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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 205 matches for " Sudan "
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An Interim Report on Excavations in the UCL-SARS Concession, Northern Sudan, Winter 2003/2004
Eric McCann
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2004, DOI: 10.5334/pia.221
Why Did Sudanese End Stage Renal Failure Patients Refuse Renal Transplantation?  [PDF]
Amin S. Banaga, Elaf B. Mohammed, Rania M. Siddig, Diana E. Salama, Sara B. Elbashir, Mohamed O. Khojali, Rasha A. Babiker, Khalifa Elmusharaf, Mamoun M. Homeida
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2015.52005
Renal transplantation remains the most effective treatment of End Stage Renal Failure (ESRF). In this cross sectional study we explore the reasons behind refusal of renal transplantation among adults’ Sudanese haemodialysis patients. The subjects of the study are ESRF adults’ patients on regular haemodialysis treatment in 15 haemdoialysis centres in Khartoum/Sudan. All patients who are on regular haemodialysis were interviewed by questionnaire to explore the reasons of refusal of renal transplantation. A total of 1583 ESRF adults’ patients on regular haemodialysis have been participated in the study, 381 (24.1%) patients refused kidney transplantation. The mean age of patients refusing kidney transplantation was (58.5 + 15.1 years); 77.4% of them were ≥50 years old, 59.2% were males and 88.1% were unemployed, patients older than 50 years old and unemployed are tend to refuse renal transplantation (P < 0.001). The main reason of refusal was that the patients refuse to accept kidney from living donors (34.8%). 17.6% of patients decline kidney transplantation because of financial reason, 18.1% of patients refused to do transplantation because of fear of transplant surgery, 15.7% of patients believe that kidney transplantation is against their religious values, 11.9% of patients refused transplantation because they don’t have enough knowledge on renal transplantation, only 0.5% of patients refuse transplantation because of side effect of immunosuppressive drugs. In conclusion, in this study we found that elderly and unemployed ESRF patients tend to refuse renal transplantation, the most important reason behind refusal of renal transplantation is refusal of accepting kidney donation from living related donors. This reflects the need for development of cadaveric donors program in the Sudan. ESRF patients need education and counseling on renal transplantation.
Assessment of Drugs’ Donation Practices in Sudan  [PDF]
Jacob L. Doro, Asim F Mustafa, Ahmed S. Eldalo, Mirghani A. Yousif
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.31017
Abstract: The quality requirements of drug donation are different from those of other donated items. Purpose: To describe and assess key aspects of pharmaceutical donations in Sudan, the kinds of benefits and drawbacks associated with drug donations, and the government controlling role in the donation process. Methods: Retrospective and prospective studies were conducted in the period from April 2007 to Mar 2008 in the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) and some working NGOs’ data bases. Some quality aspects of donated drugs were explored. Six randomly selected nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were examined for the relevance and some aspects of quality of donated drugs such as whether the donated drugs were listed in the National Essential Drug List, or labeled in International Nonproprietary Names, their dosage forms, the language on the package and if the donated drugs were sampled or returned ones. Results: The study showed that most of the donated drugs were relevant to NEDL normative standards. The median times from the date of arrival to the date of expiration were more than 400 days. The time prior to expiration range between 44.8% and 47.5% were found less than one year in arrival. The top ten therapies were accounted for about 40 shipped items. The study was revealed that Sudan did not develop its own guidelines for drug donations and NGOs are making no effort to develop written donation policies. Conclusion: development of national guidelines for drug donations is essential to control the donated drugs in Sudan.
Hydromorphological Mapping and Analysis for Characterizing Darfur Paleolake, NW Sudan Using Remote Sensing and GIS  [PDF]
Samy Ismail Elmahdy
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2012.31004
Abstract: The north-western part of Sudan, which is the driest region on earth has revealed newly surface and near surface paleodrainage network underneath sand sheets indicating the possibilities for economic groundwater reservoirs. Advanced Space-born Thermal Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM ~90 m) DEMs and Quickbird images corroborate the presence of surface and near surface paleodrainage network. Bivariate quadratic surfaces with moving window size of 3 × 3 were fitted to the SRTM DEM. The second derivative surface curvature was calculated to reveal landform classes that may receive most of fossil water. The results showed that the new unnamed depression which recharges by a longitudinal paleodrainage network may receive vast amount of groundwater during humid phases. The results demonstrate that the D8 and curvature algorithms are very efficient tools for revealing and characterizing hydrological elements in arid and semi-arid regions and they provide information for hydrological exploration in remote deserts over large scale prior to geophysical survey.
Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Sudanese by in Situ Hybridization  [PDF]
Ameera A. M. Adam, Nazik E. Abdullah, Lamyaa A. M. El Hassan, Elwaleed M. Elamin, Muntaser E. Ibrahim, Ahmed M. El Hassan
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.56059

Objectives: The aim of this study is to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies of Sudanese patients using EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in Situ hybridization (EBER-ISH). Study Design: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the National Center for ENT diseases and Head and Neck Surgery and the Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum City, Sudan. Subjects and Methods: Biopsies from 43 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were examined for the presence of Epstein-Barr virus using EBER-ISH. Ten normal samples were used to assess the presence of the virus in non cancer tissues. Results: Fifty three samples were examined for the presence of the virus by EBER-ISH, 43 biopsies were NPC and ten were normal. Histologically the cases were, 20 (46.5%), 20 (46.5%) and 3 (7%) of the biopsies were classified as WHO types II, III and mixed type II and III, respectively; there were no cases of type I NPC. All nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies (100%) were positive for EBER1 in almost all carcinoma cells with focal and intense dark-blue staining limited to the nucleus; no hybridization was observed in the cytoplasm. No hybridization was observed in all ten non cancer tissues. Conclusion: All NPC cells are clearly EBV-infected. The virus is located in the nucleus of the tumour cells. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus in normal nasopharyngeal epithelia is not a common event. Objectives: The aim of this study is to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies of Sudanese patients using EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in Situ hybridization (EBER-ISH). Study Design: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the National Center for ENT diseases and Head and Neck Surgery and the Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Forty Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br) Accessions from Sudan Using Agronomical Descriptors and DNA Molecular Markers  [PDF]
Hanaa Ibrahim Mohammed, Nada Babiker Hamza
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.97021
Abstract: Morphological descriptors and Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique were used to assess the genetic variation among and within forty Pennesitum glaucum accessions from Sudan. Accessions were collected from 30 villages representing Darfur, North Kordofan, South Kordofan, and Blue Nile states. 64 amplified fragments were distinguished using ten primers.? 63 bands were polymorphic among the forty accessions with an average of 6.3 polymorphic bands per primer. Low level of genetic similarity was observed (4% - 43%). The PhiPT (analogue of FST fixation index) value for genetic variability obtained over the four regions was 0.169 with high significance (P = 0.01). AMOVA analysis showed higher variance components within regions (80%) than among regions (20%). The two dendrograms obtained by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data; and morphological data based on 26 descriptors did not fit together. PCA (Principal coordinate’s analysis) showed geographic structuring of pearl millet according to its growing regions in Sudan.
Factors Associated with Occupational Stress and Their Effects on Organizational Performance in a Sudanese University  [PDF]
Ahlam B. El Shikieri, Hassan A. Musa
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31022
Abstract: Occupational stress has a significant impact on student learning and thereby on the contribution that such institutions can make to society. This affects organizational performance by reducing productivity and efficiency which affect the organization negatively. The aim of the current study was to determine the factors associated with occupational stress and their relationship with organizational performance at one of the private universities in Sudan. A total of 150 male and female employees from different departments and with various educational levels in the main building of the university were randomly selected. Data was collected using a questionnaire with background questions, job stressors such as role conflict and ambiguity, lack of participation in decision making, lack of authority, workload, unsatisfactory working conditions and interpersonal relationships, and statements about the effect on organisational performance. Questions were based on three- and four-point scale. Responses were grouped in terms of scores to show the level of job stress. Descriptive statistics was carried out using SPSS programme. Results indicated that on average the employees experienced high degree of job stress. Job stressors affected the general physical health of employees, their job satisfaction and performance as well as their commitment negatively. Similar findings were reported in other studies. The study recommended that the university needs to elevate the situation and resolve all the factors affecting the employees by for example increasing the number of staff needed to perform the tasks and/or decreasing the number of students enrolled.
Extraction Method and Determination of Sudan I Present in Sunset Yellow FCF by Isocratic High-Performance Liquid Chromatography  [PDF]
Chiye Tatebe, Takashi Ohtsuki, Noriko Otsuki, Hiroki Kubota, Kyoko Sato, Hiroshi Akiyama, Yoko Kawamura
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.38075
Abstract: A method to extract and analyze Sudan I present in Sunset Yellow FCF (SYF) products was developed and validated. The method included the simple extraction of Sudan I from the SYF product using water, acetonitrile, and ethyl acetate and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with isocratic elution using acetonitrile:water (7:3) with a photodiode array detector at 485 nm. This method was found to remove most of the excess SYF colorant and other impurities before injection to the HPLC instrument, making it easy to maintain precision control in routine laboratory tests for Sudan I in the SYF colorant. The detection limit of Sudan I in SYF products was 0.2 μg/g. A survey conducted to determine Sudan I in 13 commercial SYF samples from Japanese manufacturers from 1970 to 2010 showed that the levels of Sudan I ranged from 0.3 to 1.9 μg/g in products manufactured from 1970 to 1996 and were below the limit of detection in products manufactured after 2005.
HIV and AIDS related knowledge, beliefs and attitudes among rural communities hard to reach in Sudan  [PDF]
Amar Hassan Khamis
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.59203

Background and Objective: There is a rising concern about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) related knowledge in rural communities of Sudan. This study focuses on determining the extend of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about HIV/ AIDS among rural communities difficult to access in the six States of Sudan. Subjects and Methods: Six thousand and one hundred twenty five respondents were interviewed through the method of house-to-house visits. A structured questionnaire was administered by research assistants recruited from the Faculty of Medicine, Khartoum University during a rural residency campaign in six states of Central, Eastern and Northern Sudan during 2008/2009. Results: Of the total interviewees, 48% were aware of the HIV/AIDS risk; 46% reported to have good health seeking behaviors for HIV/AIDS. 54.4% of women reported to have better knowledge about the disease than men (45.6%). 38% (2005) had not heard of safety use of condom whereas 16% (320) had used it. Logistic regression revealed that 5.3% of knowledge about the disease was explained by gender, education and religion adjusted over age of the respondents. Conclusions: Mass media were the most common source of information about the existent risk of HIV/AIDS in rural communities. These findings could assist Sudanese National Aids Programme (SNAP), healthcare providers and policymakers to develop informative materials and health education programs to educate rural community is about the risk of HIV/AIDS.

Misuse of prophylactic antibiotics and prevalence of postoperative wound infection in obstetrics and gynecology department in a Sudanese hospital  [PDF]
Abubaker Ibrahim Elbur, M. A. Yousif, Ahmed S. A. El Sayed, Manar E. Abdel-Rahman
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.62025
Abstract: Purpose: This study was conducted to audit prophylactic antibiotic use and to quantify the rate of wound infection. Methods: Across-sectional prospective study was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Sudan during March 1st to 31st October 2010. All Patients (aged >18 years) were included. Results: Overall 725 patients were included. The performed surgical procedures were 751; of these 578 (76.9%) were Caesarean sections. Overall rate of wound infection was 7.8%. The rate of wound infection among patients operated on for caesarean section and abdominal hysterectomy was 8.3%, and 9.2%, respectively. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2 OR 2.1, 95% CI (1.1 - 4.0), (P = 0.019) was the major independent risk factor for occurrence of wound infection. Evaluation of prescriptions’ parameters against the stated criteria showed that 113 (15.8%) patients were given antibiotics with adequate spectrum of activity, 611 (85.3%) given sub-dose/s, 83 (11.6%) received the first preoperative dose/s in a proper time window, and 716 (100%) had prophylaxis for extended duration. Overall conformity to the stated criteria for the evaluation of prescription’s parameters was not achieved in all prescriptions. Conclusions: In this setting, antibiotics were irrationally used and wound infection rate was high, and the situation calls for multiple interventions to correct the situation, through the activation of the infection control committee in the hospital and development of antimicrobial subcommittee to develop policies for the use and auditing of prophylactic antibiotics.
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