrimp decreased as storage time increased but the score was still higher than borderline (>5) at the end of the storage.
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