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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2793 matches for " Stanis aw Baran "
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The Importance of Sludge Microorganisms in Nitrogen Transformations in Podzolic Soil Amended with Sewage Sludge
Jolanta Joniec , Jadwiga Furczak , Stanis aw Baran
Archives of Environmental Protection , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10265-012-0003-y
Abstract: The laboratory experiment was set up on a podzolic soil in two variants. In one of them non-sterile sewage sludge was introduced into the soil, and in the second - the same sludge but subjected previously to the process of sterilisation. In both variants the same doses of the sludge were applied: 30 (1%), 75 (2.5%), 150 (5%), 300 (10%) and 600 Mg·ha-1 (20%). Then, after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 months, the soil of both experimental variants was analysed for the numbers of bacteria and fungi decomposing proteins, the rate of the process of ammonification, the rate of the process of nitrification, and for proteolytic activity. The results obtained revealed a stimulating effect of the sludge, both sterile and non-sterile, on the numbers of the microbial groups under study and on the rate of nitrification and protease activity. Only the process of ammonification was subject to inhibition. The observed effects of the sludge were the most pronounced in the case of the higher sludge doses. Significantly greater numbers of protein-decomposing fungi and higher activity of almost all (except for ammonifcation) analysed biochemical parameters in the soil with non-sterile sludge compared to that with sterile sludge indicate an effect of microorganisms from the sludge on the microbiological transformations of nitrogen in soil amended with sewage sludge.
Magnetic Field Induction and Time Intervals of the Electron Transitions Approached in a Classical and Quantum-Mechanical Way  [PDF]
Stanisaw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.211161
Abstract: The motion of electron wave packets of a metal is examined classically in the presence of the magnetic field with the aim to calculate the time intervals between two states lying on the same Fermi surface. A lower limiting value of the transition time equal to about 10–18 sec is estimated as an average for the case when the states are lying on the Fermi surface having a spherical shape. Simultaneously, an upper limit for the electron circular frequency in a metal has been also derived. A formal reference of the classical transition time to the time interval entering the energy-time uncertainty relations known in quantum mechanics is obtained.
Relation between the Intervals ΔE and Δt Obtained in the De-Excitation Process of Electrons in Metals  [PDF]
Stanisaw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.33030
Abstract: A relation between the intervals of energy and time, derived in a former paper and associated with the electron transitions on the Fermi surface of a metal, is examined in comparison with the experimental data. These data are obtained from the de-excitation process of electrons in metals. A comparison between theory and experiment demonstrated that the new relation between energy and time is fitted much better for the experimental results than the well-known relation due to the Heisenberg theory.
Quantum of the Magnetic Flux Characteristic forExperiments Performed on the Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Effects  [PDF]
Stanisaw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.411A1003

Experimentally the plateaus characteristic for the integer quantum Hall effect is obtained in vicinity of specific values of the magnetic induction. The paper demonstrates that the ratios of these induction values to carrier concentration in the planar crystalline samples approach systematically the quanta of the magnetic flux important for the behavior of superconductors. Moreover, the same quanta can be deduced from the Landau levels theory and their application in the magnetoresistance theory gives results being in accordance with experiments. The quanta of the magnetic flux similar to those for the integer quantum Hall effect can be obtained also for the fractional quantum Hall effect. This holds on condition the experimental ratio of the magnetic flux to carrier concentration is multiplied by the filling factor of the Landau level.

Bohr’s Spectrum of Quantum States in the Atomic Hydrogen Deduced from the Uncertainty Principle for Energy and Time  [PDF]
Stanisaw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.514127

A modified uncertainty principle coupling the intervals of energy and time can lead to the shortest distance attained in course of the excitation process, as well as the shortest possible time interval for that process. These lower bounds are much similar to the interval limits deduced on both the experimental and theoretical footing in the era when the Heisenberg uncertainty principle has been developed. In effect of the bounds existence, a maximal nuclear charge Ze acceptable for the Bohr atomic ion could be calculated. In the next step the velocity of electron transitions between the Bohr orbits is found to be close to the speed of light. This result provides us with the energy spectrum of transitions similar to that obtained in the Bohr’s model. A momentary force acting on the electrons in course of their transitions is estimated to be by many orders larger than a steady electrostatic force existent between the atomic electron and the nucleus.

Circular Scale of Time and Energy of a Quantum State Calculated from the Schrödinger Perturbation Theory  [PDF]
Stanisaw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.515152
Abstract: The main facts about the scale of time considered as a plot of a sequence of events are submitted both to a review and a more detailed calculation. Classical progressive character of the time variable, present in the everyday life and in the modern science, too, is compared with a circular-like kind of advancement of time. This second kind of the time behaviour can be found suitable when a perturbation process of a quantum-mechanical system is examined. In fact the paper demonstrates that the complicated high-order Schrodinger perturbation energy of a non-degenerate quantum state becomes easy to approach of the basis of a circular scale. For example for the perturbation order N = 20 instead of 19! ≈ 1.216 × 1017 Feynman diagrams, the contribution of which should be derived and calculated, only less than 218 ≈ 2.621 × 105 terms belonging to N = 20 should be taken into account to the same purpose.
Circular Scale of Time as a Way of Calculating the Quantum-Mechanical Perturbation Energy Given by the Schrödinger Method  [PDF]
Stanisaw Olszewski
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2014.44022
Abstract: The Schrodinger perturbation energy for an arbitrary order N of the perturbation has been presented with the aid of a circular scale of time. The method is of a recurrent character and developed for a non-degenerate quantum state. It allows one to reduce the inflation of terms necessary to calculate known from the Feynman’s diagrammatical approach to a number below that applied in the original Schrodinger perturbation theory.
De Broglie’s Velocity of Transition between Quantum Levels and the Quantum of the Magnetic Spin Moment Obtained from the Uncertainty Principle for Energy and Time  [PDF]
Stanisaw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.518198
Abstract: The De Broglie’s approach to the quantum theory, when combined with the conservation rule of momentum, allows one to calculate the velocity of the electron transition from a quantum state n to its neighbouring state as a function of n. The paper shows, for the case of the harmonic oscillator taken as an example, that the De Broglie’s dependence of the transition velocity on n is equal to the n-dependence of that velocity calculated with the aid of the uncertainty principle for the energy and time. In the next step the minimal distance parameter provided by the uncertainty principle is applied in calculating the magnetic moment of the electron which effectuates its orbital motion in the magnetic field. This application gives readily the electron spin magnetic moment as well as the quantum of the magnetic flux known in superconductors as its result.
Electron Spin and Proton Spin in the Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Like Atomic Systems  [PDF]
Stanisaw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.518199
Abstract: The mechanical angular momentum and magnetic moment of the electron and proton spin have been calculated semiclassically with the aid of the uncertainty principle for energy and time. The spin effects of both kinds of the elementary particles can be expressed in terms of similar formulae. The quantization of the spin motion has been done on the basis of the old quantum theory. It gives a quantum number n = 1/2 as the index of the spin state acceptable for both the electron and proton particle. In effect of the spin existence the electron motion in the hydrogen atom can be represented as a drift motion accomplished in a combined electric and magnetic field. More than 18,000 spin oscillations accompany one drift circulation performed along the lowest orbit of the Bohr atom. The semiclassical theory developed in the paper has been applied to calculate the doublet separation of the experimentally well-examined D line entering the spectrum of the sodium atom. This separation is found to be much similar to that obtained according to the relativistic old quantum theory.
Relationship between the Fundamental Constants of Physics Obtained from the Uncertainty Principle for Energy and Time  [PDF]
Stanisaw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.65067
Abstract: An attempt is done to calculate the value of the elementary electron charge from its relation to the Planck constant and the speed of light. This relation is obtained, in the first step, from the Pauli analysis of the strength of the electric field associated with an elementary emission process of energy. In the next step, the uncertainty principle is applied to both the emission time and energy. The theoretical result for e is roughly close to the experimental value of the electron charge.
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