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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 403880 matches for " Stephanie M. Walsh "
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Action-oriented obesity counseling attains weight stabilization and improves liver enzymes among overweight and obese children and adolescents  [PDF]
Allison C. Sylvetsky, Jean A. Welsh, Stephanie M. Walsh, Miriam B. Vos
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.23037
Abstract: Introduction: Pediatricians are encouraged to promote behavior modification to reduce childhood obesity and its co-morbidities, yet the effectiveness of office counseling is unclear. We aimed to evaluate if a low-intensity intervention (action-oriented counseling) in a clinic setting results in weight stabilization, and if the effect is modified by a diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that patients with NAFLD would be more motivated to adhere to the lifestyle goals set in clinic, due to the diagnosis of an obesity-related condition; and, would therefore achieve greater weight reduction compared to similarly overweight and obese patients without a diagnosis of NAFLD. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 73 (35 male, 38 female) overweight and obese patients (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) attending a pediatric GI clinic between January 2006 and October 2011. Analysis was conducted to determine if lifestyle goals discussed with the patient at each clinic visit were associated with improved BMI, BMI z-score, and liver enzymes. Treatment outcomes among NAFLD patients and similarly obese patients without NAFLD were compared using t-tests and chi-square tests. Results: Of the children evaluated, 74.0% achieved a reduction or stabilization in BMI z-score after 3 months of follow-up. Among NAFLD patients, liver enzymes improved in 72% of those who were able to stabilize or reduce their BMI and among 43% of those who gained weight. Treatment outcome did not significantly differ based on having a diagnosis of NAFLD, although there was a trend towards greater improvements. Conclusion: Our study suggests that action oriented counseling including goal-setting in a low intensity, clinic based approach is effective in improving patient BMI, in the presence or absence of an obesity-related co-morbidity, such as NAFLD. Further, we demonstrated that lifestyle modification led to improvement of liver enzymes in NAFLD patients and may result in other clinically relevant improvements. Longer studies will be needed to determine if the improvements are sustained.
Youth Understanding of Healthy Eating and Obesity: A Focus Group Study
Allison C. Sylvetsky,Monique Hennink,Dawn Comeau,Jean A. Welsh,Trisha Hardy,Linda Matzigkeit,Deanne W. Swan,Stephanie M. Walsh,Miriam B. Vos
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/670295
Abstract: Introduction. Given the high prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States, we aimed to investigate youth's understanding of obesity and to investigate gaps between their nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and perceived susceptibility to obesity and its co-morbidities. Methods. A marketing firm contracted by Children's Healthcare of Atlanta facilitated a series of focus group discussions (FGD) to test potential concepts and sample ads for the development of an obesity awareness campaign. Data were collected in August and September of 2010 with both overweight and healthy weight 4th-5th grade and 7th-8th grade students. We conducted a secondary analysis of the qualitative FGD transcripts using inductive thematic coding to identify key themes related to youth reports of family eating habits (including food preparation, meal frequency, and eating environment), perceived facilitators and barriers of healthy diet, and knowledge about obesity and its complications. Results. Across focus group discussions, mixed attitudes about healthy eating, low perceived risk of being or becoming obese, and limited knowledge about the health consequences of obesity may contribute to the rising prevalence of obesity among youth in Georgia. Most youth were aware that obesity was a problem; yet most overweight youth felt that their weight was healthy and attributed overweight to genetics or slow metabolism. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that urban youth in Georgia commonly recognize obesity as a problem, but there is less understanding of the link to lifestyle choices or the connection to future morbidities, suggesting a need for education to connect lifestyle behaviors to development of obesity. 1. Introduction The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has risen dramatically over the last three decades [1] and is the highest in the Southeastern region of the country [2]. Overweight youth are at risk of being obese during adulthood [3] and are likely to experience obesity-related chronic illness [4]. The increase in obesity and its comorbidities among youth is multifactorial in cause, including increased access to foods high in fats, added sugars and calories [5], increased eating outside the home [6], larger portion sizes [7], and a sedentary lifestyle [8]. The diversity of these contributors to childhood obesity has made it difficult to design simple, achievable, public health solutions. Studies have been conducted to identify strategies to combat obesity among youth; yet much remains to be understood. A recent qualitative study found that
Instructional Conversations in Early Childhood Classrooms: Policy Suggestions for Curriculum Standards and Professional Development  [PDF]
Stephanie M. Curenton, Tricia Zucker
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47A1009
Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to provide suggestions for two early education policy levers proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that can be specifically applied to oral language instructional in the classroom: Policy Lever 2—Designing and implementing curriculum and standards; and Policy Lever 3—Improving qualifications, training and working conditions. First, I describe the efforts the United States has made in terms of oral language instruction, and second I describe a professional development model (the Conversation Compassa?) that trains teachers to use instructional conversations with children age 2-6.

Ecosystem-Scale Effects of Nutrients and Fishing on Coral Reefs
Sheila M. Walsh
Journal of Marine Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/187248
Abstract: Nutrient pollution and fishing are the primary local causes of coral reef decline but their ecosystem-scale effects are poorly understood. Results from small-scale manipulative experiments of herbivores and nutrients suggest prioritizing management of fishing over nutrient pollution because herbivores can control macroalgae and turf in the presence of nutrients. However, ecological theory suggests that the opposite occurs at large scales. Moreover, it is unclear whether fishing decreases herbivores because fishing of predators may result in an increase in herbivores. To investigate this paradox, data on the fish and benthic communities, fishing, and nutrients were collected on Kiritimati, Kiribati. Oceanographic conditions and a population resettlement program created a natural experiment to compare sites with different levels of fishing and nutrients. Contrary to theory, herbivores controlled macroalgae in the presence of nutrients at large spatial scales, and herbivores had greater effects on macroalgae when nutrients were higher. In addition, fishing did not increase herbivores. These results suggest that protecting herbivores may have greater relative benefits than reducing nutrient pollution, especially on polluted reefs. Reallocating fishing effort from herbivores to invertivores or planktivores may be one way to protect herbivores and indirectly maintain coral dominance on reefs impacted by fishing and nutrient pollution. 1. Introduction Fishing [1–7] and nutrient pollution [8, 9] or both [10–14] are cited as the most important local causes of coral reef decline. It is difficult, however, to evaluate local fishing and nutrient effects independently because these factors are almost always confounded and large-scale experiments are infeasible. Results from theoretical and small-scale experimental studies (typically <1?m2, four from 50 to 250?m2 [14]) suggest prioritizing management of herbivore populations because herbivores can control the effect of nutrients on macroalgal and turf abundance and nutrient enrichment alone is not sufficient to cause a phase shift from coral to macroalgal and/or turf algal dominance [11, 14, 15]. In order to apply these results and implement ecosystem-based management, information is needed on (1) how fishing and nutrients interactively affect the fish and benthic communities, (2) the mechanisms by which fishing (rather than cages that exclude fish) and nutrients are linked to shifts to macroalgal and turf algal dominance, and (3) whether herbivores can control macroalgae and turf algae when nutrient enrichment
The anti-inflammatory effects of levocetirizine - are they clinically relevant or just an interesting additional effect?
Garry M Walsh
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1710-1492-5-14
Abstract: The effects of histamine are exerted through three well defined classical G protein coupled histamine receptor subtypes termed H1R, H2R, and H3R [1] and the more recently described H4R [2]. Histamine signalling through H1R is responsible for the majority of the immediate manifestations of allergic disease. Levocetirizine (Xyzal?) is the single R-isomer of the racemic mixture piperazine H1R-antagonist cetirizine dihydrochloride in a once-daily 5mg formulation. The parent compound cetirizine (Zyrtec), a once-daily 10 mg formulation, is also an effective treatment for allergic disease being the most-widely used second-generation antihistamine worldwide. Levocetirizine is a selective, potent, oral histamine H1R antagonist that is licensed in Europe as tablets and oral solution for use in adults and children over 2 years of age for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis (including persistent allergic rhinitis) and chronic idiopathic urticaria. More recently, levocetirizine tablets under the trade name Xyzal have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in adults and children over 6 years of age in the United States.Levocetirizine is a potent antihistamine as demonstrated by its ability to inhibit cutaneous histamine-induced itching and the wheal and flare reaction [3-5]. The histamine-induced wheal and flare model in human skin is a widely-used reproducible and standardized methodology that gives an objective measure of the effectiveness of antihistamines in human subjects, together with any differences in onset and duration of action. The majority of these studies found levocetirizine to be the most potent of the antihistamines tested [5], including the parent compound cetirizine [6]. Large, well designed controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of levocetirizine in adults with allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria [7,8], while well conducted studies have demonstrated levocetirizine to be safe and effective in young
Introductory Editorial (Journal of Cell Death)
Garry M. Walsh
Journal of Cell Death , 2012,
Abstract:
Grand challenges in cell death and survival: apoptosis vs. necroptosis
Craig M. Walsh
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2014.00003
Abstract:
Antagonism of cytokine-induced eosinophil accumulation in asthma
Garry M. Walsh
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2012.00197
Abstract:
Non-uniqueness in conformal formulations of the Einstein constraints
D. M. Walsh
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/24/8/002
Abstract: Standard methods in non-linear analysis are used to show that there exists a parabolic branching of solutions of the Lichnerowicz-York equation with an unscaled source. We also apply these methods to the extended conformal thin sandwich formulation and show that if the linearised system develops a kernel solution for sufficiently large initial data then we obtain parabolic solution curves for the conformal factor, lapse and shift identical to those found numerically by Pfeiffer and York. The implications of these results for constrained evolutions are discussed.
On the stability of solutions of the Lichnerowicz-York equation
Darragh M Walsh
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/30/6/065007
Abstract: We study the stability of solution branches for the Lichnerowicz-York equation at moment of time symmetry with constant unscaled energy density. We prove that the weak-field lower branch of solutions is stable whilst the upper branch of strong-field solutions is unstable. The existence of unstable solutions is interesting since a theorem by Sattinger proves that the sub-super solution monotone iteration method only gives stable solutions.
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