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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 408108 matches for " Steven M. Zicari "
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Response Surface Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sugar Beet Leaves into Fermentable Sugars for Bioethanol Production  [PDF]
Natthiporn Aramrueang, Steven M. Zicari, Ruihong Zhang
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2017.82004
Abstract: ?Sugar beet leaves are the major crop waste from sugar beet production, while the unused leaves contain a high number of sugars and polysaccharides. The effects of different enzyme products (cellulase, Cellic CTec2; xylanase, Cellic HTec2; and pectinase, Pectinex Ultra SPL) were determined during high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet leaves at 10% total solids (TS) content. Response surface methodology was used to study the effects of enzyme loadings during the hydrolysis of sugar beet leaves for producing fermentable sugars. It was found that both cellulases and pectinases are important enzymes for the hydrolysis of sugar beet leaves. Enzyme loading and reaction time were important factors. Based on the amount of sugars released, a maximum sugar conversion of 82% was achieved after 72 h of hydrolysis using 30 filter paper unit (FPU) g-1 glucan for cellulase and 150 polygalacturonase unit (PGU) g-1 polygalacturonic acid for pectinase, or 37 FPU g-1 glucan for cellulase and 100 PGU g-1 polygalacturonic acid for pectinase. The corresponding sugar yield and sugar concentration were 0.35 g·g-1 TS, and 35 g·l-1, respectively. Sugar conversion ranged from 59% - 70%, 68% - 80%, and 74% - 82% after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h of hydrolysis depending on the design conditions.
Fondos responsables: una exploración de su viabilidad en el mercado de capitales argentino
Adrián Zicari
Invenio , 2007,
Abstract: En este artículo se hace una presentación del fenómeno de las Inversiones Responsables, analizando algunas facetas críticas del mismo: proceso decisorio, estrategias de inversión, algunos problemas conceptuales en la medición del perfil de Responsabilidad Social de una compa ía. Se presentan, por último, los avances preliminares de una investigación que procura explorar la viabilidad de este tipo de inversiones en el mercado argentino.
Finanzas personales y ciclo de vida: un desafío actual
Adrián Zicari
Invenio , 2008,
Abstract: RESUMEN: Se presenta un concepto clave en las Finanzas Personales: el Ciclo de Vida del inversor. A partir de allí, se analiza la vinculación de este concepto con el modelo general de gestión de carteras (Markowitz) y se procura finalmente llegar a algunas ideas relevantes para la discusión de políticas públicas referidas a la problemática del ahorro e inversión personal.
Responsabilidad social empresaria: del dicho al hecho. Poniéndole números a la responsabilidad social
Adrián Zicari
Invenio , 2006,
Abstract: Se presentan distintas defi niciones de Responsabilidad Social Empresaria (RSE), buscando contenidos comunes, sus posibles justifi caciones y haciendo un análisis crítico del concepto de RSE. Luego se intenta dimensionar este concepto en la realidad local, con particular énfasis desde la óptica de los mercados fi nancieros. Se hace una breve exposición acerca del crecimiento de las inquietudes de RSE en mercados fi nancieros en el mundo y se presentan las posibles consecuencias para nuestro medio.
Endorphinergic Attenuation of Distress by Concomitantly Enhancing Endogenous Opioid Release and Switching Opioid Receptor Signaling from an Excessively Excitatory to a Normal Inhibitory Mode  [PDF]
Steven Crain, Stanley M. Crain
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.37052
Abstract: The endogenous opioid system plays a significant role in the modulation of distress in many psychiatric, neurologic, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Many clinical distress symptoms show similarities to the excitatory autonomic withdrawal effects in chronic opioid-dependent animals and humans, as well as to the “quasi-morphine withdrawal syndrome” evoked in naive rodents shortly after acute systemic injection of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE) inhibitors. These symptoms result from excessive excitatory opioid receptor signaling and increased endorphin release. Pharmacologic analyses of the remarkably plastic bimodal (excitatory/inhibitory) signaling functions of opioid receptors have utilized microelectrode recordings from opioid-sensitive neurons in tissue cultures of mouse sensory ganglia and hot-water tail-flick assays in mice. These studies led to development of specific chemical formulations that switch opioid receptor signaling from an excessively excitatory to a normal inhibitory mode. Critical combinations of cAMP-PDE inhibitors that release endorphins plus specific agents that switch opioid receptors from excitatory Gs-coupled to inhibitory Gi/Go-coupled signaling were shown to attenuate hyperalgesia and distress evoked by diverse chemical stressors in mouse tail-flick assays. Both the “quasi-morphine withdrawal syndrome” in naive rodents as well as the excitatory withdrawal effects in chronic, opioid-dependent animals and humans may be manifestations of a common Endorphinergic Distress Syndrome (EDS). We suggest that many distress symptoms are caused by EDS, a dysfunctional imbalance in the endogenous opioid system, consisting of abnormal endorphin levels, together with opioid receptors predominately in their excitatory mode. Therefore, concomitantly enhancing endogenous opioid release and switching excessive excitatory opioid receptor signaling to inhibitory signaling can attenuate these distress symptoms. Trials of a critically formulated oral preparation, containing both endorphin enhancers and opioid receptor switchers, have resulted in long-term
On Minimizing the Standard Error of the Slope in Simple Linear Regression  [PDF]
Steven M. Crunk, Xinh Huynh
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.43016

A common homework problem in texts covering calculus-based simple linear regression is to find a set of values of the independent variable which minimize the standard error of the estimated slope. All discussions the authors have heard regarding this problem, as well as all texts with which the authors of this paper are familiar and which include this problem, provide no solution, a partial solution, or an outline of a solution without theoretical proof and the provided solution is incorrect. Going back to first principles we provide the complete correct solution to this problem.

Brick Kilns of Nepal: A Non-Governmental Organization Perspective  [PDF]
Shilpa Shrestha, Steven M. Thygerson
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2019.91001
Abstract: Better Brick Nepal (BBN) works under the larger NGO, Global Fairness Initiatives, to promote the reliably sourced brick manufacturing by eliminating forced, bonded labor, and child labor, promoting workplace safety and health, providing fair wages, and preventing workplace harassment. The brick industry is regarded as the second largest source for air pollution after vehicle emissions in Kathmandu Valley. The brick kiln workers who live on the kiln premises in huts are highly exposed to both indoor and outdoor air pollution. This study reviewed the practices of BBN kilns that adhere to recommended standards for worker rights, health and safety. An NGO such as BBN is proving successful at eliminating inhumane work practices and in improving brick kiln worker health and safety.
On the inequality of the 3V's of Big Data Architectural Paradigms: A case for heterogeneity
Todor Ivanov,Nikolaos Korfiatis,Roberto V. Zicari
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The well-known 3V architectural paradigm for Big Data introduced by Laney (2011), provides a simplified framework for defining the architecture of a big data platform to be deployed in various scenarios tackling processing of massive datasets. While additional components such as Variability and Veracity have been discussed as an extension to the 3V model, the basic components (volume, variety, velocity) provide a quantitative framework while variability and veracity target a more qualitative approach. In this paper we argue why the basic 3V's are not equal due to the different requirements that need to be covered in case higher demands for a particular "V". Similar to other conjectures such as the CAP theorem 3V based architectures differ on their implementation. We call this paradigm heterogeneity and we provide a taxonomy of the existing tools (as of 2013) covering the Hadoop ecosystem from the perspective of heterogeneity. This paper contributes on the understanding of the Hadoop ecosystem from the perspective of different workloads and aims to help researchers and practitioners on the design of scalable platforms targeting different operational needs.
Challenges in Managing Hospitalized HIV Infected Persons with Low Absolute CD4 and Preserved CD4 Percentage  [PDF]
Steven M. Bobula, Carl J. Fichtenbaum
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23031
Abstract: Background: HIV infected persons are at risk for opportunistic illnesses based upon severity of immune deficiency. Management is generally based upon the most recent absolute CD4 count. We hypothesized there is a group of patients with a low absolute CD4 count and preserved CD4 percentage that are at low risk of AIDS-related opportunistic illnesses (OI). Methods: A retrospective review of medical records in HIV-infected persons hospitalized from 2004-2006. Individuals without CD4 counts available within 180 days of admission and during hospitalization were excluded. Patients with a decrease in the absolute CD4 count during hospitalization and stable CD4 percentage were compared to the rest of the cohort. Appropriate management was defined using DHHS guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic illnesses in HIV infection. Results: 464 patients had 978 hospitalizations. In 221 hospitalizations (N = 161 patients) inpatient and outpatient CD4 counts were available. In 35 hospitalizations (N = 25 patients) the absolute CD4 count declined with stable CD4 percent (cases). Cases had an average decline in CD4 of –197 cells/mm3 compared to –5 cells/mm3 in the comparator group. 30% of comparators had AIDS defining OI's compared to none in the case group (p = 0.01). Management outside of DHHS guidelines was more common in cases compared to the comparator group (49% vs 30%, p = 0.048). The median length of stay was prolonged in cases with management outside guidelines compared to appropriately managed persons in the comparator group (7 days vs 3.5 days, p = 0.03). Conclusion: In persons on potent antiretroviral therapy, abrupt declines in absolute CD4 counts without an accompanying change in CD4 percentage are associated with a low risk of AIDS related opportunistic infection, a higher rate of in-patient management outside DHHS guidelines, and a more prolonged length of stay.
Supracervical Lymph Node Biopsy under Local Anesthesia: A Cautionary Tale!  [PDF]
Steven D. Boggs, Elizabeth A. M. Frost
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2015.53009
Abstract: A middle aged woman was scheduled for supracervical lymph node biopsy under local anesthesia. A scheduling conflict caused a significant operating room delay and she became very nervous. A surgical resident asked for anesthetic assistance in calming the patient. Assured that the case was under local anesthesia only, the anesthesiologist gave the patient soda to drink. In the operating room, the lady could not tolerate the procedure but as she now was at risk for aspiration, the anesthesiologist suggested the case be terminated and rescheduled. The surgeon disagreed and continued but was confronted with substantial bleeding. Emergency induction of general anesthesia was required. Postoperatively bleeding continued requiring re-exploration and intensive care unit admission. The patient developed a compressive left brachial plexopathy. The anatomy of the area indicated that general anesthesia was the preferred technique. The importance of team work and communication is underscored. Complications are more frequent when perioperative changes are made.
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