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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9271 matches for " Steven Conolly "
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High-Resolution, In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Drosophila at 18.8 Tesla
Brian Null, Corey W. Liu, Maj Hedehus, Steven Conolly, Ronald W. Davis
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002817
Abstract: High resolution MRI of live Drosophila was performed at 18.8 Tesla, with a field of view less than 5 mm, and administration of manganese or gadolinium-based contrast agents. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MR methods for imaging the fruit fly Drosophila with an NMR spectrometer, at a resolution relevant for undertaking future studies of the Drosophila brain and other organs. The fruit fly has long been a principal model organism for elucidating biology and disease, but without capabilities like those of MRI. This feasibility marks progress toward the development of new in vivo research approaches in Drosophila without the requirement for light transparency or destructive assays.
Line-Scanning Particle Image Velocimetry: An Optical Approach for Quantifying a Wide Range of Blood Flow Speeds in Live Animals
Tyson N. Kim, Patrick W. Goodwill, Yeni Chen, Steven M. Conolly, Chris B. Schaffer, Dorian Liepmann, Rong A. Wang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038590
Abstract: Background The ability to measure blood velocities is critical for studying vascular development, physiology, and pathology. A key challenge is to quantify a wide range of blood velocities in vessels deep within living specimens with concurrent diffraction-limited resolution imaging of vascular cells. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has shown tremendous promise in analyzing blood velocities hundreds of micrometers deep in animals with cellular resolution. However, current analysis of TPLSM-based data is limited to the lower range of blood velocities and is not adequate to study faster velocities in many normal or disease conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed line-scanning particle image velocimetry (LS-PIV), which used TPLSM data to quantify peak blood velocities up to 84 mm/s in live mice harboring brain arteriovenous malformation, a disease characterized by high flow. With this method, we were able to accurately detect the elevated blood velocities and exaggerated pulsatility along the abnormal vascular network in these animals. LS-PIV robustly analyzed noisy data from vessels as deep as 850 μm below the brain surface. In addition to analyzing in vivo data, we validated the accuracy of LS-PIV up to 800 mm/s using simulations with known velocity and noise parameters. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, these blood velocity measurements are the fastest recorded with TPLSM. Partnered with transgenic mice carrying cell-specific fluorescent reporters, LS-PIV will also enable the direct in vivo correlation of cellular, biochemical, and hemodynamic parameters in high flow vascular development and diseases such as atherogenesis, arteriogenesis, and vascular anomalies.
An interview with Dr. Ian Hodder, University of Cambridge
James Conolly,Enrico Giannitrapani
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 1995, DOI: 10.5334/pia.81
Early Neolithic agriculture in Southwest Asia and Europe: re-examining the archaeobotanical evidence
Sue Colledge,James Conolly
Archaeology International , 2001, DOI: 10.5334/ai.0513
Abstract: Agriculture is widely recognized as a defining characteristic of the Neolithic period in Southwest Asia and Europe, but, despite many years of research, and the discovery of much new arch a eobotanical evidence, there have been few attempts to investigate its origins and spread in the region as a whole. Now, in a new project at the Institute of Archaeology, the scattered evidence for the emergence and dispersal of crops is being systematically assessed and documented both spatially and chronologically.
Intensive Survey Data from Antikythera, Greece
Andrew Bevan,James Conolly
Journal of Open Archaeology Data , 2012, DOI: 10.5334/4f3bcb3f7f21d
Abstract: The Antikythera Survey Project was an interdisciplinary programme of fieldwork, artefact study and laboratory analysis that considered the long-term history and human ecology of the small Greek island of Antikythera. It was co-directed by Andrew Bevan (UCL) and James Conolly (Trent), in collaboration with Aris Tsaravopoulos (Greek Archaeological Service), and under the aegis of the Canadian Institute in Greece and the Hellenic Ministry of Culture. Its various primary datasets are unusual, both in the Mediterranean and beyond, for providing intensive survey coverage of an entire island’s surface archaeology.
The fragile communities of Antikythera
Andrew Bevan,James Conolly,Aris Tsaravopoulos
Archaeology International , 2007, DOI: 10.5334/ai.1007
Abstract: While many Mediterranean islands have been subjected to archaeological survey methods of one kind or another, until now few if any have been covered in both a comprehensive and intensive manner. In this article the authors describe a survey on the Greek island of Antikythera (the Antikythera Survey Project – ASP) and demonstrate how full investigation of a tiny, remote and very sparsely populated island offers distinct analytical advantages for archaeologists. Some of the resulting benefits are methodological, relating to simplified sampling procedures, while others relate to the archaeology itself and include the documentation of rollercoaster demographies, changing connections with the wider world and the development of idiosyncratic insular lifestyles.
Binary gene induction and protein expression in individual cells
Qiang Zhang, Melvin E Andersen, Rory B Conolly
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-3-18
Abstract: In this paper, using a computational model of stochastic gene expression, we have studied the biological and experimental conditions under which a binary induction mode operating at the gene template can give rise to differentially expressed "phenotypes" (i.e., binary, hybrid or graded) at the protein level. We have also investigated whether the choice of reporter genes plays a significant role in determining the observed protein expression patterns in individual cells, given the diverse properties of commonly-used reporter genes. Our simulation confirmed early findings that the lifetimes of active/inactive promoters and half-lives of downstream mRNA/protein products are important determinants of various protein expression patterns, but showed that the induction time and the sensitivity with which the expressed genes are detected are also important experimental variables. Using parameter conditions representative of reporter genes including green fluorescence protein (GFP) and β-galactosidase, we also demonstrated that graded gene expression is more likely to be observed with GFP, a longer-lived protein with low detection sensitivity.The choice of reporter genes may determine whether protein expression is binary, graded or hybrid, even though gene induction itself operates in an all-or-none fashion.Two operational models, binary and graded, have been proposed for the mechanism of eukaryotic gene induction [1,2]. The binary model contends that at a given moment, a promoter, i.e., the regulatory region of a gene, can only assume one of two discrete transcriptional states: active and inactive. Once in the active state, gene transcription proceeds at a relatively constant rate; whereas in the inactive state, no transcription occurs. With this binary mode of action, transcription activators, repressors and cis-acting elements would induce/repress gene expression by affecting, essentially, the probability with which a promoter is switched on/off. In contrast to this all-o
Sorafenib for advanced renal cell carcinoma in real-life practice: a literature review  [PDF]
Steven Simoens
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.32016
Abstract: Sorafenib is a new treatment indicated for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who have failed prior cytokine-based therapy or are considered unsuitable for such therapy. Although treatment with sorafenib under ‘ideal trial conditions’ has been extensively studied, registration and reimbursement authorities are also interested in the behavior of sorafenib in real-life practice. This study aims to conduct a literature review of the dosage and treatment duration; safety, tolerability and effectiveness; costs and cost-effectiveness of sorafenib in routine clinical care. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and EconLit up to November 2010. The literature search included articles published in peer-reviewed journals, congress abstracts, and internal studies of Bayer Schering Pharma. Eight studies were included. An open-label study observed stable disease for at least eight weeks in 80% of patients. The most common drug-related adverse events were hand-foot skin reaction, rash, hypertension, and fatigue. Although treatment with sorafenib led to fewer dose reductions, it was also associated with a shorter treatment duration, less time to pro-gression and a shorter survival time as compared to sunitinib. Monthly health care costs were lower with sorafenib as compared to sunitinib. A post-marketing surveillance study showed that patients rated the tolerability and effectiveness of sorafenib as very good, good or sufficient. In conclusion, the current evidence is too limited to derive conclusions and existing studies suffer from methodological shortcomings.
Budget impact of a 10% ready-to-use intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of primary immunodeficiency in Belgium  [PDF]
Steven Simoens
Health (Health) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/health.2009.13030
Abstract: The aim of this study is to compute the budget impact of adopting Kiovig, a new ready-to-use 10% liquid immunoglobulin preparation, as a treatment for primary immunodeficiency from the perspective of the Belgian health care payer. The analysis compared the “world with Kiovig” to the “world without Kiovig” and calculated how a change in the mix of immunoglobulins used to treat primary immunodeficiency would impact drug spending during 2010-2014. Data on the number of patients, immunoglobulin market shares and drug unit costs were derived from the IMS Health hospital disease database and from Belgian sources. The number of Belgian patients suffering from primary immunodefi-ciency is expected to increase from 2,378 pa-tients in 2010 to 2,447 patients in 2014. The budget impact of adopting Kiovig is likely to be modest, raising the immunoglobulin drug bud- get for this patient population by 0.4%-1.3% per year. The budgetary increase originated from the higher price of Kiovig as compared with other products, although the impact of Kiovig was limited by its anticipated slow market penetra-tion. There is a need for more and better data on the Belgian immunoglobulin market.
The Dialectical Relationship between Religion and the Ideology of Science  [PDF]
Steven Gerardi
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.21006
Abstract: This Original effort suggests that analogous to Max Weber’s “Spirit of Capitalism” found in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, the disenchantment and demystification of the ancient Judaism ethic code of behavior, is a major factor in the rise of the ideology of science.
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