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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1628 matches for " Stig Larsen "
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Prediction of early race starts in Norwegian-Swedish Coldblooded Trotters
Tobias Revold, Stig Larsen, Carl F Ihler
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-52-53
Abstract: Of the 801 registered NSCT horses born in 2005, 144 were randomly selected by stratified sampling with gender and paternal progeny as stratification factors. All horses were examined clinically. Further data were collected from NTA and by interviews of breeders, owners and trainers. The set of dependent variables consisted of "passed recruitment race", "start in regular race by the end of the three year season" and "start in regular race by the end of October in the four year season". Univariate and logistic regression analyses were performed.Genetic performance potential, as indicated by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) indices, was the major predictor of the three dependent variables despite large variation in management. Dam's index was a better predictor than sire's index. However, the probability of early race starts in a horse with a low genetic performance potential can be increased by a favourable management. Examples of advantageous management factors in the present study were a flat pasture the first summer and early training. Nearly all horses racing in the three or four year seasons had passed a recruitment race in the two year season.The results confirm the value of the published BLUP index as an important tool for the NSCT breeding program. Recruitment races stimulate early training.In Norway and Sweden, Standardbreds and Norwegian-Swedish Coldblooded Trotters (NSCTs) are used for harness-racing. The two breeds compete in separate races, but under similar conditions. Standardbreds have been bred solely for their trotting abilities, whereas Coldblooded Trotters have evolved from a rural carriage and riding horse. Today, both breeds are pure trotting racehorses. This is reflected in the breeding programme for NSCT horses [1].A typical NSCT racing career has a late onset and a long duration compared to a Standardbred career [The Norwegian Trotting Association (NTA), personal communication]. In a study from Finland, it was found that Finnhorses, whic
Inter-observer agreement in the assessment of endoscopic findings in ulcerative colitis
Thomas de Lange, Stig Larsen, Lars Aabakken
BMC Gastroenterology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-4-9
Abstract: Five video clips of ulcerative colitis were shown to a group of experienced and a group of inexperienced endoscopists. Both groups were asked to assess eight endoscopic features and the overall mucosal inflammation on a visual analogue scale. The following statistical analyses were used; Contingency tables analysis, kappa analysis, analysis of variance, Pearson linear correlation analysis, general linear models, and agreement analysis. All tests were carried out two-tailed, with a significance level of 5%.The inter-observer agreement ranged from very good to moderate in the experienced group and from very good to fair in the inexperienced group. There was a significantly better inter-observer agreement in the experienced group in the rating of 6 out of 9 features (p < 0.05). The experienced and inexperienced endoscopists scored the "ulcerations" significantly different. (p = 0.05). The inter-observer variation of the mean score of "erosions", "ulcerations" and endoscopic activity index in mild disease, and the scoring of "erythema" and "oedema" in moderate-severe disease was significantly higher in the inexperienced group.A correlation was seen between all the observed endoscopic features in both groups of endoscopists. Among experienced endoscopists, a set of four endoscopic variables ("Vascular pattern", "Erosions", "Ulcerations" and Friability") explained 92% of the variation in EAI. By including "Granularity" in these set 91% of the variation in EAI was explained in the group of inexperienced endoscopists.The inter-observer agreement in the rating of endoscopic features characterising ulcerative colitis is satisfactory in both groups of endoscopists but significantly higher in the experienced group. The difference in the mean score between the two groups is only significant for "ulcerations". The endoscopic variables "Vascular pattern", "Erosions", "Ulcerations" and Friability" explained the overall endoscopic activity index. Even though the present result is qu
Prehospital trauma care reduces mortality. Ten-year results from a time-cohort and trauma audit study in Iraq
Mudhafar K Murad, Stig Larsen, Hans Husum
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-13
Abstract: In the study period from 1997 to 2006, 2,788 patients injured by land mines, war, and traffic accidents were managed by a chain-of-survival trauma system where non-graduate paramedics were the key care providers. The study was conducted with a time-period cohort design.37% of the study patients had serious injuries with Injury Severity Score ≥ 9. The mean prehospital transport time was 2.5 hours (95% CI 1.9 - 3.2). During the ten-year study period trauma mortality was reduced from 17% (95% CI 15 -19) to 4% (95% CI 3.5 - 5), survival especially improving in major trauma victims. In most patients with airway problems, in chest injured, and in patients with external hemorrhage, simple life support measures were sufficient to improve physiological severity indicators.In case of long prehospital transit times simple life support measures by paramedics and lay first responders reduce trauma mortality in major injuries. Delegating life-saving skills to paramedics and lay people is a key factor for efficient prehospital trauma systems in low-resource communities.The epidemic of trauma is accelerating. Injury is now the fourth leading cause of global deaths, and up to 2030 WHO estimates a further 40% increase in trauma fatalities. Almost 90% of injury deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries [1]. Who is to manage this heavy load of trauma - in disastrous events as well as chronic emergencies like the land mine epidemic? Studies of Western trauma scenarios consistently report that reduced prehospital transport times and level I trauma centers and are the essential components of a good trauma system [2]. However, helicopter evacuations and high-cost surgical centers are not feasible in low-income societies and in countries where the social fabric is broken by war. In our time, local wars and natural disasters especially hit low-resource communities and here the "scoop-and run-for-the hospital" strategy hardly fits. There is thus an urgent need to develop trauma system
How Sustainable Is Our Wastewater Treatment?  [PDF]
Stig Morling
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.612101
Abstract: The sanitation and environmental problems related to human activities can be traced at least around 2 500 years back, with written evidences both in the Old Testimony and the Greek culture. Thus in this perspective the matter is by convention an acknowledged problem since long. On the other hand our modern treatment systems of wastewater have far more recent roots. As an example, this year the very widespread biological treatment based on activated sludge celebrates it 100 year anniversary. In this perspective we may see a fundamental need to discuss and scrutinize the current systems in a “sustainable” perspective. A challenge for the technical society is to provide some “quantified” criteria on the concept sustainability. The wastewater treatment systems as we know them and develop them may be addressed by applying four major “sustainability” criteria: 1) The sustainability from major sanitation viewpoints; 2) The sustainability from environmental viewpoints; 3) The financial sustainability for the technical systems; (4) The sustainability with respect to adopting the systems into a more or less consistently changing society.
Problems in Water Environmental Control—Sense and Nonsense in Measurement of Water Protection  [PDF]
Stig Morling
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.615127
Abstract: Water environmental control and process refinement inside a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is fundamentally based on sampling, analysis and on-line measurements on water and sludge streams. The problems related to an accurate and reliable control and thus an efficient water protection are addressed in the following. Four different crucial points whenever a sampling and control scheme is planned: 1) Where should a sampling and on-line measurement take place? 2) When should sampling take place? 3) How should the sampling and on-line measurement take place? 4) Which variables should be controlled? Examples are given from different plants demonstrating ways to address the questions. Especially the relevance of the adopted parameter BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) is discussed. It is finally suggested to even abandon the use of BOD as consent variable in favor of on-line measurement of Suspended Solids, Nitrogen and Phosphorous.
Why Should We Bother on Measurement in Wastewater Treatment Operation?  [PDF]
Stig Morling
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.811079
Abstract: The question of wastewater treatment and control is reflected from a very specific viewpoint: the low priority given to accurate and useful measurements within wastewater treatment. The matter is discussed from four various perspectives, that may be labelled “Legal understanding”; “Needs for accurate measurement results already in the planning and design stage”; “The measurement problem and human behaviour”; “The understanding of the short term and long term dynamics and changes in pollution?and flow loads on a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)”. All these aspects bring about much improved needs for an accurate and frequent measurement scheme both for pollutants and flows entering a WWTP. The conclusion is stated as follows: A far more and well elaborated on-line measurement system at the plants would become a needed tool for improved water environment protection at lower costs.
Swedish Experience and Excellence in Wastewater Treatment Demonstrated Especially in Phosphorus Removal  [PDF]
Stig Morling
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.113019
Abstract: Water quality protection in Sweden has a more than 80-year history. The needed knowledge has by large been imported. Now, to some extent the development of phosphorus removal technology may be Swedish contribution to advanced knowledge. This paper presents the development in Sweden, mainly a close to 50-year period. Starting in the late 1960s, a standard of <0.5 mg P/l was the normally raised effluent criteria, regardless of the magnitude of the discharge flow. The successive sharpening of the discharge levels has today resulted in a level of 0.2 to 0.3 mg P/l typically. As a matter of fact, even levels of 0.1 to 0.15 mg P/l have been discussed. The period should a large extent demonstrated both improved technologies and a far better efficiency with respect to the use of chemicals and energy. Some important points in this development may be the understanding of the Oxygen Consumption Potential, as well as the identified needs for an improved nitrogen removal. Lately the problems of complex pollution agents and predominantly the remains of pharmaceutical agents have been identified. To illustrate the development during the 50-year period, two examples are presented from the Swedish context. The main conclusion in this paper is that the Swedish history on phosphorus removal illustrates how empirical science in practice sometimes works, including a never-ending need for an open mind and a readiness to take revised and improved knowledge on board.
Two years follow-up study of the pain-relieving effect of gold bead implantation in dogs with hip-joint arthritis
Gry T J?ger, Stig Larsen, Nils S?li, Lars Moe
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-49-9
Abstract: In the long-term two-year follow-up study, 66 of the 73 dogs had gold implantation and seven dogs continued as a control group. The 32 dogs in the original placebo group had gold beads implanted and were followed for a further 18 months. A certified veterinary acupuncturist used the same procedure to insert the gold beads as in the blinded study, and the owners completed the same type of detailed questionnaires. As in the blinded study, one investigator was responsible for all the assessments of each dog. The present study revealed that the pain-relieving effect of gold bead implantation observed in the blinded study continued throughout the two-year follow-up period.Hip-joint arthritis, mostly from canine hip dysplasia (CHD), is a common, non-curable and painful disease amongst medium and large breed dogs [1-4] and therapy is palliative at best [5].Implantation of gold beads in both humans and animals with arthritis was first attempted by veterinary traditional acupuncturists [6]. Other researchers [7,8] who implanted gold beads in dogs, observed no clinical effect after six- and three-months study periods. However, in a recent paper we revealed that gold bead implantation had a significant pain-relieving effect in a six months controlled, double-blinded clinical trial [9]. The initial mean pain scores in the gold-bead implantation and control groups were 5.6 and 4.8, respectively, where 0 was no pain and 10 was extreme pain. After 3 months the mean pain scores were significantly reduced in both groups. After six months, no further reduction had taken place in the control group, while a significant further reduction in mean pain score (to 1.9) was found in the gold group. The total reduction in mean pain score was in the gold group 65% compared to 36% in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Each dog's overall response, according to its owner's impression of change in mobility, lameness, stiffness and behaviour at home, scored on a six-point Likert scale, showed a signific
Comparing urine samples and cervical swabs for Chlamydia testing in a female population by means of Strand Displacement Assay (SDA)
Siren Haugland, Turid Thune, Beata Fosse, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Stig Hjelmevoll, Helge Myrmel
BMC Women's Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-10-9
Abstract: A total of 603 women aged 15 and older were enrolled from the Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway, in 2007. Only 31 women were older than 35 years. Cervical swabs and urine samples were tested with BDPT for all participants. In cases of discrepant test results from a given patient, both samples were retested by Cobas TaqManCT and a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-method (in-house). Prevalence of C. trachomatis, sensitivity, and specificity were estimated by latent class analysis using all test results available. Bootstrap BC confidence intervals (10 000 computations) were estimated for sensitivity and specificity, and their differences in cervix vs. urine tests.A total of 1809 specimens were collected from 603 patients. 80 women (13.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis. Among these, BDPT identified 72 and 73 as positive in cervix and urine samples, respectively. Of the 523 C. trachomatis negative women, BDPT identified 519 as negative based on cervical swabs, and 514 based on urine samples. Sensitivity for cervical swabs and urine samples with the BDPT were 89.0% (95% CI 78.8, 98.6) and 90.2% (95% CI 78.1, 95.5), respectively. The corresponding values for specificity were 99.2% (95% CI 98.3, 100) and 98.3% (95% CI 96.4, 100).This study indicates that urine specimens are adequate for screening high-risk groups for C. trachomatis by the SDA method (BDPT). Such an approach may facilitate early detection and treatment of the target groups for screening, and be cost-effective for patients and the health services.An increased number of diagnosed cases of C. trachomatis in younger age groups calls for an intensified effort to prevent infections, and complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. In 2007, a total of 22 847 infections were reported in Norway, constituting 8.4% of the individuals tested. Of those infected, 61% were women [1]. Of the total number of reported infections, 68% were younger than
Human lactobacilli as supplementation of clindamycin to patients with bacterial vaginosis reduce the recurrence rate; a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study
Per-G?ran Larsson, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Kjeld R Ryttig, Stig Larsen
BMC Women's Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-8-3
Abstract: Women (n = 100) with bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by Amsel criteria were after informed consent offered vaginal clindamycin therapy followed by vaginal gelatine capsules containing either 109 freeze-dried lactobacilli or identical placebo capsules for 10 days during 3 menstrual cycles in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.The initial intent to treat (ITT) analysis for the one-month cure rate was 64% in the lactobacilli group and 78% in the placebo group (p > 0.05). However, any patient with missing or unclassified smears at the initial visit who continued the study and whose next smear indicated a cure was included in the cured group; the study also excluded two of the patients in the lactobacilli group who reported that they did not take any vaginal capsules. With consideration to these population changes, the initial cure rate would be 77% in the lactobacilli group. The 76 cured women were followed for 6 menstrual cycles or until relapse within that time span. At the end of the study, 64.9% (24/37) of the lactobacilli treated women were still BV-free compared to 46.2% (18/39) of the placebo treated women. Comparison of the two groups regarding "Time from cure to relapse" was statistically significant (p = 0.027) in favour of the lactobacilli treatment. Adjuvant therapy with lactobacilli contributed significantly to avoidance of relapse with a proportional Hazard Risk ratio (HR) of 0.73 (0.54–0.98) (p < 0.05)The study shows that supplementary treatment combining two different strains of probiotic lactobacilli does not improve the efficacy of BV therapy during the first month of treatment, but for women initially cured, adjunct treatment of lactobacilli during 3 menstrual cycles lengthens the time to relapse significantly in that more women remained BV free at the end of the 6-month follow up.ISRCTN62879834Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a disease with unknown aetiology, characterized by loss or reduction of lactobacilli and increased overgrowth of ot
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