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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 150079 matches for " Steven K White "
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Molecular Targets for 17α-Ethynyl-5-Androstene-3β,7β,17β-Triol, an Anti-Inflammatory Agent Derived from the Human Metabolome
Christopher L. Reading, James M. Frincke, Steven K. White
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032147
Abstract: HE3286, 17α-ethynyl-5-androstene-3β, 7β, 17β-triol, is a novel synthetic compound related to the endogenous sterol 5-androstene-3β, 7β, 17β-triol (β-AET), a metabolite of the abundant adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). HE3286 has shown efficacy in clinical studies in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes, and in vivo models of types 1 and 2 diabetes, autoimmunity, and inflammation. Proteomic analysis of solid-phase HE3286-bound bead affinity experiments, using extracts from RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells, identified 26 binding partners. Network analysis revealed associations of these HE3286 target proteins with nodes in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways for type 2 diabetes, insulin, adipokine, and adipocyte signaling. Binding partners included low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (Lrp1), an endocytic receptor; mitogen activated protein kinases 1 and 3 (Mapk1, Mapk3), protein kinases involved in inflammation signaling pathways; ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-3 (Rsp6ka3), an intracellular regulatory protein; sirtuin-2 (Sirt2); and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17β4), a sterol metabolizing enzyme.
Generalized Taylor-Duffy Method for Efficient Evaluation of Galerkin Integrals in Boundary-Element Method Computations
M. T. Homer Reid,Steven G. Johnson,Jacob K. White
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2367492
Abstract: We present a generic technique, automated by computer-algebra systems and available as open-source software \cite{scuff-em}, for efficient numerical evaluation of a large family of singular and nonsingular 4-dimensional integrals over triangle-product domains, such as those arising in the boundary-element method (BEM) of computational electromagnetism. To date, practical implementation of BEM solvers has often required the aggregation of multiple disparate integral-evaluation schemes to treat all of the distinct types of integrals needed for a given BEM formulation; in contrast, our technique allows many different types of integrals to be handled by the \emph{same} algorithm and the same code implementation. Our method is a significant generalization of the Taylor--Duffy approach \cite{Taylor2003,Duffy1982}, which was originally presented for just a single type of integrand; in addition to generalizing this technique to a broad class of integrands, we also achieve a significant improvement in its efficiency by showing how the \emph{dimension} of the final numerical integral may often be reduced by one. In particular, if $n$ is the number of common vertices between the two triangles, in many cases we can reduce the dimension of the integral from $4-n$ to $3-n$, obtaining a closed-form analytical result for $n=3$ (the common-triangle case).
Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective
Steven White
Animals , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ani2030380
Abstract: This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals—the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster—are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals.
Predicting Attrition from Counseling in a University Counseling Center Sample Using the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2
John S. C. Romans,Jason K. White,R. Steven Harrist,Donald L. Boswell
The Internet Journal of Mental Health , 2011,
Abstract: Background Premature termination from counseling is a pervasive problem across college campuses; thus, predicting counseling dropout may encourage counseling centers to develop methods to reduce the risk of attrition from counseling. This study examined the relationship between psychological distress and premature termination from therapy in counseling center clients, as measured by the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2. Method Archival data were collected from a student counseling center at a large Midwestern university. Across the previous five year period, 70 male and 128 female client files were grouped by attrition status (intake only, premature termination, planned termination). Results There was a significant gender by termination status interaction for symptom distress. Women with higher symptom distress scores were at a higher risk for premature dropout from counseling. Conclusions These results suggest the importance of considering the potential impact of symptom distress on early dropout in university counseling centers.
A novel boundary element method using surface conductive absorbers for full-wave analysis of 3-D nanophotonics
Lei Zhang,Jung Hoon Lee,Ardavan Oskooi,Amit Hochman,Jacob K. White,Steven G. Johnson
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2011.2107727
Abstract: Fast surface integral equation (SIE) solvers seem to be ideal approaches for simulating 3-D nanophotonic devices, as these devices generate fields both in an interior channel and in the infinite exterior domain. However, many devices of interest, such as optical couplers, have channels that can not be terminated without generating reflections. Generating absorbers for these channels is a new problem for SIE methods, as the methods were initially developed for problems with finite surfaces. In this paper we show that the obvious approach for eliminating reflections, making the channel mildly conductive outside the domain of interest, is inaccurate. We describe a new method, in which the absorber has a gradually increasing surface conductivity; such an absorber can be easily incorporated in fast integral equation solvers. Numerical experiments from a surface-conductivity modified FFT-accelerated PMCHW-based solver are correlated with analytic results, demonstrating that this new method is orders of magnitude more effective than a volume absorber, and that the smoothness of the surface conductivity function determines the performance of the absorber. In particular, we show that the magnitude of the transition reflection is proportional to 1/L^(2d+2), where L is the absorber length and d is the order of the differentiability of the surface conductivity function.
Increased survivin expression contributes to apoptosis-resistance in IPF fibroblasts  [PDF]
Thomas H. Sisson, Toby M. Maher, Iyabode O. Ajayi, Jessie E. King, Peter D.R. Higgins, Adam J. Booth, Rommel L. Sagana, Steven K. Huang, Eric S. White, Bethany B. Moore, Jeffrey C. Horowitz
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.326085
Abstract: Fibroblasts perform critical functions during the normal host response to tissue injury, but the inappropriate accumulation and persistent activation of these cells results in the development of tissue fibrosis. The mechanisms accounting for the aberrant accumulation of fibroblasts during fibrotic repair are poorly understood, although evidence supports a role for fibroblast resistance to apoptosis as a contributing factor. We have shown that TGF-β1 and endothelin-1 (ET-1), soluble mediators implicated in fibrogenesis, promote fibroblast resistance to apoptosis. Moreover, we recently found that ET-1 induced apoptosis resistance in normal lung fibroblasts through the upregulation of survivin, a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) protein family. In the current study, we sought to determine the role of survivin in the apoptosis resistance of primary fibroblasts isolated from the lungs of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), a fibrotic lung disease of unclear etiology for which there is no definitive therapy. First, we examined survivin expression in lung tissue from patients with IPF and found that there is robust expression in the fibroblasts residing within fibroblastic foci (the “active” lesions in IPF which correlate with mortality). Next, we show that survivin expression is increased in fibroblasts isolated from IPF lung tissue compared to cells from normal lung tissue. Consistent with a role in fibrogenesis, we demonstrate that TGF-β1 increases survivin expression in normal lung fibroblasts. Finally, we show that inhibition of survivin enhances susceptibility of a subset of IPF fibroblasts to apoptosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that increased survivin expression represents one mechanism contributing an apoptosis-resistant phenotype in IPF fibroblasts.
17α-Ethynyl-5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol Treatment of MNU-Induced Mammary Cancer in Rats
Clarence N. Ahlem,James M. Frincke,Steven K. White,Christopher L. Reading,Richard J. Trauger,Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy
International Journal of Breast Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/618757
Abstract: N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) induces estrogen-dependent mammary tumors in female Lewis rats. We explored the antineoplastic activity of a synthetic androstane derivative, 17α-ethynyl-5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol (HE3235), as a single agent or in combination with docetaxel compared to tamoxifen, anastrazole, and docetaxel monotherapies against MNU-induced mammary tumors in female Lewis rats. Treatment with HE3235 alone rapidly reduced tumor burden, similar in effect to tamoxifen and anastrozole. The combination of HE3235 with docetaxel was more effective than any single agent, although without apparent toxicity. Only HE3235 or HE3235 plus docetaxel continued to suppress tumor growth after cessation of treatment. HE3235 treatment increased immunohistochemical markers of apoptosis and expression of proapoptotic genes and estrogen receptor beta and decreased expression of antiapoptotic genes, androgen receptor, and estrogen receptor alpha. These data warrant clinical investigation of HE3235 for breast cancer treatment. 1. Introduction Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women, and the incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide [1]. Approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer annually, with an associated mortality of 40,000 in the United States [2]. Currently, there are few treatments for hormone-dependent breast cancer, with tamoxifen and anastrazole being the most widely used therapies [3]. Although generally well tolerated, these treatments can be associated with significant morbidity [4], and development of resistance is common [5, 6]. The carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) induc-es hormone-dependent mammary tumors in rats. This model has previously been used to develop tamoxifen therapy in women with breast cancer [7], and is considered to be appropriate for studies of novel compounds potentially useful for the treatment of breast cancer. Substantial evidence suggests that this rodent model system mimics human breast cancer: the initiation of cancer occurs primarily at the same site in both humans and rats, the majority of the tumors express estrogen and progesterone receptors, and tumor development is dependent on the reproductive history, diet, and hormonal milieu [8]. Thus the model provides an opportunity to examine cause-and-effect relationships of the in situ environment fully impacted by systemic factors [9]. 17α-ethynyl-5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol (HE3235) is a synthetic androstane derivative that inhibits 5-androstene-diol [10], testosterone, and estrogen (unpublished) stimulated prostate cancer cell
Fluctuating volume-current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations in inhomogeneous media: incandecence and luminescence in arbitrary geometries
Athanasios G. Polimeridis,M. T. Homer Reid,Weiliang Jin,Steven G. Johnson,Jacob K. White,Alejandro W. Rodriguezz
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.134202
Abstract: We describe a fluctuating volume--current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations that extends our recent work on heat exchange and Casimir interactions between arbitrarily shaped homogeneous bodies [Phys. Rev. B. 88, 054305] to situations involving incandescence and luminescence problems, including thermal radiation, heat transfer, Casimir forces, spontaneous emission, fluorescence, and Raman scattering, in inhomogeneous media. Unlike previous scattering formulations based on field and/or surface unknowns, our work exploits powerful techniques from the volume--integral equation (VIE) method, in which electromagnetic scattering is described in terms of volumetric, current unknowns throughout the bodies. The resulting trace formulas (boxed equations) involve products of well-studied VIE matrices and describe power and momentum transfer between objects with spatially varying material properties and fluctuation characteristics. We demonstrate that thanks to the low-rank properties of the associatedmatrices, these formulas are susceptible to fast-trace computations based on iterative methods, making practical calculations tractable. We apply our techniques to study thermal radiation, heat transfer, and fluorescence in complicated geometries, checking our method against established techniques best suited for homogeneous bodies as well as applying it to obtain predictions of radiation from complex bodies with spatially varying permittivities and/or temperature profiles.
Apoptosis and the Airway Epithelium
Steven R. White
Journal of Allergy , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/948406
Abstract: The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. 1. Introduction The airway epithelium is the first barrier and first line of host defense in the airway. Formerly considered a more inert barrier that “kept the outside out and the inside in,” it is now clear that epithelial cells participate in host defense and inflammation. The networks in which the epithelium participates indeed can orchestrate either or both, depending on whether these networks are activated normally or not. A more classical view of epithelial responses to injury and inflammation emphasized the ability of the epithelium to respond to insults by secretion of water and mucous into the airways and mediator secretion (e.g., cytokines and chemokines) into the local environment and into the circulation. In this view, the epithelial layer responded to physical injury by a process that included, in order, phagocytic clearance of damaged cells and material, proliferation of new epithelial cells from surviving nearby stem cells, differentiation (phenotype shifting may be preferred) to new, required cell subtypes such as ciliated and mucous (goblet) cells, and restoration of barrier function [1]. Over the past two decades, it has become clear that proper protection and repair of the airway mucosa against sustained damage may also depend on the processes that control programmed cell death, that is, apoptosis. Apoptosis is a tightly regulated process of nonnecrotic cell death that is critical for normal tissue and organ homeostasis. Cells undergo apoptosis through the activation of carefully regulated pathways that lead to their orderly shutdown and removal. In this paper, I examine the occurrence and function of apoptosis both in the normal airway epithelium and in the epithelium in several airways diseases. In the context of these diseases, epithelial cell apoptosis may be either a compensatory response, a pathogenetic
La homogeneización de la naturaleza en la obra de Gioconda Belli
Steven F. White
Ecozon@ : European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment , 2010,
Abstract: An ecocritical analysis of Nicaraguan autor Gioconda Belli’s work, who was born in 1948, reveals that the author usually homogenizes the environment, treating it in generic terms as an ornament, without the knowledge of the local specific qualities nor the systems whose scope cover the global. According to Val Plumwood in Environmental Culture: The Ecological Crisis of Reason, “the model promotes insensitivity to the marvelous diversity of nature, since differences in nature are attended to only if they are likely to contribute in some obvious way to human welfare” (Plumwood 107). This feature of her poetics distinguishes Belli from the vast number of Nicaraguans of the general population who do know to name many members of their biological community, to incorporate them into their lives as remedy for a great variety of common diseases and also to use them as very expressive figures in everyday conversation.
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