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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 161173 matches for " Stephen H. Boyle "
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Physical activity, weight status and diet in adolescents: are children meeting the guidelines  [PDF]
Spencer E. Boyle, Georgina L. Jones, Stephen J. Walters
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.210167
Abstract: Childhood obesity is on the increase and maintaining regular physical activity and consuming a healthy diet have become essential tools to combat the condition. The United Kingdom government has recommended guidelines for optimal levels of diet and activity in children. The aim of this paper is to describe and compare self-reported physical activity levels, diet, and Body Mass Indices (BMI) amongst adolescent children, aged 11-15, in the South West (SW) and North West (NW) regions of England and to see if these children were meeting the current targets for optimal levels of: physical activity; fruit/vegetable consumption; fat consumption and BMI. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of four secondary schools and 1,869 children using the self-reported Western Australian Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (CAPANS) physical activity instrument and a food intake screener questionnaire, in summer and winter. We found that 25% (469/1869) 95% CI: 23% to 27%, of children engaged in 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day; 53% (995/1866) 95% CI: 51% to 56%, took 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day; while 22% (407/1861) 95% CI: 20% to 24% consumed recommended amount of fats, and 23.7% (276/1164) 95% CI: 21% to 26%, of pupils were obese or overweight as classified by their BMI. Self reported physical activity in young people regardless of area is lower than previously reported and the lack of students engaging in 60 minutes moderate to vigorous activity could have serious public health consequences. If sustained, this could lead to more overweight adults, and more ill health.
Metabolomics in Early Alzheimer's Disease: Identification of Altered Plasma Sphingolipidome Using Shotgun Lipidomics
Xianlin Han, Steve Rozen, Stephen H. Boyle, Caroline Hellegers, Hua Cheng, James R. Burke, Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer, P. Murali Doraiswamy, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021643
Abstract: Background The development of plasma biomarkers could facilitate early detection, risk assessment and therapeutic monitoring in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alterations in ceramides and sphingomyelins have been postulated to play a role in amyloidogensis and inflammatory stress related neuronal apoptosis; however few studies have conducted a comprehensive analysis of the sphingolipidome in AD plasma using analytical platforms with accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility. Methods and Findings We prospectively analyzed plasma from 26 AD patients (mean MMSE 21) and 26 cognitively normal controls in a non-targeted approach using multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics [1], [2] to determine the levels of over 800 molecular species of lipids. These data were then correlated with diagnosis, apolipoprotein E4 genotype and cognitive performance. Plasma levels of species of sphingolipids were significantly altered in AD. Of the 33 sphingomyelin species tested, 8 molecular species, particularly those containing long aliphatic chains such as 22 and 24 carbon atoms, were significantly lower (p<0.05) in AD compared to controls. Levels of 2 ceramide species (N16:0 and N21:0) were significantly higher in AD (p<0.05) with a similar, but weaker, trend for 5 other species. Ratios of ceramide to sphingomyelin species containing identical fatty acyl chains differed significantly between AD patients and controls. MMSE scores were correlated with altered mass levels of both N20:2 SM and OH-N25:0 ceramides (p<0.004) though lipid abnormalities were observed in mild and moderate AD. Within AD subjects, there were also genotype specific differences. Conclusions In this prospective study, we used a sensitive multimodality platform to identify and characterize an essentially uniform but opposite pattern of disruption in sphingomyelin and ceramide mass levels in AD plasma. Given the role of brain sphingolipids in neuronal function, our findings provide new insights into the AD sphingolipidome and the potential use of metabolomic signatures as peripheral biomarkers.
Attendees Preference Modelling for an International Art Festival Based on Show Attendances
Stephen Boyle,Carmen Joham,ABM Abdullah
International Journal of Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v7n11p18
Abstract: Falassi (1997) regards festivals as a time of celebration. Can festivalsbe considered catalysts for experiencing local art and culture or do they serve to promote an internationalised version of culture? This paper explores the role of arts festivals on local cultural consumption through festival attendees’ preferences to particular styles of cultural performances. Using data from the 2009 Hong Kong Arts Festival the paper seeks to identify the factors underlining attendee preferences. Findings show that there is a demand for a balance of local and international cultural experiences. This result highlights the dual role of major festivals of both bringing the best of international art to local residents while also showcasing the traditional and contemporary culture of the region.
Associations between APOE Variants and Metabolic Traits and the Impact of Psychological Stress
Sofia I. Iqbal Kring,John Barefoot,Beverly H. Brummett,Stephen H. Boyle,Ilene C. Siegler,S?ren Toubro,Torben Hansen,Arne Astrup,Oluf Pedersen,Redford B. Williams,Thorkild I. A. S?rensen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015745
Abstract: In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress.
Pharmacometabolomics of Response to Sertraline and to Placebo in Major Depressive Disorder – Possible Role for Methoxyindole Pathway
Hongjie Zhu, Mikhail B. Bogdanov, Stephen H. Boyle, Wayne Matson, Swati Sharma, Samantha Matson, Erik Churchill, Oliver Fiehn, John A. Rush, Ranga R. Krishnan, Eve Pickering, Marielle Delnomdedieu, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk, Pharmacometabolomics Research Network
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068283
Abstract: Therapeutic response to selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) varies considerably among patients, and the onset of antidepressant therapeutic action is delayed until after 2 to 4 weeks of treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze changes within methoxyindole and kynurenine (KYN) branches of tryptophan pathway to determine whether differential regulation within these branches may contribute to mechanism of variation in response to treatment. Metabolomics approach was used to characterize early biochemical changes in tryptophan pathway and correlated biochemical changes with treatment outcome. Outpatients with MDD were randomly assigned to sertraline (n = 35) or placebo (n = 40) in a double-blind 4-week trial; response to treatment was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17). Targeted electrochemistry based metabolomic platform (LCECA) was used to profile serum samples from MDD patients. The response rate was slightly higher for sertraline than for placebo (21/35 [60%] vs. 20/40 [50%], respectively, χ2(1) = 0.75, p = 0.39). Patients showing a good response to sertraline had higher pretreatment levels of 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MTPM), greater reduction in 5-MTPM levels after treatment, an increase in 5-Methoxytryptophol (5-MTPOL) and Melatonin (MEL) levels, and decreases in the (KYN)/MEL and 3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-OHKY)/MEL ratios post-treatment compared to pretreatment. These changes were not seen in the patients showing poor response to sertraline. In the placebo group, more favorable treatment outcome was associated with increases in 5-MTPOL and MEL levels and significant decreases in the KYN/MEL and 3-OHKY/MEL; changes in 5-MTPM levels were not associated with the 4-week response. These results suggest that recovery from a depressed state due to treatment with drug or with placebo could be associated with preferential utilization of serotonin for production of melatonin and 5-MTPOL.
Undulatory Locomotion
Netta Cohen,Jordan H. Boyle
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Undulatory locomotion is a means of self-propulsion that relies on the generation and propagation of waves along a body. As a mode of locomotion it is primitive and relatively simple, yet can be remarkably robust. No wonder then, that it is so prevalent across a range of biological scales from motile bacteria to gigantic prehistoric snakes. Key to understanding undulatory locomotion is the body's interplay with the physical environment, which the swimmer or crawler will exploit to generate propulsion, and in some cases, even to generate the underlying undulations. This review focuses by and large on undulators in the low Reynolds numbers regime, where the physics of the environment can be much more tractable. We review some key concepts and theoretical advances, as well as simulation tools and results applied to selected examples of biological swimmers. In particular, we extend the discussion to some simple cases of locomotion in non-Newtonian media as well as to small animals, in which the nervous system, motor control, body properties and the environment must all be considered to understand how undulations are generated and modulated. To conclude, we review recent progress in microrobotic undulators that may one day become commonplace in applications ranging from toxic waste disposal to minimally invasive surgery.
Extrapolating gravitational-wave data from numerical simulations
Michael Boyle,Abdul H. Mroué
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.124045
Abstract: Two complementary techniques are developed for obtaining the asymptotic form of gravitational-wave data at large radii from numerical simulations, in the form of easily implemented algorithms. It is shown that, without extrapolation, near-field effects produce errors in extracted waveforms that can significantly affect LIGO data analysis. The extrapolation techniques are discussed in the context of Newman--Penrose data applied to extrapolation of waveforms from an equal-mass, nonspinning black-hole binary simulation. The results of the two methods are shown to agree within error estimates. The various benefits and deficiencies of the methods are discussed.
Brucella melitensis Differs from B. suis in Growth and Urease Activity In-Vitro, and Infectivity in Fisher-344 Rats In-Vivo  [PDF]
Aloka B. Bandara, Stephen M. Boyle, Araceli Contreras-Rodriguez, Ana M. Martins, Rajiv Prasad, Christopher M. Reilly
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2013.31008
Abstract:

Importance of urease activity on pathogenic differences among Brucella species was evaluated. In cell-free extracts, the B. suis urease showed 12 times greater specific activity than the B. melitensis urease. When Fisher-344 rats were inoculated intraperitoneally (IP), at 1 week post-inoculation (PI), B. melitensis wild type 16 M was recovered from spleens and livers in greater numbers than B. suis wild type 1330. At 8 weeks PI, spleens were clear of B. melitensis, whereas B. suis remained. The wild type and the urease deficient strains of B. suis did not differ from each other in terms of recovery from spleen or liver. Our observations suggest that B. melitensis induces greater acute infectivity in Fisher-344 rats, whereas B. suis causes chronic infectivity; and urease activity has no influence on Brucella infection using an IP route.

Equipment review: The molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS?)
Martin Boyle, Jelica Kurtovic, David Bihari, Stephen Riordan, Christian Steiner
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc2895
Abstract: The editors of the Health Technology Assessment Section of Critical Care have facilitated the preparation article. This article maintains our previous format for such reviews in which the manufacturer provides answers to a standard questionnaire of our own design and an independent early adopter describes and reviews their own experiences using the device.Carrying out and completing prospective studies of the usefulness of new therapies is always a challenging task and that is especially true for this device. It is also true that a single intensive care unit is unlikely to be able to acquire a large amount of experience using this liver support therapy over a short period of time.These articles are not able to resolve this dilemma, but they do illustrate the real world difficulty in deciding when and where to deploy a promising new technology at the bedside when that technology is hard to test scientifically and its use is both resource and labour intensive.Christian SteinerMolecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS?) therapy is a blood detoxification system based on albumin dialysis that is able to remove albumin-bound and water-soluble substances selectively. 'Cleaning' the body's albumin pool restores its ability to balance several systems in the body in pathological situations.? Primary and secondary liver failure/dysfunctioni. Primary:a. Decompensated chronic liver disease (re-compensation/bridge to transplant)b. Acute liver failure (recovery/bridge)c. Liver failure after liver transplantationii. Secondary liver failure and multi-organ failure/dysfunction? Intractable pruritus in cholestasis? Liver failure after liver surgery? Effective and selective removal of water-soluble and albumin-bound substances [1] including nitric oxide? Impact on neurological [2], hemodynamic [3,4], renal [5,6] and other end-organ functions in liver failure [7,8]? Decrease of oxidative stress [8]? Acute decompensated chronic liver disease [5]? Hepato-renal syndrome [6]? Overview
Physical activity among adolescents and barriers to delivering physical education in Cornwall and Lancashire, UK: A qualitative study of heads of PE and heads of schools
Spencer Boyle, Georgina L Jones, Stephen J Walters
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-273
Abstract: Seventeen semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a snowball sample of HOPE and HS in schools in the Northwest and Southwest of England. Thematic data analysis using NVIVO was used to identify emergent themes.17 core themes were generated, 12 of which confirmed the findings from similar research. However, five themes relating to 'ethos of performance/elitism', 'lower fitness leads to lower ability', 'undervaluing activities within PE dept' or school as a whole', 'role of the school' and 'PE department doing all it can' offer valuable new insight into the factors which may encourage or prevent PA inside or outside the curriculum.Despite many positive perceptions of the delivery of PE in schools, it is evident that barriers still exist within that delivery which discourages physical activity. More research is needed to particularly address the complex issues of elitism and the ethos of PA in schools.Recent data indicate that almost one in four young people in the UK (23.7% of 11–15 year old males and 26.2% females) are now classed as obese [1]. There is much speculation about the causes of obesity in young adolescents. However, it has been reported that one of the leading contributory factors of childhood obesity is a lack of physical activity (PA) [1]. Although a common standard of the optimum level of young people's physical activity has yet to be universally agreed upon [2], the UK government (as part of its physical education school sports club links strategy), set a target in 1999 that 85% of school children should take part in two hours per week of high quality sport and physical education (PE) and a variety of new initiatives were introduced in schools to help children achieve this target by 2008 [3].Nevertheless, despite these new initiatives there is still controversy amongst physical educators and academics over whether young people are obtaining adequate levels of PE and are sufficiently physically active. For example, according to a Sp
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