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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12098 matches for " Stephen Muza "
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Relationship between Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow with Symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness in Men Repeatedly Exposed to Simulated High Altitude  [PDF]
Peter Ondru?, Roman Alberty, Timothy Lyons, Stephen Muza, Vincent Echavé, Jacques Poisson, Allen Cymerman
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2017.71005
Abstract:
Objective: To study the relationship between changes in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity with symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) during simulated high altitude. Research Design and Methods: Mean middle arterial cerebral flow velocity (MCAv) was assessed by transcranial Doppler sonography in 8 healthy lowland male adults aged 20 - 24 yrs before and after 6 h and 48 h at simulated altitude corresponding to 4572 m. The same study was repeated three weeks later in the same subjects. End-tidal pCO2 (ETCO2) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were measured by standardized procedures. AMS symptoms were recorded using the modified environmental symptoms questionnaire after 6 h and 48 h exposure to calculate the mean score of cerebral (AMS-C) symptoms. Results: Mean MCAv significantly increased with high altitude (HA) by 4% at 6 h HA and 24% at 48 h HA (P < 0.05) compared to sea-level values. We observed a substantial inter-subject variance in MCAv changes, especially in the first hours upon altitude exposure. Within first 2 days, we found a moderate positive correlation between MCAv with decreased ETCO2 (mean ± SD 32 ± 4 mmHg; r = 0.47, P < 0.05), and a weak negative correlation of MCAv with a similar low SaO2 (77% ± 8%; r = - 0.43, P < 0.05). Five of the 10 original subjects developed symptoms of AMS; however, AMS-C scores decreased (P = 0.08) with increased duration of exposure (6 h HA 0.91 ± 1.09 vs 48 h HA 0.39 ± 0.40). No differences in AMS-C scores were observed when subjects with and without increased MCAv were compared at 6 h HA and 48 h HA. Furthermore, there was no correlation between changes in neither absolute nor relative MCAv and AMS-C scores. Severity of AMS symptoms coincided well with reduction in SaO2 (r = - 0.55, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that there is a lack of relationship between changes in CBF velocity with symptoms of AMS, and that a substantial inter-subject variance exists in the CBF response to high altitude exposure.
Elementos para a elabora??o de um projeto de promo??o à saúde e desenvolvimento dos adolescentes: o olhar dos adolescentes
Muza, Gilson Maestrini;Costa, Marisa Pacini;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2002000100033
Abstract: this qualitative study was developed with low-income teenage students from outlying cities around the federal district, brazil. the main objective was to identify their opinions, feelings, and information concerning the community's reality in order to implement a project to promote health care in this age group. a focal group technique was used to collect data. two focal groups of adolescents 13 to 17 years old were conducted. resulting data were submitted to descriptive analysis. according to the findings, adolescents have limited opportunities to engage in leisure activities. problems in the community include lack of security, unavoidable contact with violence, and drug abuse. adolescents understand that such problems are due to the absence of an appropriate social context. they also highlight difficulties in establishing healthy interpersonal relationships within their families. their first feeling is one of disempowerment in dealing with prevailing conditions, but they also show willingness to become involved in community work.
Elementos para a elabora o de um projeto de promo o à saúde e desenvolvimento dos adolescentes: o olhar dos adolescentes
Muza Gilson Maestrini,Costa Marisa Pacini
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2002,
Abstract: Trata-se de um estudo que busca apreender as opini es, sentimentos e saberes dos adolescentes escolares sobre a realidade vivida nas suas comunidades, com o propósito de implantar um projeto de promo o à saúde. Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo com adolescentes escolares de duas cidades-satélites do Distrito Federal, Brasil. A coleta de dados foi conduzida com a técnica do grupo focal. Foram realizados dois grupos focais com adolescentes com idade 13 e 17 anos e os dados foram submetidos a uma análise descritiva. Os resultados mostram que para esses adolescentes as ocupa es do tempo livre s o escassas. A falta de seguran a e a inevitável convivência com a violência, assim como, a dissemina o do uso abusivo de drogas s o alguns dos problemas que enfrentam na comunidade. Os adolescentes entendem que a determina o dos problemas com os quais convivem sustenta-se na inexistência de um contexto social minimamente adequado e nas dificuldades de estabelecimento de rela es interpessoais intrafamiliares saudáveis. Quando se trata do enfrentamento das condi es atuais, o primeiro sentimento que emerge é de impotência, mas mostram ainda alguma disposi o de envolvimento com o trabalho comunitário.
An Investigation into the Use of Stimulant Therapy during Pregnancy
Natalie Shields,Rexford Muza,Christopher Kosky,Adrian J. Williams
Sleep Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/308952
Abstract: Introduction. A lack of documentation of stimulant use during pregnancy means that doctors have difficulty advising narcoleptic and hypersomnolent patients. Objectives. To investigate the use of stimulant therapy in narcoleptic and hypersomnolent patients during pregnancy. Method. A search of clinic letters at a tertiary sleep clinic identified women who became pregnant whilst receiving stimulant therapy between 01/09/1999 and 18/11/2010. Fifteen patients were included in a telephone survey. Results. There were 20 pregnancies. The reported advice received with regards to stimulant use was variable. In 7 pregnancies, medication was stopped preconceptually: 1 had a cleft palate and an extra digit 6 had good foetal outcomes. In 8 pregnancies, medication was stopped postconceptually: 1 had autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; 7 had good foetal outcomes. In 5 pregnancies, medication was continued throughout pregnancy: 2 ended in miscarriage; 1 was ectopic; 2 had good foetal outcomes. The most common symptom experienced was debilitating hypersomnolence. Conclusion. There are no standardised guidelines for use of stimulants during pregnancy. Women have significant symptoms during pregnancy for which there is an unmet clinical need. More research is needed into whether medication can be safely continued during pregnancy, and if not, when it should be discontinued. Better standardized advice should be made available. 1. Introduction In practice, the advice given to women with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnolence is to discontinue stimulant therapy during pregnancy because of fear of potential teratogenicity. Some patients chose to remain on stimulant therapy during their pregnancy because of intolerable sleepiness. There is a lack of documentation on how women cope with their symptoms during pregnancy, and in practice, doctors find it difficult to advise these patients. At the tertiary sleep clinic used in this study, there are approximately 110 patients currently being followed up for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnolence. 42 of those patients are females and of fertile age. Narcolepsy is a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) distinguished by abnormal intrusions of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep such as cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations during wakefulness [1]. Idiopathic hypersomnolence is also a cause of EDS but patients do not meet the diagnostic criteria for narcolepsy. There is sleep inertia; EDS, and naps are usually more prolonged than in narcolepsy and less refreshing [2]. The American Sleep
Resilience: The New Paradigm in Disaster Management—An Australian Perspective  [PDF]
Stephen Jenkins, Stephen Jenkins
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33C020
Abstract:

During past decades, frameworks relating to emergency and disaster management have been based on a risk management approach to prevention/mitigation and preparedness coupled with a strong emphasis on response by police and emergency service organisations. Numerous reviews and inquiries of significant events however have identified significant issues relating to the preparation for such events and the management thereof; in particular, critical shortcomings in the capability of emergency response agencies, their leaders and senior decision-makers. In 2008, the Australian Government, through The First National Security Statement to the Australian Parliament by Prime Minister Rudd, has incorporated non-traditional threats and hazards, such as those posed by the impact of climate change, on the national security agenda. In doing so, the Government has announced a paradigm shift in policy for the nation’s approach to emergency and disaster management, namely a move from “response” to “resilience”. In support of this policy shift, the Australian Government, through the Council of Australian Governments, has endorsed the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience and the Critical Infrastructure Resilience Strategy. These documents make resilience the responsibility of all levels of government, private industry, emergency response agencies, and the community. A review of the reports published following Australian reviews and inquiries into significant events has identified that existing frameworks do not provide the necessary mechanisms for baselining and assessing community resilience, that is, their ability to respond to and recover from significant events. Internationally, indices have been developed for assessing community resilience, however, inherent limitations have also been identified in their scope and application. This paper will review Australian and international events which have led to inquiries that have resulted in criticisms of the emergency and disaster response, as well as introducing the organisational capability and resilience of organisations particularly in the context of climate change.

Consumo de substancias psicoativas por adolescentes escolares de Ribeir?o Preto, SP (Brasil): II - Distribui??o do consumo por classes sociais
Muza,Gilson M.; Bettiol,Heloísa; Muccillo,Gerson; Barbieri,Marco A.;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101997000200010
Abstract: introduction: many of the epidemiological studies on the consumption of legal and illegal psychoactive substances have included the evaluation of the influence of social context on the levels of prevalence of this consumption using indirect social indicators such as family income, and educational and housing levels in an attempt to identify individuals or groups in different social contexts. the present study investigates the distribution of consumpition of psychoactive substances according to social class in a sample of teenage pupils in ribeir?o preto, sp, southeastern brazil. material and method: a self-applicable questionnaire duly adapted and submitted to a reliability test was applied to a proportional sample of 1,025 teenagers enrolled in the 8th, 9th, 10th and 12th grades in public and private city schools. the questionnaires contained questions about the use of ten classes of psychoactive substances, demographic questions and validation information, as well as questions about the perception and intrinsic behavior related to drug consumption. the adaptation of a model that identifies 5 social class strata (business middle class, managerial middle class, lower middle class, proletariat and subproletariat) on the basis of indicators that situate the individuals within the social relations of production, was used. results: the 3 middle class strata were more often represented, whereas the proletariat and subproletariat were less frequently represented in this teenage pupil population than in the population in general. there was no difference in alcohol or tobacco consumption according to social class, although prevalence tended to be higher at the two extremes of the social ladder. in contrast, the consumption of illegal substances was higher in the middle class and lower in the proletariat. conclusion: although the consumption of legal substances did not differ among social classes, the higher consumption of illegal substances by the wealthier teenagers was pr
Consumo de substancias psicoativas entre estudantes de rede privada
Godoi,Alcinda Maria Machado; Muza,Gilson Maestrini; Costa,Marisa Pacini; Gama,Maria Lydia Teixeira;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1991, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101991000200010
Abstract: a study was carried out in 1988, using a random sample of 1,441 pupils attending the elementary and high schools of the federal district, brazil, with the purpose of determining the frequency of the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. a self-administered questionnaire, adapted by the world health organization for this type of survey, was applied. the prevalence of general usage (covering everything from experimental to daily use) showed rates of 67.2% for alcohol, 28.7% for tobacco, 13.9% for inhalants, 6.1% for marijuana and 1.8% for cocaine. the use of the majority of drugs increases with age. as regards sex, the illegal drugs were mostly frequently used by boys.
Consumo de substancias psicoativas por adolescentes escolares de Ribeir?o Preto, SP (Brasil). I - Prevalência do consumo por sexo, idade e tipo de substancia
Muza,Gilson M.; Bettiol,Heloísa; Muccillo,Gerson; Barbieri,Marco A.;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101997000100005
Abstract: introduction: concern over the consumption of psychoactive substances by teenagers has given rise to a great wordwide effort to produce information about this phenomenon. this study set out to investigate the prevalence of consumption of legal and illegal psychoactive substances, its distribution by age, sex and age at first experience of them, among teenage pupils in county, ribeir?o preto, sp, southeastern brazil. material and method: a self-applicable questionnaire duly adapted and submitted to a reliability test was applied to a proportional sample of 1,025 teenagers enrolled in 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th grads at public and private city schools. the questionnaire contained questions about the use of ten classes of psychoactive substances, demographic questions and validation information, as well as questions about the perception and intrinsic behavior related to drug consumption. results: the sample of 88.9% had consumed alcoholic beverages sometime in their lives, 37.7% had used tobacco, 31.1% solvents, 10.5% medicines, 6.8% marihuana, 2.7% cocaine, 1.6% hallucinogens, and 0.3% of the sample had consumed some opiate substance. the rates of consumption increased with age for all substances; however, the use of tobacco and of illegal substances was less intense during the later years of adolescence. as to sex distribution, boys consumed more than girls, except for medicines, with girls consuming barbiturates, amphetamines and tranquilizers in proportions similar to or higher than those observed among boys. age at first experience showed that access to psychoactive substances occurred at very early ages. conclusions: experimenting with psychoactive substances, whether legal or illegal, is a frequent phenomenon during adolescence, both among boys and girls, often at very early ages.
Consumo de substancias psicoativas por adolescentes escolares de Ribeir o Preto, SP (Brasil). I - Prevalência do consumo por sexo, idade e tipo de substancia
Muza Gilson M.,Bettiol Heloísa,Muccillo Gerson,Barbieri Marco A.
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1997,
Abstract: INTRODU O: A preocupa o suscitada quanto ao consumo de substancias psicoativas pelos adolescentes tem mobilizado grandes esfor os em todo o mundo na produ o de conhecimento sobre este fen meno. Decidiu-se estudar as taxas de prevalência de consumo de substancias psicoativas de uso lícito e ilícito, sua distribui o por idade, sexo e a idade da primeira experiência com essas substancias, entre adolescentes escolares do Município de Ribeir o Preto, SP, Brasil. MATERIAL DE MéTODO: Um questionário devidamente adaptado e submetido a um teste de confiabilidade foi auto-aplicado a uma amostra proporcional de 1.025 adolescentes matriculados na oitava série do primeiro grau e primeiro, segundo e terceiro anos do segundo grau, das escolas públicas e privadas do município estudado. O questionário continha quest es sobre o uso de dez classes de substancias psicoativas, quest es demográficas e informa es de valida o, além de quest es de percep o e comportamento intrínseco ao consumo de drogas. RESULTADOS: Da amostra 88,9% consumiram bebidas alcoólicas alguma vez na vida; 37,7% utilizaram o tabaco; 31,1% os solventes; 10,5% os medicamentos; 6,8% a maconha; 2,7% a cocaína; 1,6% os alucinógenos e 0,3% consumiu alguma substancia a base de opiácios. As taxas de consumo cresceram com a idade, para todas as substancias; no entanto, o uso de tabaco e de substancias ilícitas mostrou uma desacelera o nos anos que compreendem o final da adolescência. Verificou-se que os meninos consumiram mais do que as meninas, exceto para os medicamentos, com as meninas consumindo barbitúricos, anfetaminas e tranqüilizantes em propor es semelhantes ou maiores que os meninos. A idade da primeira experiência mostrou que o acesso às substancias psicoativas ocorreu em idades bastante precoces. CONCLUS ES: As substancias psicoativas, sejam lícitas ou ilícitas, s o freqüentemente experimentadas na adolescência, tanto pelos meninos como pelas meninas, muitas vezes em idades bem precoces.
Consumo de substancias psicoativas por adolescentes escolares de Ribeir o Preto, SP (Brasil): II - Distribui o do consumo por classes sociais
Muza Gilson M.,Bettiol Heloísa,Muccillo Gerson,Barbieri Marco A.
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1997,
Abstract: INTRODU O: Vários estudos epidemiológicos sobre o consumo de substancias psicoativas têm incluído em suas análises a avalia o da influência do contexto social nos níveis de prevalência desse consumo. Analisa-se a distribui o do consumo dessas substancias segundo as classes sociais, numa amostra de adolescentes escolares de Ribeir o Preto, SP, Brasil. MATERIAL E MéTODO: Um questionário auto-aplicável, adaptado e submetido a um teste de confiabilidade, foi aplicado a uma amostra proporcional de 1.025 adolescentes matriculados na oitava série do primeiro grau e primeiro, segundo e terceiro anos do segundo grau, das escolas públicas e privadas da cidade. O questionário continha quest es sobre o uso de dez classes de drogas. Utilizou-se a adapta o de um modelo que identifica 5 fra es de classe social (burguesias empresarial, gerencial e pequena burguesia, proletariado e subproletariado), a partir de indicadores que situam os indivíduos dentro das rela es sociais de produ o. RESULTADOS: As três fra es da burguesia foram mais representadas que as outras na popula o de adolescentes escolares do que na popula o geral. N o houve diferen as na distribui o do consumo de álcool e tabaco pelas classes sociais, embora se observe uma tendência de maior prevalência nos extremos da escala social. Já o consumo de substancias ilícitas foi maior nas burguesias e menor no proletariado. CONCLUS ES: Embora o consumo de substancias lícitas n o tenha diferido entre as classes sociais, o maior consumo de substancias ilícitas pelos mais ricos provavelmente se deveu ao maior custo desses produtos do que o álcool e o tabaco.
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