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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 361554 matches for " Stefan de;Délano-Frier "
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Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste
Sergio de los Santos-Villalobos,Stefan de Folter,John Paul Délano-Frier,Miguel ángel Gómez-Lim
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2011,
Abstract: A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6) t a o-1) y exportador (2*10(5) t a o-1) de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económica en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis) e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco). Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral. At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6) t year-1) and exporter (2*10(5) t year-1) of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis) and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization). This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.
Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales
Santos-Villalobos, Sergio de los;Folter, Stefan de;Délano-Frier, John Paul;Gómez-Lim, Miguel ángel;Guzmán-Ortiz, Doralinda Asunción;Pe?a-Cabriales, Juan José;
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2011,
Abstract: at world level, mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*106 t year-1) and exporter (2*105 t year-1) of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. the economic activity around mango, is integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis) and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization). this revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.
Betacyanin Biosynthetic Genes and Enzymes Are Differentially Induced by (a)biotic Stress in Amaranthus hypochondriacus
Gabriela Casique-Arroyo, Norma Martínez-Gallardo, Luis González de la Vara, John P. Délano-Frier
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099012
Abstract: An analysis of key genes and enzymes of the betacyanin biosynthetic pathway in Amaranthus hypochondriacus (Ah) was performed. Complete cDNA sequence of Ah genes coding for cyclo-DOPA 5-O glucosyltransferase (AhcDOPA5-GT), two 4, 5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase isoforms (AhDODA-1 and AhDODA-2, respectively), and a betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (AhB5-GT), plus the partial sequence of an orthologue of the cytochrome P-450 R gene (CYP76AD1) were obtained. With the exception AhDODA-2, which had a closer phylogenetic relationship to DODA-like genes in anthocyanin-synthesizing plants, all genes analyzed closely resembled those reported in related Caryophyllales species. The measurement of basal gene expression levels, in addition to the DOPA oxidase tyrosinase (DOT) activity, in different tissues of three Ah genotypes having contrasting pigmentation levels (green to red-purple) was determined. Additional analyses were performed in Ah plants subjected to salt and drought stress and to two different insect herbivory regimes. Basal pigmentation accumulation in leaves, stems and roots of betacyanic plants correlated with higher expression levels of AhDODA-1 and AhB5-GT, whereas DOT activity levels coincided with pigment accumulation in stems and roots and with the acyanic nature of green plants, respectively, but not with pigmentation in leaves. Although the abiotic stress treatments tested produced changes in pigment levels in different tissues, pigment accumulation was the highest in leaves and stems of drought stressed betacyanic plants, respectively. However, tissue pigment accumulation in stressed Ah plants did not always correlate with betacyanin biosynthetic gene expression levels and/or DOT activity. This effect was tissue- and genotype-dependent, and further suggested that other unexamined factors were influencing pigment content in stressed Ah. The results obtained from the insect herbivory assays, particularly in acyanic plants, also support the proposal that these genes could have functions other than betacyanin biosynthesis.
Burkholderia ambifaria and B. caribensis Promote Growth and Increase Yield in Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus) by Improving Plant Nitrogen Uptake
Fannie I. Parra-Cota, Juan J. Pe?a-Cabriales, Sergio de los Santos-Villalobos, Norma A. Martínez-Gallardo, John P. Délano-Frier
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088094
Abstract: Grain amaranth is an emerging crop that produces seeds having high quality protein with balanced amino-acid content. However, production is restricted by agronomic limitations that result in yields that are lower than those normally produced by cereals. In this work, the use of five different rhizobacteria were explored as a strategy to promote growth and yields in Amaranthus hypochondriacus cv. Nutrisol and A. cruentus cv. Candil, two commercially important grain amaranth cultivars. The plants were grown in a rich substrate, high in organic matter, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) and under greenhouse conditions. Burkholderia ambifaria Mex-5 and B. caribensis XV proved to be the most efficient strains and significantly promoted growth in both grain amaranth species tested. Increased grain yield and harvest index occurred in combination with chemical fertilization when tested in A. cruentus. Growth-promotion and improved yields correlated with increased N content in all tissues examined. Positive effects on growth also occurred in A. cruentus plants grown in a poor soil, even after N and P fertilization. No correlation between non-structural carbohydrate levels in roots of inoculated plants and growth promotion was observed. Conversely, gene expression assays performed at 3-, 5- and 7-weeks after seed inoculation in plants inoculated with B. caribensis XV identified a tissue-specific induction of several genes involved in photosynthesis, sugar- and N- metabolism and transport. It is concluded that strains of Burkholderia effectively promote growth and increase seed yields in grain amaranth. Growth promotion was particularly noticeable in plants grown in an infertile soil but also occurred in a well fertilized rich substrate. The positive effects observed may be attributed to a bio-fertilization effect that led to increased N levels in roots and shoots. The latter effect correlated with the differential induction of several genes involved in carbon and N metabolism and transport.
Grain Amaranths Are Defoliation Tolerant Crop Species Capable of Utilizing Stem and Root Carbohydrate Reserves to Sustain Vegetative and Reproductive Growth after Leaf Loss
Erandi Vargas-Ortiz, Eduardo Espitia-Rangel, Axel Tiessen, John Paul Délano-Frier
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067879
Abstract: Tolerance to defoliation can be defined as the degree to which productivity is affected by photosynthetic area reduction. This trait was studied in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus), which are considered to be a highly defoliation-tolerant species. The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing levels of mechanical leaf removal up to total defoliation were quantified. Tolerance appeared to be dependent on various factors: ( i) amount of lost tissue; (ii) mechanics of leaf tissue removal; (iii) environment, and (iv) species tested. Thus, grain amaranth was found to be a highly tolerant species under green-house conditions when leaf tissue loss was performed by gradual perforation. However, tolerance was compromised under similar conditions when defoliation was done by gradual cutting of the leaf. Also tolerance in completely defoliated plants tended to decrease under field conditions, where differences between A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus were observed. All non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels were reduced in stems and roots of totally defoliated amaranths one day after treatment. Such depletion probably provided the carbon (C) resources needed to sustain the early recovery process in the absence of photosynthetic capacity. This was corroborated by shading of intact plants, which produced the same rapid and drastic reduction of NSC levels in these tissues. These results emphasize the role of stored NSCs, particularly starch, in buffering the impact of severe defoliation in amaranth. The fall in sucrose synthase and cell wall invertase activity observed in stems and roots soon after defoliation was consistent with their predicted shift from sink to source tissues. It is concluded that mobilization of C stores in stems and roots, is a physiologically important trait underlying tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth.
Metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory
Paula Castrillón-Arbeláez, Norma Martínez-Gallardo, Hamlet Arnaut, Axel Tiessen, John Délano-Frier
BMC Plant Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-12-163
Abstract: Defoliation by insect herbivory (HD) or mechanical damage (MD) led to a rapid and transient reduction of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in all tissues examined. This correlated with a short-term induction of foliar sucrolytic activity, differential gene expression of a vacuolar invertase and its inhibitor, and induction of a sucrose transporter gene. Leaf starch in defoliated plants correlated negatively with amylolytic activity and expression of a β-amylase-1 gene and positively with a soluble starch synthase gene. Fatty-acid accumulation in roots coincided with a high expression of a phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate transporter gene. In all tissues there was a long-term replenishment of most metabolite pools, which allowed damaged plants to maintain unaltered growth and grain yield. Promoter analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and vacuolar invertase genes indicated the presence of cis-regulatory elements that supported their responsiveness to defoliation. HD and MD had differential effects on transcripts, enzyme activities and metabolites. However, the correlation between transcript abundance and enzymatic activities was very limited. A better correlation was found between enzymes, metabolite levels and growth and reproductive parameters.It is concluded that a rapid reduction of NSC reserves in leaves, stems and roots followed by their long-term recovery underlies tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. This requires the coordinate action of genes/enzymes that are differentially affected by the way leaf damage is performed. Defoliation tolerance in grain is a complex process that can’t be fully explained at the transcriptomic level only.The genus Amaranthus is comprised by more than 60 species. It belongs to the Amaranthaceae family that also includes sugar beet, spinach, Chenopodium spp. and several halophytes [1]. They are C4 dicotyledonous annual plants, many of which are ubiquitous weeds (e.g. A. spinosus, A. tuberculatus and A. retroflexus), wherea
Transcriptomic analysis of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) using 454 pyrosequencing: comparison with A. tuberculatus, expression profiling in stems and in response to biotic and abiotic stress
John P Délano-Frier, Hamlet Avilés-Arnaut, Kena Casarrubias-Castillo, Gabriela Casique-Arroyo, Paula A Castrillón-Arbeláez, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Julio Massange-Sánchez, Norma A Martínez-Gallardo, Fannie I Parra-Cota, Erandi Vargas-Ortiz, María G Estrada-Hernández
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-363
Abstract: A total of 2,700,168 raw reads were obtained from six 454 pyrosequencing runs, which were assembled into 21,207 high quality sequences (20,408 isotigs + 799 contigs). The average sequence length was 1,064 bp and 930 bp for isotigs and contigs, respectively. Only 5,113 singletons were recovered after quality control. Contigs/isotigs were further incorporated into 15,667 isogroups. All unique sequences were queried against the nr, TAIR, UniRef100, UniRef50 and Amaranthaceae EST databases for annotation. Functional GO annotation was performed with all contigs/isotigs that produced significant hits with the TAIR database. Only 8,260 sequences were found to be homologous when the transcriptomes of A. tuberculatus and A. hypochondriacus were compared, most of which were associated with basic house-keeping processes. Digital expression analysis identified 1,971 differentially expressed genes in response to at least one of four stress treatments tested. These included several multiple-stress-inducible genes that could represent potential candidates for use in the engineering of stress-resistant plants. The transcriptomic data generated from pigmented stems shared similarity with findings reported in developing stems of Arabidopsis and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa).This study represents the first large-scale transcriptomic analysis of A. hypochondriacus, considered to be a highly nutritious and stress-tolerant crop. Numerous genes were found to be induced in response to (a)biotic stress, many of which could further the understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to multiple stress-resistance in plants, a trait that has potential biotechnological applications in agriculture.The genus Amaranthus L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae) comprises C4 dicotyledonous herbaceous plants classified into approximately 70 species. It has a worldwide distribution, although most species are found in the warm temperate and tropical regions of the world [1,2]. Many amaranth species
Importancia agroecológica del coyul (Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart.)
Blanca C. Ramírez Hernández,Julia Za?udo Hernández,Javier E. García de Alba Verduzco,John Paul Délano Frier
Estudios sociales (Hermosillo, Son.) , 2013,
Abstract: Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ex Mart. es una especie que se extiende desde el Pacífico mexicano hasta Centro y Sudamérica. El fruto (coyul) es apreciado desde la época prehispánica, sin embargo, su consumo ha disminuido frente a otros frutos nativos y así como de los introducidos con mayor aceptación en el mercado. Se realizó un estudio en San Blas, Nayarit, México, en el que se llevó a cabo la caracterización de un agroecosistema típico donde se explotan poblaciones silvestres y cultivadas de coyul de forma tradicional y se resaltó la importancia económica, ecológica y cultural de la especie. Asimismo, se realizó la caracterización fisicoquímica del fruto; la pulpa y la semilla son fuente principalmente de grasas. De esta especie se pueden obtener subproductos tales como aceites comestibles, alimento para ganado, artesanías, entre otros; igualmente se exponen alternativas de uso llevadas a cabo por otras regiones y países que puedan conducir a conservar espacios ecológicos y culturales.
Dise o en Chile: Grandeza y peque ez del oficio
José Neira Délano
ARQ , 2001,
Abstract:
Design in chile: The grandeur and pettiness of the craft
José Neira Délano
ARQ , 2001,
Abstract:
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