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Transcriptome analysis of bitter acid biosynthesis and precursor pathways in hop (Humulus lupulus)
Shawn M Clark, Vinidhra Vaitheeswaran, Stephen J Ambrose, Randy W Purves, Jonathan E Page
BMC Plant Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-13-12
Abstract: Transcripts encoding all the enzymes of BCAA metabolism were significantly more abundant in lupulin glands, indicating that BCAA biosynthesis and subsequent degradation occurs in these specialized cells. Branched-chain acyl-CoAs and bitter acids were present at higher levels in glands compared with leaves and cones. RNA-seq analysis showed the gland-specific expression of the MEP pathway, enzymes of sucrose degradation and several transcription factors that may regulate bitter acid biosynthesis in glands. Two branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT) enzymes, HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2, were abundant, with gene expression quantification by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR indicating that HlBCAT1 was specific to glands while HlBCAT2 was present in glands, cones and leaves. Recombinant HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2 catalyzed forward (biosynthetic) and reverse (catabolic) reactions with similar kinetic parameters. HlBCAT1 is targeted to mitochondria where it likely plays a role in BCAA catabolism. HlBCAT2 is a plastidial enzyme likely involved in BCAA biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of the hop BCATs and those from other plants showed that they group into distinct biosynthetic (plastidial) and catabolic (mitochondrial) clades.Our analysis of the hop transcriptome significantly expands the genomic resources available for this agriculturally-important crop. This study provides evidence for the lupulin gland-specific biosynthesis of BCAAs and prenyl diphosphates to provide precursors for the production of bitter acids. The biosynthetic pathway leading to BCAAs in lupulin glands involves the plastidial enzyme, HlBCAT2. The mitochondrial enzyme HlBCAT1 degrades BCAAs as the first step in the catabolic pathway leading to branched chain-acyl-CoAs.The female inflorescences (‘cones’) of Humulus lupulus L. (hop, Cannabaceae) contain prenylated acylphloroglucinols and prenylchalcones (e.g. xanthohumol) that are important for the brewing industry and have potential medicinal uses [1-3]. The acylphloroglucinols
Computing the Acoustic Field of a Radiating Cavity by the Boundary Element - Rayleigh Integral Method (BERIM)
Stephen Kirkup,Ambrose Thompson
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract:
Analysis of the Built Environment of Informal Settlements using Systems of Settings and Activities
Stephen Diang'a,Ambrose Adebayo
Archnet-IJAR : International Journal of Architectural Research , 2011,
Abstract:
Health Canada’s Wind Turbine Noise and Health Study—A Review Exploring Research Challenges, Methods, Limitations and Uncertainties of Some of the Findings  [PDF]
Carmen M. Krogh, Anne Dumbrille, Robert Y. McMurtry, Richard James, Robert W. Rand, Michael A. Nissenbaum, Jeffery J. Aramini, Stephen E. Ambrose
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105046
Abstract: Background: Risk of harm associated with wind turbines is debated globally. Some people living or working in proximity to wind turbines report adverse health effects such as sleep disturbance, noise annoyance, and diminished quality of life. Due to public concern, Health Canada announced its wind turbine noise and health study which included subjective and objective measurements. Findings were published between 2014 and 2016. In 2018, Health Canada published clarifications regarding the design and interpretation of study conclusions. Methods: Methods and subjective/objective findings were reviewed. Peer reviewed publications, conference presentations, judicial proceedings, government documents, and other sources were evaluated and considered in context with advanced methods for investigating reports of adverse health effects. Objectives: To review and explore some of the research challenges, methods, strengths and limitations of findings and conclusions. To participate in scientific dialogue and contribute towards an understanding of reported health risks associated with wind turbine noise. Results: Wind turbine human health research is challenged by numerous variables. Knowledge gaps and individual human and wind turbine variables are identified. Strengths and advisories of limitations are considered and acknowledged. Health Canada’s advisories that its study design does not permit any conclusions about causality and results may not be generalized beyond the sample taken in Canada are supported. Enhanced methods for investigating health outcomes are proposed including establishing referral resources within medical facilities for physicians. It is proposed staffing of the resource center include multidisciplinary teams of physicians, epidemiologists, acousticians and other specialists to investigate suspected wind turbine adverse health effects. Discussion: A review and appraisal of some of the research challenges associated with wind turbine human health research are presented. Given the identified methods, research/knowledge gaps, and limitations and cautionary advisories, Health Canada’s results should be carefully considered when predicting or protecting from health risks of wind turbine noise.
COMPARATIVE INHIBITIVE EFFECT OF HYDROXYETHYLCELLULOSE ON MILD STEEL AND ALUMINIUM CORROSION IN 0.5M HCL SOLUTION
Innocent O. Arukalam,Ifeanyi K. Nleme,Ambrose E. Anyanwu
Academic Research International , 2011,
Abstract: The inhibitive effect of HEC on Mild steel and Aluminium corrosion in 0.5M HCl solution under atmospheric exposure was studied using weight loss method. From the results obtained, it was observed that the corrosion rate was higher in Aluminium than in Mild steel. Inhibition efficiency and surface coverage were however, found to be higher in Mild steel than in Aluminium. In addition, corrosion current was determined. From our results, the corrosion current was higher inMild steel than in Aluminium.
Generalised sifting in black-box groups
Sophie Ambrose,Max Neunhoeffer,Cheryl E. Praeger,Csaba Schneider
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: We present a generalisation of the sifting procedure introduced originally by Sims for computation with finite permutation groups, and now used for many computational procedures for groups, such as membership testing and finding group orders. Our procedure is a Monte Carlo algorithm, and is presented and analysed in the context of black-box groups. It is based on a chain of subsets instead of a subgroup chain. Two general versions of the procedure are worked out in detail, and applications are given for membership tests for several of the sporadic simple groups. Our major objective was that the procedures could be proved to be Monte Carlo algorithms, and their costs computed. In addition we explicitly determined suitable subset chains for six of the sporadic groups, and we implemented the algorithms involving these chains in the {\sf GAP} computational algebra system. It turns out that sample implementations perform well in practice. The implementations will be made available publicly in the form of a {\sf GAP} package.
Constructive membership testing in black-box classical groups
Sophie Ambrose,Scott H. Murray,Cheryl E. Praeger,Csaba Schneider
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: The research described in this note aims at solving the constructive membership problem for the class of quasisimple classical groups. Our algorithms are developed in the black-box group model; that is, they do not require specific characteristics of the representations in which the input groups are given. The elements of a black-box group are represented, not necessarily uniquely, as bit strings of uniform length. We assume the existence of oracles to compute the product of two elements, the inverse of an element, and to test if two strings represent the same element. Solving the constructive membership problem for a black-box group $G$ requires to write every element of $G$ as a word in a given generating set. In practice we write the elements of $G$ as straight-line programs (SLPs) which can be viewed as a compact way of writing words.
Some Exact Results for an Asset Pricing Test Based on the Average F Distribution  [PDF]
Soosung Hwang, Stephen E. Satchell
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25080
Abstract: We provide some exact results for an asset pricing theory test statistic based on the average F distribution. This test is preferred to existing procedures because it deals with the case of more assets than data points. The case mentioned is the practical one that asset managers routinely have to consider.
Design characteristics and the specifications for the construction of turtle excluder device in shrimp trawl nets in Nigeria
B B Solarin, R E Udolisa, N Omotoya, S C Opurum, E E Ambrose, F Aniebona
African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology , 2005,
Abstract: The design characteristics, specifications and procedures for the construction and the installation of the Turtle Excluder Devices (TED) in shrimp trawl nets in Nigeria are presented. The super shooter or bent rod grid with a maximum of 10.0cm deflector bar spacing is installed in the polyethylene codend extension (R1500 text and 45mm stretched mesh size) at 45o for good performance. Details of the floatation, the reinforcement of the deflector bars, the exit opening and other modification of the locally fabricated TED are highlighted.
New Limit on Muon and Electron Lepton Number Violation from $K^0_L \to μ^\pm e^\mp$ Decay
D. Ambrose
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.5734
Abstract: The most sensitive experiment to date to search for the muon and electron lepton number violating decay $K^0_L \to \mu^\pm e^\mp$ has detected no events consistent with this process. Based on this result, the 90% confidence level upper limit on the branching fraction is $B(K^0_L \to \mu^\pm e^\mp) < 4.7\times10^{-12}$.
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