Abstract:
The laboratory experiment was set up on a podzolic soil in two variants. In one of them non-sterile sewage sludge was introduced into the soil, and in the second - the same sludge but subjected previously to the process of sterilisation. In both variants the same doses of the sludge were applied: 30 (1%), 75 (2.5%), 150 (5%), 300 (10%) and 600 Mg·ha-1 (20%). Then, after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 months, the soil of both experimental variants was analysed for the numbers of bacteria and fungi decomposing proteins, the rate of the process of ammonification, the rate of the process of nitrification, and for proteolytic activity. The results obtained revealed a stimulating effect of the sludge, both sterile and non-sterile, on the numbers of the microbial groups under study and on the rate of nitrification and protease activity. Only the process of ammonification was subject to inhibition. The observed effects of the sludge were the most pronounced in the case of the higher sludge doses. Significantly greater numbers of protein-decomposing fungi and higher activity of almost all (except for ammonifcation) analysed biochemical parameters in the soil with non-sterile sludge compared to that with sterile sludge indicate an effect of microorganisms from the sludge on the microbiological transformations of nitrogen in soil amended with sewage sludge.

Abstract:
The motion of electron wave packets of a metal is examined classically in the presence of the magnetic field with the aim to calculate the time intervals between two states lying on the same Fermi surface. A lower limiting value of the transition time equal to about 10–18 sec is estimated as an average for the case when the states are lying on the Fermi surface having a spherical shape. Simultaneously, an upper limit for the electron circular frequency in a metal has been also derived. A formal reference of the classical transition time to the time interval entering the energy-time uncertainty relations known in quantum mechanics is obtained.

Abstract:
A relation between the intervals of energy and time, derived in a former paper and associated with the electron transitions on the Fermi surface of a metal, is examined in comparison with the experimental data. These data are obtained from the de-excitation process of electrons in metals. A comparison between theory and experiment demonstrated that the new relation between energy and time is fitted much better for the experimental results than the well-known relation due to the Heisenberg theory.

Experimentally the plateaus characteristic for the
integer quantum Hall effect is obtained in vicinity of specific values of
the magnetic induction. The paper demonstrates that the ratios of these
induction values to carrier concentration in the planar crystalline samples
approach systematically the quanta of the magnetic fluximportant for the
behavior of superconductors. Moreover, the same quanta can be deduced from the
Landau levels theory and their application in the magnetoresistance theory
gives results being in accordance with experiments.The quanta of the
magnetic flux similar to those for the integer quantum Hall effect can be
obtained also for the fractional quantum Hall effect. This holds on condition
the experimental ratio of the magnetic flux to carrier concentration is
multiplied by the filling factor of the Landau level.

A
modified uncertainty principle coupling the intervals of energy and time can
lead to the shortest distance attained in course of the excitation process, as
well as the shortest possible time interval for that process. These lower
bounds are much similar to the interval limits deduced on both the experimental
and theoretical footing in the era when the Heisenberg uncertainty principle
has been developed. In effect of the bounds existence, a maximal nuclear charge Ze acceptable for the Bohr atomic ion
could be calculated. In the next step the velocity of electron transitions
between the Bohr orbits is found to be close to the speed of light. This result
provides us with the energy spectrum of transitions similar to that obtained in
the Bohr’s model. A momentary force acting on the electrons in course of their
transitions is estimated to be by many orders larger than a steady
electrostatic force existent between the atomic electron and the nucleus.

Abstract:
The main
facts about the scale of time considered as a plot of a sequence of events are
submitted both to a review and a more detailed calculation. Classical
progressive character of the time variable, present in the everyday life and in
the modern science, too, is compared with a circular-like kind of advancement
of time. This second kind of the time behaviour can be found suitable when a
perturbation process of a quantum-mechanical system is examined. In fact the
paper demonstrates that the complicated high-order Schrodinger perturbation
energy of a non-degenerate quantum state becomes easy to approach of the basis
of a circular scale. For example for the perturbation order N = 20 instead of 19! ≈ 1.216 × 10^{17} Feynman diagrams, the contribution of which should be derived and calculated,
only less than 2^{18} ≈ 2.621 × 10^{5} terms belonging to N = 20 should be taken into account to
the same purpose.

Abstract:
The Schrodinger perturbation energy for an arbitrary order N of the perturbation has been presented
with the aid of a circular scale of time. The method is of a recurrent
character and developed for a non-degenerate quantum state. It allows one to
reduce the inflation of terms necessary to calculate known from the Feynman’s
diagrammatical approach to a number below that applied in the original Schrodinger
perturbation theory.

Abstract:
The De Broglie’s
approach to the quantum theory, when combined with the conservation rule of
momentum, allows one to calculate the velocity of the electron transition from
a quantum state n to its neighbouring
state as a function of n. The paper
shows, for the case of the harmonic oscillator taken as an example, that the De
Broglie’s dependence of the transition velocity on n is equal to the n-dependence
of that velocity calculated with the aid of the uncertainty principle for the
energy and time. In the next step the minimal distance parameter provided by
the uncertainty principle is applied in calculating the magnetic moment of the
electron which effectuates its orbital motion in the magnetic field. This
application gives readily the electron spin magnetic moment as well as the
quantum of the magnetic flux known in superconductors as its result.

Abstract:
The
mechanical angular momentum and magnetic moment of the electron and proton spin
have been calculated semiclassically with the aid of the uncertainty principle
for energy and time. The spin effects of both kinds of the elementary particles
can be expressed in terms of similar formulae. The quantization of the spin
motion has been done on the basis of the old quantum theory. It gives a quantum
number n = 1/2 as the index of the
spin state acceptable for both the electron and proton particle. In effect of
the spin existence the electron motion in the hydrogen atom can be represented
as a drift motion accomplished in a combined electric and magnetic field. More
than 18,000 spin oscillations accompany one drift circulation performed along
the lowest orbit of the Bohr atom. The semiclassical theory developed in the
paper has been applied to calculate the doublet separation of the
experimentally well-examined D line
entering the spectrum of the sodium atom. This separation is found to be much
similar to that obtained according to the relativistic old quantum theory.

Abstract:
An attempt is done to calculate the value of the elementary electron
charge from its relation to the Planck constant and the speed of light. This
relation is obtained, in the first step, from the Pauli analysis of the
strength of the electric field associated with an elementary emission process
of energy. In the next step, the uncertainty principle is applied to both the
emission time and energy. The theoretical result for e is roughly close to the experimental value of the electron
charge.