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Use of Artificial Nests for Rearing and Studying Polistes Wasps
Stefano Turillazzi
Psyche , 1980, DOI: 10.1155/1980/76389
The timing of perinatal hypoxia/ischemia events in term neonates: a retrospective autopsy study. HSPs, ORP-150 and COX2 are reliable markers to classify acute, perinatal events
Irene Riezzo, Margherita Neri, Francesco De Stefano, Ezio Fulcheri, Francesco Ventura, Cristoforo Pomara, Roberto Rabozzi, Emanuela Turillazzi, Vittorio Fineschi
Diagnostic Pathology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-5-49
Abstract: We performed an immunohistochemical investigation on brain and brainstem sections of 47 peripartum deaths. The gradation and localization of the expression of antibodies such as TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, HSPs, β APP, anti-TrypH, GAP43, GFAP, COX2, ORP-150, could be correlated with an hypoxic-ischemic damage to document a significant correlation between response and the time of onset acute (≤8 hs) or non-acute (≥8 hs ≤48 hs).In non-acute cases HSP70 reaction was prominent in the neuron cytoplasm, while in acute cases a mild reaction was evident in sporadic fields. HSP90 exhibited a similar pattern of positivity as HSP70. In acute group, ORP150 expressed an intense reaction showing a granular pattern in the cytoplasm of the neurons in the cortex of the infarcted areas. In non-acute group the positive reaction was more intense in astrocytes and less extended in neurons. COX2 reaction exhibited the strongest positive reaction in the neuronal cell bodies of acute cases, while a immunolabeling was prominent in the glial cytoplasm in the non-acute cases.Chaperones HSP70 and 90, ORP-150 reaction, and COX2 protein, have provided very interesting results. These results would suggest to the clinicians to extend the differential diagnosis of a too large perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult category to delineate a more accurate chronological judgement.The timing of perinatal hypoxia is complex and incompletely understood. It is traditionally based on clinical, laboratory and instrumental criteria which are nonspecific markers of a difficult birth [1,2]. These non-specific intra-partum markers provide poor information on the timing and duration of an asphyxiating insult [3]. Autopsy, placental and cord examination, laboratory tests and genetic studies may explain both the cause of death and the time of onset of the neuropathology. Brain histological examination can provide useful information on the timing of an hypoxic - ischemic lesion; the patterns of perinatal brain injury depend on the
How old are you? Newborn gestational age discriminates neonatal resuscitation practices in the Italian debate
Emanuela Turillazzi, Vittorio Fineschi
BMC Medical Ethics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-10-19
Abstract: The Italian scenario reflects the current animated debate, illustrating the difficulty intrinsic in rigid guidelines on the subject, especially when gestational age is taken as a reference parameter for the medical decision.Concerning the decision to interrupt or not to initiate resuscitation procedures on low gestational age newborns, physicians do not need rigid rules based on inflexible gestational age and birth weight guidelines. Guidance in addressing the difficult and trying issues associated with infants born at the margins of viability with a realistic assessment of the infant's clinical condition must be based on the infant's best interests, with clinicians and parents entering into what has been described as a "partnership of care".In recent decades a lively debate has developed concerning the decision to interrupt or not to initiate resuscitation procedures on low gestational age newborns [1-3]. The flourishing of rulings by multidisciplinary study groups is evidence of the importance of this debate, with neonatologists, paediatricians, obstetricians and bioethicists working togheter in the attempt to support decisions regarding whether to resuscitate "at risk" newborns or not [4,5].At present, in Italy, there has been an increasingly insistent request for juridical regulation of neonatal resuscitation practices as well as for clarification of the role of parents in decisions regarding this kind of assistance. A look at the operative situation shows that adherence to neonatal resuscitation guidelines is low across Italian tertiary centres. The practice of and approach to the resuscitation of ELBW (Extremely Low Birth Weight) infants varies greatly between the centres surveyed, reflecting a paucity of evidence and consequent uncertainty among clinicians [6,7].In this scenario emerged the so-called "Carta di Firenze", compiled by a group of Italian obstetricians and paediatricians, which in addition to the need to ensure that the mother and the newborn are
Exploring Proteins in Anopheles gambiae Male and Female Antennae through MALDI Mass Spectrometry Profiling
Francesca R. Dani, Simona Francese, Guido Mastrobuoni, Antonio Felicioli, Beniamino Caputo, Frederic Simard, Giuseppe Pieraccini, Gloriano Moneti, Mario Coluzzi, Alessandra della Torre, Stefano Turillazzi
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002822
Abstract: MALDI profiling and imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) are novel techniques for direct analysis of peptides and small proteins in biological tissues. In this work we applied them to the study of Anopheles gambiae antennae, with the aim of analysing expression of soluble proteins involved in olfaction perireceptor events. MALDI spectra obtained by direct profiling on single antennae and by the analysis of extracts, showed similar profiles, although spectra obtained through profiling had a richer ion population and higher signal to noise ratio. Male and female antennae showed distinct protein profiles. MALDI imaging experiments were also performed and differences were observed in the localization of some proteins. Two proteins were identified through high resolution measurement and top-down MS/MS experiments. A 8 kDa protein only present in the male antennae matched with an unannotated sequence of the An. gambiae genome, while the presence of odorant binding protein 9 (OBP-9) was confirmed through experiments of 2-DE, followed by MS and MS/MS analysis of digested spots. This work shows that MALDI MS profiling is a technique suitable for the analysis of proteins of small and medium MW in insect appendices, and allows obtaining data for several specimens which can be investigated for differences between groups. Proteins of interest can be identified through other complementary MS approaches.
Colloid cyst of the third ventricle, hypothalamus, and heart: a dangerous link for sudden death
Emanuela Turillazzi, Stefania Bello, Margherita Neri, Irene Riezzo, Vittorio Fineschi
Diagnostic Pathology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-7-144
Abstract: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4915842848034158 webciteColloid cysts are rare congenital, intracranial neoplasms, commonly located in the third ventricle, accounting for 0.2-2% of all intracranial and approximately for 15–20% of intraventricular neoplasms, respectively. Colloid cysts are slow growing and the initial onset of symptoms is usually between 20 and 50 years of age, although they have been reported also in younger patients [1]. Diagnosis during childhood is unusual and only 1-2% of all reported cases occurred during the patients’ first decade [2].Although colloid cysts usually represent histopathologically benign neoplasms, they can result in sudden, unexpected and potentially lethal complications. The mechanism(s) of death is still a controversial subject and several mechanisms have been postulated to explain the sudden onset of severe symptoms and of fatal rapid deterioration in patients with colloid cysts [3].Here we present the death of a previously healthy young boy harboring a colloid cyst of the third ventricle. We investigated the possible mechanism of death through a careful histological examination of heart specimens in addition to gross and histological examination of the brain.A 10 year – old boy at 8.00 p.m. complained a severe headache accompanied by vomiting attacks. An emergency physician visited him and advised him to rest for some hours. He lost consciousness in the early morning and was transported to the local hospital, where he was pronounced dead upon arrival. The medical history taken from the parents showed no significant signs and symptoms except for repeated mild attacks of leg weakness. Familial history was negative both for cardiovascular and neurological diseases and sudden death.At autopsy, gross examination showed an enlarged, edematous, symmetrical brain weighing 1650g. Marked brain swelling with gyral flattening, and sulcal narrowing were also detected.
Feasibility Evaluation of Integrating UsabilityEngineering Issues in a Design for Multi-XCollaborative Framework  [PDF]
Stefano Filippi
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2011.31004
Abstract: Design for manufacturing, design for assembly, and, in general, design for X, are methods helping an effective generation of industrial products. In parallel with the development of these methods, the research about usability engineering has generated many important results, both from the design, and the evaluation and testing points of view. The research described in this paper aims at evaluating the feasibility of the integration of two new usability methods, the design for innovative usability - DFIU -, and the integrated method for usability evaluation and testing - IMUET -, in an existing design for X named design guidelines collaborative framework - DGLs-CF -. Indeed, the DGLs-CF is a design for multi-X method, given that it covers both the manufacturing and the verification phases of the industrial product lifecycle. All these methods are currently under development by the author’s research group. To evaluate this feasibility, the first task of the research aims at describing and classifying the components of the three methods. Next, these components are semantically related to each other. Finally, the last activity verifies the compatibility between the components of the two usability methods and the data structures of the DGLs-CF to check the feasibility from the implementation point of view. The result of this research will consist of precise indications both for the development of a design for multi-X collaborative framework covering homogeneously the design, manufacturing, verification, and use phases of the industrial product lifecycle, and to be used as a reference for researchers interested in considering the integration of usability issues in their design tools, methods, and processes.
A General Purpose Analysis Package  [PDF]
Stefano Federico
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.22022
Abstract: This paper presents a general-purpose analysis package able to solve two- and three- dimensional analysis problems. The system can use the following methods of solution: Successive Approximation (SA), Optimal Interpolation (OI), and 3D-Var. Analyses are given for the following parameters: zonal and meridional wind components, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential height. The analysis package was applied to produce analyses at 6 h time interval for the period 1-11 August 2008. The period was selected for data availability and forty-one analyses were collected. The results show the validity of the different solutions, which can be chosen depending on the physical problem to solve and on the computational resources available. In particular, assuming the observations as the reference, all solutions show a decrease of the RMSE compared to the background. The decrease is consistent with the particular setting of the analysis system used in this paper. The comparison between different solutions shows that the SA converges to OI in few iterations, and that the SA solution with ten iteration is, in practice, equal to OI. Moreover, the 3D-Var method shows its potential to improve the analysis, once the horizontal and vertical length-scales and the background and observational errors are set optimally, because its solution may be sizeably different from two-dimensional methods.
Preliminary Results of a Data Assimilation System  [PDF]
Stefano Federico
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.31009

A data assimilation system combines all available information on the atmospheric state in a given time-window to produce an estimate of atmospheric conditions valid at a prescribed analysis time. Nowadays, increased computing power coupled with greater access to real-time asynoptic data is paving the way toward a new generation of high-resolution (i.e. on the order of 10 km) operational mesoscale analyses and forecasting systems. Moreover, better initial conditions are increasingly considered of the utmost importance for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) at the short range (0 - 12 h). This paper presents a general-purpose data assimilation system, which is coupled with the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) to give the analyses for: zonal and meridional wind components, temperature, relative humidity, and geopotential height. In order to show its potential, the data assimilation systems applied to produce analyses over Central Europe. For this application the background field is given by a short-range forecast (12 h) of the RAMS and analyses are produced by 2D-Var with 0.25? horizontal resolution. Results show the validity of the analyses because they are closer to the observations, consistently with the settings of the data assimilation system. To quantify the impact of improved initial conditions on the forecast, the analyses are then used as initial conditions of a short-range (6 h) forecast of the RAMS model. The results show that the RMSE is effectively reduced for the one- and two hours forecast, with some improvement for the three-hours forecast.

Continued Fractions and Dynamics  [PDF]
Stefano Isola
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.57101

Several links between continued fractions and classical and less classical constructions in dynamical systems theory are presented and discussed.

Revealed Cores: Characterizations and Structure  [PDF]
Stefano Vannucci
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.614200
Abstract: Characterizations of the classes of all choice functions that select the cores or the externally stable cores induced by an underlying revealed dominance digraph are provided. Relying on such characterizations, the basic order-theoretic structure of the corresponding sets of revealed cores is also analyzed. In particular, it is shown that the poset of all revealed cores ordered by set inclusion is a median meet semilattice: therefore, any profile of revealed cores may be aggregated by means of the simple majority rule.
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