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Magnetic resonance mammography in the evaluation of recurrence at the prior lumpectomy site after conservative surgery and radiotherapy
Lorenzo Preda, Gaetano Villa, Stefania Rizzo, Luca Bazzi, Daniela Origgi, Enrico Cassano, Massimo Bellomi
Breast Cancer Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1600
Abstract: Between April 1999 and July 2003, 93 consecutive patients with breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy underwent MRM, when a malignant lesion on the site of lumpectomy was suspected by ultrasound and/or mammography. MRM scans were evaluated by morphological and dynamic characteristics. MRM diagnosis was compared with histology or with a 36-month imaging follow-up. Enhancing areas independent of the prior lumpectomy site, incidentally detected during the MRM, were also evaluated.MRM findings were compared with histology in 29 patients and with a 36-month follow-up in 64 patients. MRM showed 90% sensitivity, 91.6% specificity, 56.3% positive predictive value and 98.7% negative predictive value for detection of recurrence on the surgical scar. MRM detected 13 lesions remote from the scar. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MRM for detection of breast malignancy were 93.8%, 90%, 62.5% and 98.8%, respectively.MRM is a sensitive method to differentiate recurrence from post-treatment changes at the prior lumpectomy site after conservative surgery and radiation therapy. The high negative predictive value of this technique can avoid unnecessary biopsies or surgical treatments.Recurrence of breast cancer lesions on the surgical scar after conservative surgery and radiation therapy have been reported to occur in at least 1–2% of cases per year [1,2]. The proper follow-up of these patients usually includes periodic clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography [3]. Detection of recurrence on the prior lumpectomy site still represents a challenge because of changes in breast tissue after treatment. Clinical examination, mammography or ultrasonography can raise a suspicion but an additional evaluation is frequently mandatory to avoid unnecessary biopsy or surgery.Several recent studies have shown the important role of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging for detection of recu
Leukotriene receptor antagonists in monotherapy or in combination with antihistamines in the treatment of chronic urticaria: a systematic review
Gabriele Di Lorenzo,Alberto D’Alcamo,Manfredi Rizzo,Maria Stefania Leto-Barone
Journal of Asthma and Allergy , 2008,
Abstract: Gabriele Di Lorenzo1, Alberto D’Alcamo1, Manfredi Rizzo1, Maria Stefania Leto-Barone1, Claudia Lo Bianco1, Vito Ditta1, Donatella Politi1, Francesco Castello1, Ilenia Pepe1, Gaetana Di Fede2, GiovamBattista Rini11Dipartimento di Medicina clinica e delle Patologie Emergenti; 2Dipartimento di Discipline Chirurgiche ed Oncologiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, ItalyAbstract: In vitro and in vivo clinical and experimental data have suggested that leukotrienes play a key role in inflammatory reactions of the skin. Antileukotriene drugs, ie, leukotriene receptor antagonists and synthesis inhibitors, are a class of anti-inflammatory drugs that have shown clinical efficacy in the management of asthma and in rhinitis with asthma. We searched MEDLINE database and carried out a manual search on journals specializing in allergy and dermatology for the use of antileukotriene drugs in urticaria. Montelukast might be effective in chronic urticaria associated with aspirin (ASA) or food additive hypersensitivity or with autoreactivity to intradermal serum injection (ASST) when taken with an antihistamine but not in mild or moderate chronic idiopathic urticaria [urticaria without any possible secondary causes (ie, food additive or ASA and other NSAID hypersensitivity, or ASST)]. Evidence for the effectiveness of zafirlukast and the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton, in chronic urticaria is mainly anecdotal. In addition, there is anecdotal evidence of effectiveness of antileukotrienes in primary cold urticaria, delayed pressure urticaria and dermographism. No evidence exists for other physical urticarias, including cholinergic, solar and aquagenic urticarias, vibratory angioedema, and exercise-induced anaphylaxis.Keywords: chronic idiopathic urticaria, leukotriene receptor antagonists, montelukast, zafirlukast, antihistamine
SynthesisandcharacterizationofSi/GaEniCarbonSilicates
Giuseppe Bellussi,Angela Carati,Stefania Guidetti,Caterina Rizzo,Roberto Millini,Stefano Zanardi,Erica Montanari
催化学报 , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/S1872-2067(14)60296-5
Abstract: ?Phenylene-gallosilicateswerepreparedwiththesamecrystallinestructureastheiraluminumanalogues.ThenewGa-EniCarbonSilicates(Ga-ECS)phaseswereinvestigatedbyX-raydiffraction,scanningelectronmicroscopy,nuclearmagneticresonanceandthermogravimetricanalysis,whichdemonstratedthatgalliumisomorphouslyreplacedaluminumintheframeworkoftheorganic-inorganichybridssimilartothecaseofclassicalzeolites.HybridECSmaterialswereobtainedwithdifferenttypesofbridgedsilsesquioxaneprecursorsthatmaintainedthealuminum-silicatenatureoftheinorganicmoiety.Thisworkconfirmsanewlevelofcrystalchemistryversatilityforthisclassofmaterials,anddemonstratesthepossibilitytotailoralsotheinorganicpartoftheframeworkbychangingthenatureofthetrivalentheteroatom.
Tensile Structures of Cables Net, Guidelines to Design and Applications  [PDF]
Fabio Rizzo
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2016.62023
Abstract: The structural engineering design of not conventional typologies imposes a complex path that begins evaluating procedures of a preliminary design and ends with complex procedures to validate the analysis response. Any guide lines to follow are often available. About complex shapes, in particular, any details are presented in the codes to evaluate wind action and so wind tunnel experiments are necessary to valuate this. The evaluation of wind tunnel data is a complex process that often needs new and specific subroutines programmed by researchers. The difficult increases when the objective is to study a not specific building but general aspects as for examples the dependence of a generic phenomenon by a geometric sample; in this case it is necessary to design and to program numerical subroutines before and then the wind tunnel experiments. Often, these subroutines are left detached and are non-generalizable process. Purpose of this paper is to describe a complete procedure to pre- and post-process wind tunnel data with the objective to design a not convectional structure as a tensile structure. In this particular case the research aim is a parametrization of the aerodynamic behavior of Hyperbolic Paraboloid roofs, shape used for cables net. The reason of the experiments is the absence in the international codes of the pressure coefficients for these geometries. The paper describes the numerical procedure evaluated to choose a sufficient representative geometric sample, the numerical procedure evaluated to design and to construct the wind tunnel models and FE models, the numerical procedure to evaluate and to use for FEM analyses of the wind tunnel data, the numerical procedure to calculate nonlinear structural analysis, and, finally some applications. All these numerical procedures use basic theory derived for example by the cable theory, the fluid mechanic, the nonlinear geometric analysis and other. However specific codes were necessary and were programmed to apply the theories on the specific case of study; the complete methodology followed is presented. The goal is to create a free open domain where the numerical procedures evaluated are merged, added, modified by researchers with the aim to obtain a common space of use for wind engineering of not conventional structure.
Effects of Long-Term Space Flight on Erythrocytes and Oxidative Stress of Rodents
Angela Maria Rizzo, Paola Antonia Corsetto, Gigliola Montorfano, Simona Milani, Stefania Zava, Sara Tavella, Ranieri Cancedda, Bruno Berra
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032361
Abstract: Erythrocyte and hemoglobin losses have been frequently observed in humans during space missions; these observations have been designated as “space anemia”. Erythrocytes exposed to microgravity have a modified rheology and undergo hemolysis to a greater extent. Cell membrane composition plays an important role in determining erythrocyte resistance to mechanical stress and it is well known that membrane composition might be influenced by external events, such as hypothermia, hypoxia or gravitational strength variations. Moreover, an altered cell membrane composition, in particular in fatty acids, can cause a greater sensitivity to peroxidative stress, with increase in membrane fragility. Solar radiation or low wavelength electromagnetic radiations (such as gamma rays) from the Earth or the space environment can split water to generate the hydroxyl radical, very reactive at the site of its formation, which can initiate chain reactions leading to lipid peroxidation. These reactive free radicals can react with the non-radical molecules, leading to oxidative damage of lipids, proteins and DNA, etiologically associated with various diseases and morbidities such as cancer, cell degeneration, and inflammation. Indeed, radiation constitutes on of the most important hazard for humans during long-term space flights. With this background, we participated to the MDS tissue-sharing program performing analyses on mice erythrocytes flown on the ISS from August to November 2009. Our results indicate that space flight induced modifications in cell membrane composition and increase of lipid peroxidation products, in mouse erythrocytes. Moreover, antioxidant defenses in the flight erythrocytes were induced, with a significant increase of glutathione content as compared to both vivarium and ground control erythrocytes. Nonetheless, this induction was not sufficient to prevent damages caused by oxidative stress. Future experiments should provide information helpful to reduce the effects of oxidative stress exposure and space anemia, possibly by integrating appropriate dietary elements and natural compounds that could act as antioxidants.
Effects of n-3 PUFAs on breast cancer cells through their incorporation in plasma membrane
Paola A Corsetto, Gigliola Montorfano, Stefania Zava, Ilaria E Jovenitti, Andrea Cremona, Bruno Berra, Angela M Rizzo
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-10-73
Abstract: Two lines of human breast cancer cells characterized by different expression of ER and EGFR receptors were treated with AA, EPA or DHA. We have used the MTT viability test and expression of apoptotic markers to evaluate the effect of PUFAs on cancer growth. Phospholipids were analysed by HPLC/GC, to assess n-3 incorporation into the cell membrane.We have observed that EPA and DHA induce cell apoptosis, a reduction of cell viability and the expression of Bcl2 and procaspase-8. Moreover, DHA slightly reduces the concentration of EGFR but EPA has no effect. Both EPA and DHA reduce the activation of EGFR.N-3 fatty acids are partially metabolized in both cell lines; AA is integrated without being further metabolized. We have analysed the fatty acid pattern in membrane phospholipids where they are incorporated with different degrees of specificity. N-3 PUFAs influence the n-6 content and vice versa.Our results indicate that n-3 PUFA feeding might induce modifications of breast cancer membrane structure that increases the degree of fatty acid unsaturation. This paper underlines the importance of nutritional factors on health maintenance and on disease prevention.Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, with an estimated 1.4 million new breast cancer cases only in 2008. Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that dietary fatty acids influence the development and subsequent progression of breast cancer [1-3]. The role that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), play in the aetiology of cancer has been highlighted by animal experiments and in vitro studies [4,5]. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for the anticancer actions of n-3 PUFAs. The most prominent mechanism for the chemopreventive action of n-3 PUFAs is their suppressive effect on the production of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived prostanoids, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which has bee
Leukotriene receptor antagonists in monotherapy or in combination with antihistamines in the treatment of chronic urticaria: a systematic review
Gabriele Di Lorenzo, Alberto D’Alcamo, Manfredi Rizzo, Maria Stefania Leto-Barone, Claudia Lo Bianco, et al
Journal of Asthma and Allergy , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S3236
Abstract: kotriene receptor antagonists in monotherapy or in combination with antihistamines in the treatment of chronic urticaria: a systematic review Review (6353) Total Article Views Authors: Gabriele Di Lorenzo, Alberto D’Alcamo, Manfredi Rizzo, Maria Stefania Leto-Barone, Claudia Lo Bianco, et al Published Date December 2008 Volume 2009:2 Pages 9 - 16 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S3236 Gabriele Di Lorenzo1, Alberto D’Alcamo1, Manfredi Rizzo1, Maria Stefania Leto-Barone1, Claudia Lo Bianco1, Vito Ditta1, Donatella Politi1, Francesco Castello1, Ilenia Pepe1, Gaetana Di Fede2, GiovamBattista Rini1 1Dipartimento di Medicina clinica e delle Patologie Emergenti; 2Dipartimento di Discipline Chirurgiche ed Oncologiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy Abstract: In vitro and in vivo clinical and experimental data have suggested that leukotrienes play a key role in inflammatory reactions of the skin. Antileukotriene drugs, ie, leukotriene receptor antagonists and synthesis inhibitors, are a class of anti-inflammatory drugs that have shown clinical efficacy in the management of asthma and in rhinitis with asthma. We searched MEDLINE database and carried out a manual search on journals specializing in allergy and dermatology for the use of antileukotriene drugs in urticaria. Montelukast might be effective in chronic urticaria associated with aspirin (ASA) or food additive hypersensitivity or with autoreactivity to intradermal serum injection (ASST) when taken with an antihistamine but not in mild or moderate chronic idiopathic urticaria [urticaria without any possible secondary causes (ie, food additive or ASA and other NSAID hypersensitivity, or ASST)]. Evidence for the effectiveness of zafirlukast and the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton, in chronic urticaria is mainly anecdotal. In addition, there is anecdotal evidence of effectiveness of antileukotrienes in primary cold urticaria, delayed pressure urticaria and dermographism. No evidence exists for other physical urticarias, including cholinergic, solar and aquagenic urticarias, vibratory angioedema, and exercise-induced anaphylaxis.
Mitochondrial Fusion Proteins and Human Diseases
Michela Ranieri,Simona Brajkovic,Giulietta Riboldi,Dario Ronchi,Federica Rizzo,Nereo Bresolin,Stefania Corti,Giacomo P. Comi
Neurology Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/293893
Abstract: Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1) and 2 (MFN2), located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1), in the inner membrane. An expanding number of degenerative disorders are associated with mutations in the genes encoding MFN2 and OPA1, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy. While these disorders can still be considered rare, defective mitochondrial dynamics seem to play a significant role in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of more common neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. We also review the literature describing the main disorders associated with the disruption of mitochondrial fusion. 1. Introduction Mitochondrial fusion and fission are fundamental processes underlying cellular dynamics [1]. They are closely related, and therefore any alterations in their equilibrium may lead to disease. How the impairment of these pathways leads to neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration is still largely debated. Fusion allows the exchange of contents, DNA, and metabolites between neighboring mitochondria, including damaged or senescent mitochondria, promoting their survival [2, 3]. Fission is necessary for proper mitochondrial transport, which depends on the specific energy demands of subcellular regions. Fission also regulates apoptosis through segregation of the most critically injured mitochondria [1, 4]. Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a cytosolic dynamin-related GTPase, plays a central role in fission by promoting mitochondrial division through its oligomerization into multimeric spiral structures [5]. To trigger mitochondrial fission, DRP1 must be recruited to the mitochondrial outer membrane, where several molecules of unknown functions colocalize; among them, mitochondrial fission 1 and mitochondrial fission factor have been proposed to be
Pro-inflammatory genetic profile and familiarity of acute myocardial infarction
Manuela Ianni, Sergio Callegari, Antonio Rizzo, Paolo Pastori, Paolo Moruzzi, Domenico Corradi, Elisa Porcellini, Gianluca Campo, Roberto Ferrari, Marco M Ferrario, Stefania Bitonte, Ilaria Carbone, Federico Licastro
Immunity & Ageing , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4933-9-14
Abstract: This study showed that a genetic signature consisting of the concomitant presence of the CC genotype of VEGF, the A allele of IL-10 and the A allele of IFN-γ was indeed present in the Offs population. In fact, the above genetic markers were more frequent in unaffected Offs (46.4%) and patients with sporadic AMI (31.8%) than in the CTR (17.3%) and the differences were highly statistically significant (Offs vs CTR: p?=?0.0001, OR?=?4.129; AMI vs CTR: p?=?0.0001, OR?=?2.224). During the 24-year follow-up, Offs with a positive familiarity in spite of a relatively young age showed an increased prevalence of diabetes, ischemic heart disease and stroke. These findings reinforce the notion that subjects with a familial history of AMI are at risk of an accelerated aging of cardiovascular system resulting in cardiovascular events.Our data suggest that selected genes with immune regulatory functions are part of the complex genetic background contributing to familiarity for cardiovascular diseases. This inflammatory genetic profile, along with classical cardiovascular risk factors, may be used for better defining individual risk of AMI in unaffected subjects.
Water and Wastewater Pipe Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring: A Review
Piervincenzo Rizzo
Advances in Civil Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/818597
Abstract: Civil infrastructures such as bridges, buildings, and pipelines ensure society's economic and industrial prosperity. Specifically, pipe networks assure the transportation of primary commodities such as water, oil, and natural gas. The quantitative and early detection of defects in pipes is critical in order to avoid severe consequences. As a result of high-profile accidents and economic downturn, research and development in the area of pipeline inspection has focused mainly on gas and oil pipelines. Due to the low cost of water, the development of nondestructive inspection (NDI) and structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies for fresh water mains and sewers has received the least attention. Moreover, the technical challenges associated with the practical deployment of monitoring system demand synergistic interaction across several disciplines, which may limit the transition from laboratory to real structures. This paper presents an overview of the most used NDI/SHM technologies for freshwater pipes and sewers. The challenges that said infrastructures pose with respect to oil and natural gas pipeline networks will be discussed. Finally, the methodologies that can be translated into SHM approaches are highlighted. 1. Introduction The soundness of engineering systems such as pipelines, railroads, highways, off-shore platforms, and other structural elements is essential to avoiding (or in order to avoid) catastrophic failures that may be accompanied by severe consequences for the environment, lead to the loss of human life, and produce tonnage of demolition waste. To design structures that are safe for public use, standardized building codes and design methodologies have been created. Unfortunately, structures are often subjected to harsh loading scenarios and severe environmental conditions not anticipated during the design process that will result in long-term structural deterioration [1]. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques aim to assess the soundness of existing infrastructure. By preventing failures and detecting damage at an early stage, it may be indirectly inferred that the lifetime of these infrastructures can be expanded. NDE is usually conducted on a time basis by qualified personnel using commercially available technology. Conversely, SHM systems collect data from sensors, ideally mounted permanently on a given structure. The data are processed according to one of the many damage detection methods that have been proposed in the last two decades, as reported in [2, 3]. In general, SHM can be
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