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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12662 matches for " Stephen Boyle "
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Physical activity, weight status and diet in adolescents: are children meeting the guidelines  [PDF]
Spencer E. Boyle, Georgina L. Jones, Stephen J. Walters
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.210167
Abstract: Childhood obesity is on the increase and maintaining regular physical activity and consuming a healthy diet have become essential tools to combat the condition. The United Kingdom government has recommended guidelines for optimal levels of diet and activity in children. The aim of this paper is to describe and compare self-reported physical activity levels, diet, and Body Mass Indices (BMI) amongst adolescent children, aged 11-15, in the South West (SW) and North West (NW) regions of England and to see if these children were meeting the current targets for optimal levels of: physical activity; fruit/vegetable consumption; fat consumption and BMI. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of four secondary schools and 1,869 children using the self-reported Western Australian Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (CAPANS) physical activity instrument and a food intake screener questionnaire, in summer and winter. We found that 25% (469/1869) 95% CI: 23% to 27%, of children engaged in 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day; 53% (995/1866) 95% CI: 51% to 56%, took 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day; while 22% (407/1861) 95% CI: 20% to 24% consumed recommended amount of fats, and 23.7% (276/1164) 95% CI: 21% to 26%, of pupils were obese or overweight as classified by their BMI. Self reported physical activity in young people regardless of area is lower than previously reported and the lack of students engaging in 60 minutes moderate to vigorous activity could have serious public health consequences. If sustained, this could lead to more overweight adults, and more ill health.
Attendees Preference Modelling for an International Art Festival Based on Show Attendances
Stephen Boyle,Carmen Joham,ABM Abdullah
International Journal of Business and Management , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v7n11p18
Abstract: Falassi (1997) regards festivals as a time of celebration. Can festivalsbe considered catalysts for experiencing local art and culture or do they serve to promote an internationalised version of culture? This paper explores the role of arts festivals on local cultural consumption through festival attendees’ preferences to particular styles of cultural performances. Using data from the 2009 Hong Kong Arts Festival the paper seeks to identify the factors underlining attendee preferences. Findings show that there is a demand for a balance of local and international cultural experiences. This result highlights the dual role of major festivals of both bringing the best of international art to local residents while also showcasing the traditional and contemporary culture of the region.
Brucella melitensis Differs from B. suis in Growth and Urease Activity In-Vitro, and Infectivity in Fisher-344 Rats In-Vivo  [PDF]
Aloka B. Bandara, Stephen M. Boyle, Araceli Contreras-Rodriguez, Ana M. Martins, Rajiv Prasad, Christopher M. Reilly
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2013.31008

Importance of urease activity on pathogenic differences among Brucella species was evaluated. In cell-free extracts, the B. suis urease showed 12 times greater specific activity than the B. melitensis urease. When Fisher-344 rats were inoculated intraperitoneally (IP), at 1 week post-inoculation (PI), B. melitensis wild type 16 M was recovered from spleens and livers in greater numbers than B. suis wild type 1330. At 8 weeks PI, spleens were clear of B. melitensis, whereas B. suis remained. The wild type and the urease deficient strains of B. suis did not differ from each other in terms of recovery from spleen or liver. Our observations suggest that B. melitensis induces greater acute infectivity in Fisher-344 rats, whereas B. suis causes chronic infectivity; and urease activity has no influence on Brucella infection using an IP route.

Equipment review: The molecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS?)
Martin Boyle, Jelica Kurtovic, David Bihari, Stephen Riordan, Christian Steiner
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc2895
Abstract: The editors of the Health Technology Assessment Section of Critical Care have facilitated the preparation article. This article maintains our previous format for such reviews in which the manufacturer provides answers to a standard questionnaire of our own design and an independent early adopter describes and reviews their own experiences using the device.Carrying out and completing prospective studies of the usefulness of new therapies is always a challenging task and that is especially true for this device. It is also true that a single intensive care unit is unlikely to be able to acquire a large amount of experience using this liver support therapy over a short period of time.These articles are not able to resolve this dilemma, but they do illustrate the real world difficulty in deciding when and where to deploy a promising new technology at the bedside when that technology is hard to test scientifically and its use is both resource and labour intensive.Christian SteinerMolecular adsorbents recirculating system (MARS?) therapy is a blood detoxification system based on albumin dialysis that is able to remove albumin-bound and water-soluble substances selectively. 'Cleaning' the body's albumin pool restores its ability to balance several systems in the body in pathological situations.? Primary and secondary liver failure/dysfunctioni. Primary:a. Decompensated chronic liver disease (re-compensation/bridge to transplant)b. Acute liver failure (recovery/bridge)c. Liver failure after liver transplantationii. Secondary liver failure and multi-organ failure/dysfunction? Intractable pruritus in cholestasis? Liver failure after liver surgery? Effective and selective removal of water-soluble and albumin-bound substances [1] including nitric oxide? Impact on neurological [2], hemodynamic [3,4], renal [5,6] and other end-organ functions in liver failure [7,8]? Decrease of oxidative stress [8]? Acute decompensated chronic liver disease [5]? Hepato-renal syndrome [6]? Overview
Physical activity among adolescents and barriers to delivering physical education in Cornwall and Lancashire, UK: A qualitative study of heads of PE and heads of schools
Spencer Boyle, Georgina L Jones, Stephen J Walters
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-273
Abstract: Seventeen semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a snowball sample of HOPE and HS in schools in the Northwest and Southwest of England. Thematic data analysis using NVIVO was used to identify emergent themes.17 core themes were generated, 12 of which confirmed the findings from similar research. However, five themes relating to 'ethos of performance/elitism', 'lower fitness leads to lower ability', 'undervaluing activities within PE dept' or school as a whole', 'role of the school' and 'PE department doing all it can' offer valuable new insight into the factors which may encourage or prevent PA inside or outside the curriculum.Despite many positive perceptions of the delivery of PE in schools, it is evident that barriers still exist within that delivery which discourages physical activity. More research is needed to particularly address the complex issues of elitism and the ethos of PA in schools.Recent data indicate that almost one in four young people in the UK (23.7% of 11–15 year old males and 26.2% females) are now classed as obese [1]. There is much speculation about the causes of obesity in young adolescents. However, it has been reported that one of the leading contributory factors of childhood obesity is a lack of physical activity (PA) [1]. Although a common standard of the optimum level of young people's physical activity has yet to be universally agreed upon [2], the UK government (as part of its physical education school sports club links strategy), set a target in 1999 that 85% of school children should take part in two hours per week of high quality sport and physical education (PE) and a variety of new initiatives were introduced in schools to help children achieve this target by 2008 [3].Nevertheless, despite these new initiatives there is still controversy amongst physical educators and academics over whether young people are obtaining adequate levels of PE and are sufficiently physically active. For example, according to a Sp
Impact of a Practical Skills Assessment on the Individual Engagement of Undergraduate Pharmacy Students within Laboratory Coursework Sessions  [PDF]
Susanne P. Boyle
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326137
Abstract: This study reports on the learner impact, practicability and cost effectiveness of an individual practical skills test designed to assess the interpretative and manipulative skills of undergraduate pharmacy in a laboratory setting. The reliability of the assessment tool across a 5 year period was examined and refinements introduced in response to constructive feedback from colleagues and learner feedback recorded via end of year Student Evaluation Questionnaires. A blended learning strategy supported the needs of multiple learning styles and inclusion of a formative assessment increased student confidence and improved cohort performance in the summative assessment. Future directions include the introduction of a peer learning activity as a means of reducing group sizes and providing an opportunity for the learners to develop skills in constructive critique and reflective learning.
A Comparison of Children’s Fitness in the Northwest and Southwest of England  [PDF]
Spencer Earl Boyle
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2014.44020
Abstract: The data from this paper was gathered from a larger cross-sectional study examining children’s physical activity participation in the Northwest and the Southwest of England. The purpose of this study was to carry out a battery of health and fitness tests with children in both areas to examine possible differences in various aspects of fitness or health by area. Heart rate recovery, flexibility, body fat, hand grip strength, upper body strength, explosive strength and agility were all measured using youth fitness tests endorsed by EUROFIT and YMCA with 59 boys and 57 girls across both areas. There were no statistically significant differences in both groups of children in hand grip strength, flexibility and agility. Statistically significant differences were noted between both groups of children in explosive strength, upper body strength and measured body fat percentage. Overall the study showed mixed results that may indicate area of residence influences aspects of fitness or activity. Further study is recommended to assess whether physical activity could play a role in the associated fitness characteristics.
Circumcision of Infants and Children: Short-Term Trauma and Long-Term Psychosexual Harm  [PDF]
Gregory J. Boyle
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2015.52004
Abstract: Non-therapeutic infant male circumcision is a permanent surgical alteration to the penis that may cause significant physical, sexual and psychological harm. Physical harms include unintended adverse effects of the surgery itself (e.g., complications such as bleeding, infection, excessive removal of foreskin leaving insufficient shaft skin to accommodate erections, etc.), as well as the inherent loss of healthy, functional tissue. Sexual harms that necessarily follow from circumcision include the loss of all sensation in the foreskin itself, and the loss of all sexual functions that involve the physical manipulation of the foreskin. Additional sexual harms that may follow circumcision include reduced sexual sensation in the remaining penile structures, difficulty with masturbation, increased chafing in both the circumcised man and his sexual partner, as well as reduced overall psychosexual/psychological tension relief and subjective satisfaction. Psychological harms include short-term trauma as well as the potential for long-term emotional disturbances, including sadness, frustration, distress, and anger—akin to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper, the extent and severity of these various harms are considered and it is argued that they are more serious and more widespread than is commonly believed.
Does Male Circumcision Adversely Affect Sexual Sensation, Function, or Satisfaction? Critical Comment on Morris and Krieger (2013)  [PDF]
Gregory J. Boyle
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2015.52002
Abstract: Morris and Krieger (2013) have argued that male circumcision does not impact adversely on sexual sensation, satisfaction, and/or function. In the present paper, it is argued that such a view is untenable. By selectively citing Morris’ own non-peer-reviewed letters and opinion pieces purporting to show flaws in studies reporting evidence of negative effects of circumcision, and by failing adequately to account for replies to these letters by the authors of the original research (and others), Morris and Krieger give an incomplete and misleading account of the available literature. Consequently, Morris and Krieger reach an implausible conclusion that is inconsistent with what is known about the anatomy and functions of the penile foreskin, and the likely effects of its surgical removal.
w-MPS Risk Aversion and the CAPM  [PDF]
Phelim P. Boyle, Chenghu Ma
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.36052

This paper establishes general conditions for the validity of mutual fund separation and the equilibrium CAPM. We use partial preference orders that display weak form mean preserving spread (w-MPS) risk aversion in the sense of Ma (2011). We derive this result without imposing any distributional assumptions on asset returns. The results hold even when the market contains an infinite number of securities and a continuum number of traders, and when each investor is permitted to hold some (arbitrary) finite portfolios. A proof of existence of equilibrium CAPM is provided for finite economies by assuming that when preferences are constrained on the market subspace spanned by the risk free bond, the market portfolios admit continuous utility representations.


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