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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10291 matches for " Stefan Roos "
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The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS): from joint injury to osteoarthritis
Ewa M Roos, L Stefan Lohmander
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-1-64
Abstract: The main reason for developing a single instrument with the purpose of covering several types of knee injury and including osteoarthritis (OA), was that traumatic knee injuries often causes concomitant damage to multiple structures (ligaments, menisci, cartilage, etc.) and frequently lead to the later development of OA. To be able to follow patients after a trauma and to gain insight into the change of symptoms, function etc. over time, a questionnaire which covers both the short-term and long-term consequences is needed. Prior instruments such as the Lysholm knee scoring scale [1] have focused only on the short-term consequences and instruments such as the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index [2] only on the long-term consequences. An instrument intended for follow-up of these patients needs to adequately monitor both the acute injury consequences in the physically active and younger patients, and the chronic outcome in the older.The KOOS is a knee-specific instrument, developed to assess the patients' opinion about their knee and associated problems. The KOOS evaluates both short-term and long-term consequences of knee injury. It holds 42 items in 5 separately scored subscales; Pain, other Symptoms, Function in daily living (ADL), Function in Sport and Recreation (Sport/Rec), and knee-related Quality of Life (QOL).The KOOS was originally developed in 1995 by Ewa M Roos and colleagues at the Departments of Orthopaedics at Lund University, Sweden and at the University of Vermont, USA. Thus, the American-English and Swedish versions were developed simultaneously.To ensure content validity for subjects with ACL injury, meniscus injury, and early OA, we reviewed the literature, consulted an expert panel, and conducted a pilot study (Fig. 1). The literature indicated three principal areas of patient-relevant outcomes: symptoms, functional status, and satisfaction. An expert panel comprised of patients referred to physical therapy because of knee injuries, orthopaedic surgeons, an
Astrophysical and Cosmological Probes of Dark Matter  [PDF]
Matts Roos
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.329150
Abstract: Dark matter has been introduced to explain substantial mass deficits noted at different astronomical scales, in galaxies, groups of galaxies, clusters, superclusters and even across the full horizon. Dark matter does not interact with baryonic matter except gravitationally, and therefore its effects are sensed only on the largest scales. Although it is still unknown whether dark matter consists of particles or of a field or has some other nature, it has a rich phenomenology. This review summarizes all the astrophysical and cosmological probes that have been used to produce evidence for its existence. The breadth of the subject does not permit details on the observational methods (the reference list then helps), thus the review is intended to be useful mainly to cosmologists searching to model dark matter.
Knee complaints vary with age and gender in the adult population. Population-based reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)
Przemyslaw T Paradowski, Stefan Bergman, Anne Sundén-Lundius, L Stefan Lohmander, Ewa M Roos
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-7-38
Abstract: Population-based cohort retrieved from the national population register. The knee-specific Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was mailed to 840 subjects aged 18–84 yrs.68% response rate. Women in the age group 55–74 reported more knee-related complaints in all the KOOS subscales than age-matched men. The differences were significant for the subscales Pain (p = 0.027), Symptoms (p = 0.003) and ADL function (p = 0.046).In men, worse ADL and Sport and Recreation function was seen in the oldest age group 75–84 years compared to the younger age groups (p < 0.030). In women, worse Pain (p < 0.007), ADL (p < 0.030), Sport and Recreation (p < 0.001) and QOL (p < 0.002) were seen already in the age group 55–74 compared to the younger age groups.We found pain and other symptoms, physical function, and knee-related quality of life to vary with age and gender implying the use of age- and gender matched reference values for improved understanding of the outcome after interventions due to knee injury and knee OA.Disability of the knee is a common problem across the population. In most population-based epidemiological studies singe-item questions are used to estimate the prevalence of knee pain. To assess the outcome of interventions due to knee injury and knee osteoarthritis however, the use of multi-item knee-specific outcome measures giving a broader picture of the clinical status is recommended [1,2]. One such instrument is the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) which has been validated for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction [3], meniscectomy [4] and total knee replacement [5], procedures performed in different age groups of the adult population. Several studies using other knee-specific outcome scores have shown that the average score for a control group rarely is equivalent to the best possible score and also indicated differences due to age and gender [6-8]. Thus, it is essential to establish reference data from the general populatio
Five Factor Model of Personality and the Use of Multiple Internet Functions  [PDF]
John Magnus Roos
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.510010
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to explore how the Five Factor Model of Personality relates to the use of multiple internet functions. The personality traits included in the Five Factor Model of Personality are Openness to Experiences, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism. This study builds on survey data from a sample that is representative of the Swedish population. In total, 3400 surveys were distributed with a response rate of 50 percentages (N = 1694). Our results indicate that use of multiple internet functions are positively related to Openness to Experiences and Extraversion, and nega-tively related to Neuroticism.
Lactobacillus reuteri Maintains a Functional Mucosal Barrier during DSS Treatment Despite Mucus Layer Dysfunction
Johan Dicksved, Olof Schreiber, Ben Willing, Joel Petersson, Sara Rang, Mia Phillipson, Lena Holm, Stefan Roos
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046399
Abstract: Treatment with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri has been shown to prevent dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in rats. This is partly due to reduced P-selectin-dependent leukocyte- and platelet-endothelial cell interactions, however, the mechanism behind this protective effect is still unknown. In the present study a combination of culture dependent and molecular based T-RFLP profiling was used to investigate the influence of L. reuteri on the colonic mucosal barrier of DSS treated rats. It was first demonstrated that the two colonic mucus layers of control animals had different bacterial community composition and that fewer bacteria resided in the firmly adherent layer. During DSS induced colitis, the number of bacteria in the inner firmly adherent mucus layer increased and bacterial composition of the two layers no longer differed. In addition, induction of colitis dramatically altered the microbial composition in both firmly and loosely adherent mucus layers. Despite protecting against colitis, treatment with L. reuteri did not improve the integrity of the mucus layer or prevent distortion of the mucus microbiota caused by DSS. However, L. reuteri decreased the bacterial translocation from the intestine to mesenteric lymph nodes during DSS treatment, which might be an important part of the mechanisms by which L. reuteri ameliorates DSS induced colitis.
The effect of patient characteristics on variability in pain and function over two years in early knee osteoarthritis
Przemyslaw T Paradowski, Martin Englund, L Stefan Lohmander, Ewa M Roos
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-3-59
Abstract: We assessed 143 individuals (16% women, mean age 50 years [range 27–83]) twice; 14 and 16 years after isolated meniscectomy. Subjects completed one disease-specific questionnaire, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and one generic measure, the SF-36. Individuals with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 were considered overweight, while individuals with a BMI of 30 or more were considered obese.Subjects aged 46–56 (the middle tertile) were more likely to change (≥10 points on a 0–100 scale) in the KOOS subscale Activities of Daily Living (ADL) than younger subjects (odds ratio [OR] 4.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.5–13.0). Essentially the same result was obtained after adjusting for baseline values. Overweight or obesity was a risk factor for clinically relevant change for knee pain (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0 – 5.8, OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.2 – 13.6) and obesity for change in ADL (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.2 – 15.4). The results did not remain significant when adjusted for the respective baseline value. Being symptomatic was strongly associated with increased variation in pain and function while presence or absence of radiographic changes did not influence change over two years in this cohort.In a population highly enriched in early-stage and established knee OA, symptomatic, middle-aged, and overweight or obese subjects were more likely to vary in their knee function and pain over two years. The natural course of knee pain and function may be associated with subject characteristics such as age and BMI.The osteoarthritis (OA) disease process begins much earlier than radiographic changes can be detected on plain radiographs. Individuals with such incipient OA may represent an attractive target group for future therapy aimed at slowing or stopping the further progression of OA. Individuals that have undergone meniscectomy constitute a high risk group for development of knee OA, and may represent a suitable group for studies on OA progression, as well as clinical trials in OA
Effect of leisure time physical activity on severe knee or hip osteoarthritis leading to total joint replacement: a population-based prospective cohort study
Eva Ageberg, Gunnar Engstr?m, Maria Gerhardsson de Verdier, Jan Rollof, Ewa M Roos, Stefan Lohmander
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-13-73
Abstract: Leisure time physical activity was reported by 28320 participants (mean age 58?years (SD 7.6), 60% women) at baseline. An overall leisure time physical activity score, taking both duration and intensity of physical activities into account, was created. The most commonly reported activities were also used for analysis. The incidence of knee or hip replacement due to OA over 11?years was monitored by linkage with the Swedish hospital discharge register. Cox’s proportional hazards model (crude and adjusted for potential confounding factors) was used to assess the incidence of total joint replacement, or osteotomy (knee), in separate analyses of leisure time physical activity.There was no significant overall association between leisure time physical activity and risk for knee or hip replacement due to OA over the 11-year observation time. For women only, the adjusted RR (95% CI) for hip replacement was 0.66 (0.48, 0.89) (fourth vs. first quartile), indicating a lower risk of hip replacement in those with the highest compared with the lowest physical activity. The most commonly reported activities were walking, bicycling, using stairs, and gardening. Walking was associated with a lower risk of hip replacement (adjusted RR 0.76 (95% CI 0.61, 0.94), specifically for women (adjusted RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.57, 0.98)).In this population-based study of middle-aged men and women, leisure time physical activity showed no consistent overall relationship with incidence of severe knee or hip OA, defined as joint replacement due to OA, over 11?years. For women, higher leisure time physical activity may have a protective role for the incidence of hip replacement. Walking may have a protective role for hip replacement, specifically for women.
Choosing surgery: patients' preferences within a trial of treatments for anterior cruciate ligament injury. A qualitative study
Carina A Thorstensson, L Stefan Lohmander, Richard B Frobell, Ewa M Roos, Rachael Gooberman-Hill
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-10-100
Abstract: Thirty-four in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with young (aged 18–35), physically active individuals with ACL rupture who were participating in a RCT comparing training and surgical reconstruction with training only. 22/34 were randomised to training only but crossed over to surgery. Of these, 11 were interviewed before surgery, and 11 were interviewed at least 6 months after surgery. To provide additional information, 12 patients were interviewed before randomisation. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using the Framework approach.Strong preference for surgery was commonplace and many patients said that they joined the RCT in order to bypass waiting lists. Patients who chose to cross-over described training as time consuming, boring and as unable to provide sufficient results within a reasonable timeframe. Some said their injured knees had given-way; others experienced new knee traumas; and many described their lack of trust in their knee. Patients believed that surgery would provide joint stability. Despite the ostensible satisfaction with surgery, more detailed exploration showed mixed views.Participants in a trial of treatments for acute ACL injury express a variety of views and beliefs about those treatments, and trial participation happens in the absence of equipoise. Furthermore, opting for surgical reconstruction does not necessarily provide patients with satisfactory outcomes. Definition of successful outcome may require an individualised approach, incorporating patients' as well as surgeons' views before treatment decisions are made.Knee injury, including ACL injury, is a known risk factor for the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and it was estimated that about 50% of all individuals with an acute ACL injury develop knee OA within 10–15 years [1-4]. There is no consistent evidence to suggest that ACL reconstruction actually prevents the development of OA [1,5]. The lack of clear evidence about long-term consequenc
Hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS) – validity and responsiveness in total hip replacement
Anna K Nilsdotter, L Stefan Lohmander, Maria Kl?ssbo, Ewa M Roos
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-4-10
Abstract: A 40 item questionnaire (hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score, HOOS) was constructed to assess patient-relevant outcomes in five separate subscales (pain, symptoms, activity of daily living, sport and recreation function and hip related quality of life). The HOOS contains all WOMAC LK 3.0 questions in unchanged form. The HOOS was distributed to 90 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis (mean age 71.5, range 49–85, 41 females) assigned for total hip replacement for osteoarthritis preoperatively and at six months follow-up.The HOOS met set criteria of validity and responsiveness. It was more responsive than WOMAC regarding the subscales pain (SRM 2.11 vs. 1.83) and other symptoms (SRM 1.83 vs. 1.28). The responsiveness (SRM) for the two added subscales sport and recreation and quality of life were 1.29 and 1.65, respectively. Patients ≤ 66 years of age (range 49–66) reported higher responsiveness in all five subscales than patients >66 years of age (range 67–85) (Pain SRM 2.60 vs. 1.97, other symptoms SRM 3.0 vs. 1.60, activity of daily living SRM 2.51 vs. 1.52, sport and recreation function SRM 1.53 vs. 1.21 and hip related quality of life SRM 1.95 vs. 1.57).The HOOS 2.0 appears to be useful for the evaluation of patient-relevant outcome after THR and is more responsive than the WOMAC LK 3.0. The added subscales sport and recreation function and hip related quality of life were highly responsive for this group of patients, with the responsiveness being highest for those younger than 66.Some 20 different scores have been introduced to evaluate the results of total hip replacement (THR) [1]. In the last few years a number of generic and disease specific outcome measurements have been developed for measuring the outcome from the patient's point of view [2-5]. Patient relevant outcomes are now considered the primary outcome measure in clinical trials [6-9].WOMAC, Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index LK 3.0 is a widely used disease
Similar group mean scores, but large individual variations, in patient-relevant outcomes over 2 years in meniscectomized subjects with and without radiographic knee osteoarthritis
Przemyslaw T Paradowski, Martin Englund, Ewa M Roos, L Stefan Lohmander
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-2-38
Abstract: 143 individuals (16% women, mean age at first assessment 50 years [range 27–83]) were assessed twice; approximately 14 and 16 years after isolated meniscectomy, with a median interval of 2.3 years (range 2.3–3.0). Radiographic OA (as assessed at the time of second evaluation) was present in the operated knee in 40%, and an additional 19% had a single osteophyte grade 1 in one or both of the tibiofemoral compartments. Subjects completed the self-administered and disease-specific Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS).There were no significant changes in the group mean KOOS subscale scores over the 2-year period. However, a great variability over time was seen within individual subjects. Out of 143 subjects, 16% improved and 12% deteriorated in the subscale Pain, and 13% improved and 14% deteriorated in the subscale ADL ≥ 10 points (the suggested threshold for minimal perceptible clinical change). Similar results were seen for remaining subscales.Group mean scores for this study cohort enriched in incipient and early-stage knee OA were similar over 2 years, but pain, function and quality of life changed considerably in individuals. These results may be valid also for other at risk groups with knee OA, and motivate further careful examination of the natural history of OA, as well as properties of the OA outcome instruments used. Longitudinal outcome data in OA studies need to be analyzed both on an individual and a group level.Drugs that may slow or halt the breakdown of cartilage and other joint tissues in osteoarthritis (OA) and possibly improve symptoms and function are now being developed in the pharmaceutical industry. The potential availability of disease modifying OA drugs has focused attention on our relative lack of information on the 'natural disease history' of OA with regard to changes in symptoms, functional limitations, joint structure and other markers of disease change [1].Epidemiological studies have identified factors associated with incr
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