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Overweight and obese
individuals are at increased risk for many diseases and health conditions,
including but not limited to the following: hypertension; osteoarthritis;
dyslipidemia; type 2 diabetes; coronary heart
disease and stroke. Consequently, individuals who are obese are more
likely to use health services and are more likely
to use costly health services than non-obese individuals. Between 1987
and 2001, growth in obesity related health expenditures accounted for 27
percent of the growth in inflation-adjusted per capita health care spending.
Researchers, popular press and the television news media have paid considerable
attention to the effect that farm subsidies have on dietary habits and obesity.
Prominent researchers in the field have
concluded that US farm subsidies have had a negligible impact on obesity. However, even small increases in obesity rates are associated with higher health care
expenditures. The primary intent of this study is to break down the linkages
from farm subsidy to health expenditure and shed light on the unintended implications
of the farm subsidy program. We find that agricultural subsidies have the
potential to influence health care expenditures.
Mobile learning apps for smartphones and tablet computer devices have entered Higher Education (HE) market. While universities are investing in new technologies, they also look into cost reduction strategies, including cloud computing. We draw upon a case study of a successful migration to mobile virtual environment and effective use of cloud computing at a UK university. Success factors and challenges of these emerging technologies in HE are discussed. The paper concludes with the consideration of student experience implications and research questions which need addressing in the area of ubiquitous learning.
investigated the roles of adolescent popularity and likeability in eight
domains of risk-taking in Australian grade 9 students (53% girls). The eight domains included previously examined areas of aggressive behaviours, alcohol use, and sexual intercourse, and
areas where there is scarce information, including antisocial activities,
unprotected intercourse, body image-related risk-taking, unsafe road
practices, and stranger-related risk-taking. The results indicated a clear
association between popularity and higher risk-taking in five of the eight domains.
This is contrasted with likeability, which was not directly related to
risk-taking aside from one two-way interaction with gender for sexual intercourse.
The findings demonstrate the importance of including a broader range of risk-taking
activities when considering popularity, particularly stranger-related
validity (including hit rates, kappa coefficients, and chance expectancy rates)
between standard scoring and person matching was compared by gender based upon
ex post facto data collected on 5143 medical students who had taken a career
interest inventory and entered their medical residency. Hit rate accuracy for
person matching with females and males in this study was lower than standard
scoring. However, person matching demonstrated greater gender balancing in
first match hit rates. Additionally, person matching increased career interest
inventory validity over standard scoring as it has the greater ability to a)
differentiate between and b) assign to specific occupational groups for females
and males. Furthermore, person matching has the potential to offer female and
male test takers the ability to receive narrative career data, which could
improve the career decision making process over the scoring reports of career
interest inventories using standard scoring.
Wet soil microcosms were established to determine effects of organic matter and nitrate additions on microbial respiration and redox potentials. Organic matter (1%) and nitrate (100 ppm and 200 ppm) treatments were applied in factorial combination. Soil pH, redox potential, and CO2 emissions were measured. Data were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures and separately by sampling day. Addition of organic matter significantly (P < 0.05) and consistently increased CO2 emissions and decreased redox potentials. On Day 42 nitrate significantly (P < 0.05) increased redox values. This study indicates a tendency for organic matter to decrease soil redox potential both in absolute terms and relative to the suboxic-anoxic boundary. Our findings portend that additions of organic matter may quickly and markedly decrease soil redox potentials and increase CO2 emissions in wetlands, whereas additions of nitrate may have complex and sporadic effects on redox potentials.