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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 160803 matches for " Stephen H. Leppla "
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Anthrax Toxin Uptake by Primary Immune Cells as Determined with a Lethal Factor-β-Lactamase Fusion Protein
Haijing Hu,Stephen H. Leppla
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007946
Abstract: To initiate infection, Bacillus anthracis needs to overcome the host innate immune system. Anthrax toxin, a major virulence factor of B. anthracis, impairs both the innate and adaptive immune systems and is important in the establishment of anthrax infections.
Characterization of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Mutant Having a Mutation in Elongation Factor-2
Pradeep K. Gupta,Shihui Liu,Stephen H. Leppla
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009078
Abstract: Retroviral insertional mutagenesis provides an effective forward genetic method for identifying genes involved in essential cellular pathways. A Chinese hamster ovary cell line mutant resistant to several bacterial ADP-ribosylating was obtained by this approach. The toxins used catalyze ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2), block protein synthesis, and cause cell death. Strikingly, in the CHO PR328 mutant cells, the eEF-2 substrate of these ADP-ribosylating toxins was found to be modified, but the cells remained viable. A systematic study of these cells revealed the presence of a structural mutation in one allele of the eEF-2 gene. This mutation, Gly717Arg, is close to His715, the residue that is modified to become diphthamide. This Arg substitution prevents diphthamide biosynthesis at His715, rendering the mutated eEF-2 non-responsive to ADP-ribosylating toxins, while having no apparent effect on protein synthesis. Thus, CHO PR328 cells are heterozygous, having wild type and mutant eEF-2 alleles, with the latter allowing the cells to survive even in the presence of ADP-ribosylating toxins. Here, we report the comprehensive characterization of these cells.
Broad Expression Analysis of Human ANTXR1/TEM8 Transcripts Reveals Differential Expression and Novel Splizce Variants
Micaela Vargas, Raghavendra Karamsetty, Stephen H. Leppla, G. Jilani Chaudry
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043174
Abstract: Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8; ANTXR1) is one of two anthrax toxin receptors; the other is capillary morphogenesis gene 2 protein (CMG2; ANTXR2). TEM8 shows enhanced expression in certain tumor endothelia, and is thought to be a player in tumor vasculature formation. However, a comprehensive expression profile of individual TEM8 variants in normal or cancerous tissues is lacking. In this work we carried out an extensive analysis of all splice variants of human TEM8 in 12 digestive tissues, and 8 each fetal and adult tissues, 6 of them cognate pairs. Using variant-specific primers, we first ascertained the status of full-length transcripts by nested PCR. We then carried out quantitative analysis of each transcript by real-time PCR. Three splice variants of TEM8 were reported before, two single-pass integral membrane forms (V1 and V2) and one secreted (V3). Our analysis has revealed two new variants, one encoding a membrane-bound form of the receptor and the other secreted, which we have designated V4 and V5, respectively. All tissues had V1, V2, V3, and V4, but only prostate had V5. Real-time PCR revealed that all variants are present at different levels in various tissues. V3 appeared the most abundant of all. To ascertain its functionality for anthrax toxin, we expressed the newly identified form V4 in a receptor-negative host cell, and included V1 and V2 for comparison. Cytotoxicity, toxin binding, and internalization assays showed V4 to be as efficient a receptor as V1 and V2.
The Receptors that Mediate the Direct Lethality of Anthrax Toxin
Shihui Liu,Yi Zhang,Benjamin Hoover,Stephen H. Leppla
Toxins , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/toxins5010001
Abstract: Tumor endothelium marker-8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2) are the two well-characterized anthrax toxin receptors, each containing a von Willebrand factor A (vWA) domain responsible for anthrax protective antigen (PA) binding. Recently, a cell-based analysis was used to implicate another vWA domain-containing protein, integrin β1 as a third anthrax toxin receptor. To explore whether proteins other than TEM8 and CMG2 function as anthrax toxin receptors in vivo, we challenged mice lacking TEM8 and/or CMG2. Specifically, we used as an effector protein the fusion protein FP59, a fusion between the PA-binding domain of anthrax lethal factor (LF) and the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A. FP59 is at least 50-fold more potent than LF in the presence of PA, with 2 μg PA + 2 μg FP59 being sufficient to kill a mouse. While TEM8?/? and wild type control mice succumbed to a 5 μg PA + 5 μg FP59 challenge, CMG2?/? mice were completely resistant to this dose, confirming that CMG2 is the major anthrax toxin receptor in vivo. To detect whether any toxic effects are mediated by TEM8 or other putative receptors such as integrin β1, CMG2 ?/?/ TEM8 ?/? mice were challenged with as many as five doses of 50 μg PA + 50 μg FP59. Strikingly, the CMG2 ?/?/ TEM8 ?/? mice were completely resistant to the 5-dose challenge. These results strongly suggest that TEM8 is the only minor anthrax toxin receptor mediating direct lethality in vivo and that other proteins implicated as receptors do not play this?role.
Role of N-Terminal Amino Acids in the Potency of Anthrax Lethal Factor
Pradeep K. Gupta, Mahtab Moayeri, Devorah Crown, Rasem J. Fattah, Stephen H. Leppla
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003130
Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a Zn+2-dependent metalloprotease that cleaves several MAPK kinases and is responsible for the lethality of anthrax lethal toxin (LT). We observed that a recombinant LF (LF-HMA) which differs from wild type LF (LF-A) by the addition of two residues (His-Met) to the native Ala (A) terminus as a result of cloning manipulations has 3-fold lower potency toward cultured cells and experimental animals. We hypothesized that the “N-end rule”, which relates the half-life of proteins in cells to the identity of their N-terminal residue, might be operative in the case of LF, so that the N-terminal residue of LF would determine the cytosolic stability and thereby the potency of LF. Mutational studies that replaced the native N-terminal residue of LF with known N-end rule stabilizing or destabilizing residues confirmed that the N-terminal residue plays a significant role in determining the potency of LT for cultured cells and experimental animals. The fact that a commercially-available LF preparation (LF-HMA) that is widely used in basic research studies and for evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics is 3-fold less potent than native LF (LF-A) should be considered when comparing published studies and in the design of future experiments.
Anthrax Edema Factor Toxicity Is Strongly Mediated by the N-end Rule
Clinton E. Leysath, Damilola D. Phillips, Devorah Crown, Rasem J. Fattah, Mahtab Moayeri, Stephen H. Leppla
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074474
Abstract: Anthrax edema factor (EF) is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase that converts adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into 3’–5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), contributing to the establishment of Bacillus anthracis infections and the resulting pathophysiology. We show that EF adenylate cyclase toxin activity is strongly mediated by the N-end rule, and thus is dependent on the identity of the N-terminal amino acid. EF variants having different N-terminal residues varied by more than 100-fold in potency in cultured cells and mice. EF variants having unfavorable, destabilizing N-terminal residues showed much greater activity in cells when the E1 ubiquitin ligase was inactivated or when proteasome inhibitors were present. Taken together, these results show that EF is uniquely affected by ubiquitination and/or proteasomal degradation.
The Bacillus cereus Hbl and Nhe Tripartite Enterotoxin Components Assemble Sequentially on the Surface of Target Cells and Are Not Interchangeable
Inka Sastalla, Rasem Fattah, Nicole Coppage, Poulomi Nandy, Devorah Crown, Andrei P. Pomerantsev, Stephen H. Leppla
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076955
Abstract: Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming, Gram-positive bacterium commonly associated with outbreaks of food poisoning. It is also known as an opportunistic pathogen causing clinical infections such as bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia, and gas gangrene-like cutaneous infections, mostly in immunocompromised patients. B. cereus secretes a plethora of toxins of which four are associated with the symptoms of food poisoning. Two of these, the non-hemolytic enterotoxin Nhe and the hemolysin BL (Hbl) toxin, are predicted to be structurally similar and are unique in that they require the combined action of three toxin proteins to induce cell lysis. Despite their dominant role in disease, the molecular mechanism of their toxic function is still poorly understood. We report here that B. cereus strain ATCC 10876 harbors not only genes encoding Nhe, but also two copies of the hbl genes. We identified Hbl as the major secreted toxin responsible for inducing rapid cell lysis both in cultured cells and in an intraperitoneal mouse toxicity model. Antibody neutralization and deletion of Hbl-encoding genes resulted in significant reductions of cytotoxic activity. Microscopy studies with Chinese Hamster Ovary cells furthermore showed that pore formation by both Hbl and Nhe occurs through a stepwise, sequential binding of toxin components to the cell surface and to each other. This begins with binding of Hbl-B or NheC to the eukaryotic membrane, and is followed by the recruitment of Hbl-L1 or NheB, respectively, followed by the corresponding third protein. Lastly, toxin component complementation studies indicate that although Hbl and Nhe can be expressed simultaneously and are predicted to be structurally similar, they are incompatible and cannot complement each other.
Efficient Targeting of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Systemic Administration of a Dual uPA and MMP-Activated Engineered Anthrax Toxin
Jeffrey M. Schafer, Diane E. Peters, Thomas Morley, Shihui Liu, Alfredo A. Molinolo, Stephen H. Leppla, Thomas H. Bugge
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020532
Abstract: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Although considerable progress has been made in elucidating the etiology of the disease, the prognosis for individuals diagnosed with HNSCC remains poor, underscoring the need for development of additional treatment modalities. HNSCC is characterized by the upregulation of a large number of proteolytic enzymes, including urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and an assortment of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may be expressed by tumor cells, by tumor-supporting stromal cells or by both. Here we explored the use of an intercomplementing anthrax toxin that requires combined cell surface uPA and MMP activities for cellular intoxication and specifically targets the ERK/MAPK pathway for the treatment of HNSCC. We found that this toxin displayed strong systemic anti-tumor activity towards a variety of xenografted human HNSCC cell lines by inducing apoptotic and necrotic tumor cell death, and by impairing tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Interestingly, the human HNSCC cell lines were insensitive to the intercomplementing toxin when cultured ex vivo, suggesting that either the toxin targets the tumor-supporting stromal cell compartment or that the tumor cell requirement for ERK/MAPK signaling differs in vivo and ex vivo. This intercomplementing toxin warrants further investigation as an anti-HNSCC agent.
Inflammasome Sensor Nlrp1b-Dependent Resistance to Anthrax Is Mediated by Caspase-1, IL-1 Signaling and Neutrophil Recruitment
Mahtab Moayeri,Devorah Crown,Zachary L. Newman,Shu Okugawa,Michael Eckhaus,Christophe Cataisson,Shihui Liu,Inka Sastalla,Stephen H. Leppla
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001222
Abstract: Bacillus anthracis infects hosts as a spore, germinates, and disseminates in its vegetative form. Production of anthrax lethal and edema toxins following bacterial outgrowth results in host death. Macrophages of inbred mouse strains are either sensitive or resistant to lethal toxin depending on whether they express the lethal toxin responsive or non-responsive alleles of the inflammasome sensor Nlrp1b (Nlrp1bS/S or Nlrp1bR/R, respectively). In this study, Nlrp1b was shown to affect mouse susceptibility to infection. Inbred and congenic mice harboring macrophage-sensitizing Nlrp1bS/S alleles (which allow activation of caspase-1 and IL-1β release in response to anthrax lethal toxin challenge) effectively controlled bacterial growth and dissemination when compared to mice having Nlrp1bR/R alleles (which cannot activate caspase-1 in response to toxin). Nlrp1bS-mediated resistance to infection was not dependent on the route of infection and was observed when bacteria were introduced by either subcutaneous or intravenous routes. Resistance did not occur through alterations in spore germination, as vegetative bacteria were also killed in Nlrp1bS/S mice. Resistance to infection required the actions of both caspase-1 and IL-1β as Nlrp1bS/S mice deleted of caspase-1 or the IL-1 receptor, or treated with the Il-1 receptor antagonist anakinra, were sensitized to infection. Comparison of circulating neutrophil levels and IL-1β responses in Nlrp1bS/S,Nlrp1bR/R and IL-1 receptor knockout mice implicated Nlrp1b and IL-1 signaling in control of neutrophil responses to anthrax infection. Neutrophil depletion experiments verified the importance of this cell type in resistance to B. anthracis infection. These data confirm an inverse relationship between murine macrophage sensitivity to lethal toxin and mouse susceptibility to spore infection, and establish roles for Nlrp1bS, caspase-1, and IL-1β in countering anthrax infection.
Anthrax Lethal Factor Cleaves Mouse Nlrp1b in Both Toxin-Sensitive and Toxin-Resistant Macrophages
Kristina A. Hellmich, Jonathan L. Levinsohn, Rasem Fattah, Zachary L. Newman, Nolan Maier, Inka Sastalla, Shihui Liu, Stephen H. Leppla, Mahtab Moayeri
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049741
Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is the protease component of anthrax lethal toxin (LT). LT induces pyroptosis in macrophages of certain inbred mouse and rat strains, while macrophages from other inbred strains are resistant to the toxin. In rats, the sensitivity of macrophages to toxin-induced cell death is determined by the presence of an LF cleavage sequence in the inflammasome sensor Nlrp1. LF cleaves rat Nlrp1 of toxin-sensitive macrophages, activating caspase-1 and inducing cell death. Toxin-resistant macrophages, however, express Nlrp1 proteins which do not harbor the LF cleavage site. We report here that mouse Nlrp1b proteins are also cleaved by LF. In contrast to the situation in rats, sensitivity and resistance of Balb/cJ and NOD/LtJ macrophages does not correlate to the susceptibility of their Nlrp1b proteins to cleavage by LF, as both proteins are cleaved. Two LF cleavage sites, at residues 38 and 44, were identified in mouse Nlrp1b. Our results suggest that the resistance of NOD/LtJ macrophages to LT, and the inability of the Nlrp1b protein expressed in these cells to be activated by the toxin are likely due to polymorphisms other than those at the LF cleavage sites.
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