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Epidemiological, Nutritional and Factors Associated with Infant Bronchiolitis in Hospitals: Case of the City of Lubumbashi (DR Congo)  [PDF]
Boniface Fievey Makam, Gray A. Wakamb Kanteng, Stanis Okitotsho Wembonyama, Oscar Numbi Luboya
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103710
Abstract:
Introduction: The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of acute bronchiolitis of infants in an urban area of the Democratic Republic of Congo to establish the epidemiological, clinical and nutritional profile of affected infants. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Lubumbashi (DR Congo) at three hospitals over a 2-year period from 2013 to 2014. A total of 321 acute bronchiolitis was collected in infants Less than 24 months. Results: A hospital incidence of 3.8% was found. Bronchiolitis occurred most from December (8.7%) until March (8.7%), and the peak was observed in February, i.e. 24.9% of cases, which corresponds to the great rainy season. The average age of children with was calculated 7.78 ± 6.43 months. The prevalence of underweight was 40.6% (n = 129). There was a significant association between pathology and prematurity (p = 0.00, OR = 111 [20.2 - 614.5]) with associated pathologies (p = 0.02 OR = 8 [0.9-64.5]). Conclusion: The incidence of bronchiolitis has declined in comparison to previous studies in the context of our study setting, but it may be regressed if targeted public health measures are taken.
Management of Premature Infants Using the Kangaroo Method versus the Classic Method: Morbidity and Prognosis Associated with in Sendwe General Hospital in Lubumbashi (DR Congo)  [PDF]
Judith Sangwa Sinanduku, Gray Kanteng, Franck Moma, Stanis Wembonyama Okitotsho, Oscar Luboya
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105150
Abstract:
Introduction: This study aims to compare the benefit of two low low-birth weight newborn management methods, namely the “classic” method using incubators, and the Kangaroo method in a hospital setting; and determine the survival prognosis associated with each of these methods. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015 at the Jason Sendwe General Hospital in Lubumbashi (DR Congo). A total of 200 cases of low birth weight infants were included, followed by one or the other of the methods evaluated. Results: The average weight at the exit was better under Kangaroo (2191.8 ± 212.1 g versus 2068.6 ± 476.5 g) as well as the average gain in weight per day (52.2 ± 9.5 g versus 31.0 ± 15.1 g). Fewer episodes of hypothermia were noted under Kangaroo, and the duration of stay was shorter (10.2 ± 2.9 days versus 13.0 ± 5.4 days). Logistic regression showed that the Kangaroo method is better for the management of premature infants (p = 0.004, ORa = 4.39 (1.60 - 12.04)). Survival is significantly higher under the Kangaroo method (p < 0.001). The median survival under Kangaroo versus classical method was 16 (EIQ: 15 - 16) and 10 (EIQ: 9 - 10) months, respectively. The incidence of Kangaroo deaths was 0.3 cases per 100 P-J versus 1.9 cases per 100 P-D (P < 0.001) using the conventional method. Conclusion: The Kangaroo method is applicable and offers guarantees of a beneficial management in the newborn with low birth weight.
Respiratory Problems of Sands Carriers in the City of Lubumbashi/Rd Congo  [PDF]
Léon Kabamba Ngombe, Nlandu Roger Ngatu, Nyembo Mukena Christophe, Benjamin Kabyla Ilunga, Stanis Wembonyama Okitotsho, Jean-Baptiste Kakoma Sakatolo, Oscar Luboya Numbi, Brigitta Danuser
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103172
Abstract:
Objective: To determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illustrate the dangerousness of the sands dust in the Artisanal carriers in the city of Lubumbashi, Katanga province, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Method: In total, 120 carriers of sand have been recruited in an exhaustive approach with 120 communal administrative officers of Lubumbashi city as control group. Respiratory symptoms were collected using a respiratory questionnaire. A multi-analysis varied with the test of logistic regression has been privileged to determine the association between the characteristics of the carriers and the respiratory symptoms. Results: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms reported in carriers of sands was greater than that of the control group for the symptoms such as: cough in the morning (52.5% against 6.7%), sputum in the morning (35% against 7.5%), shortness of breath after effort (18.3% against 5%), asthma (26.7% against 5%), chronic bronchitis (12.5% against 4.2%), rhinitis (62.5% against 21.7%), conjunctivitis (58.3% against 17.5%). After adjustment, on factors such as age and education, the profession carrier of sands was strongly associated with the risk of developing respiratory symptoms below: spit in the morning, shortness of breath after effort, asthma, chronic bronchitis with a p < 0.001. The Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) has been significantly reduced in the Carriers of sands (438.87 ± 109.02) compared to controls (480.14 ± 70.73) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The profession carriers of sand as practiced in Lubumbashi, without means of adequate protection, carry a clear risk for respiratory health. It is essential to organize a specialized education in medicine of the work which can train doctors with proven expertise to address the enormous need for qualified personnel in this environment considered at risk of breathing.
Respiratory Health of Artisanal Miner of Lwisha in Katanga/DR Congo  [PDF]
Léon Kabamba Ngombe, Nlandu Roger Ngatu, Nyembo Mukena Christophe, Benjamin Kabyla Ilunga, Stanis Wembonyama Okitotsho, Jean-Baptiste Kakoma Sakatolo, Brigitta Danuser, Oscar Luboya Numbi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103233
Abstract:
Objective: To determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and make an awareness about the harmful effects of ores dust in the Artisanal miner in the city of Lubumbashi, Katanga province, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Method: In total, 104 artisanal miners have been recruited in an exhaustive manner with 122 administrative officers in the town hall of Lubumbashi, responsible for collecting the taxes in the Stations of the bus as the control group. Respiratory symptoms were collected using a standardized questionnaire. To determine the association between the characteristics of the miners and respiratory symptoms reported, a multi-analysis combined with the test of logistic regression has been privileged. Results: The prevalence of the respiratory symptoms was markedly higher in the artisanal diggers, as compared with the group that controls: wheezing (37.5% vs. 7.4%), shortness breathing after effort (26.9% vs. 3.3%), cough (29.8% vs. 12.3%), asthma (24% vs. 1.6%), rhinitis (20.2% vs. 14.8%), conjunctivitis (16.3% vs. 9.8%), and eczema (34.6% vs. 2.5%). After adjusting for age and education level, digger as occupation was strongly associated with a higher risk of developing respiratory and skin problems (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The study revealed that artisanal miner’s professions, as practiced in Lubumbashi, without any protection against dust, have a negative impact on the respiratory health. It proves to be very important to organize a teaching specialized in Occupational Medicine that can train some physicians with an established expertise having to answer if it is needed to be enormous in qualified staff in this area considered at respiratory risk.
Nutritional Status of Tuberculous Children Diagnosed and Treated in an Urban Area in DR Congo  [PDF]
Bafwafwa Ntumba Don Dieu, Kanteng A. Wakamb Gray, Mutombo Mulangu Augustin, Lukamba Mbuli Robert, Tshikamba Erick, Wembonyama Okitotsho Stanislas, Luboya Numbi Oscar
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103557
Abstract:
Introduction: Tuberculosis and malnutrition are major health problems in DR Congo, and children are particularly vulnerable. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of malnutrition in tuberculous children in DR Congo and to identify the associated factors. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted, and concerned 22 Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment Centers (TDTCs). It was carried out over a period from 2013 to 2015 and involved 717 tuberculosis children less than 15 years of age. Nutritional status was assessed on the basis of the values of the Z-score Weight for age (global malnutrition) according to the NCHS curves. Results: Tuberculosis incidence was 8.2%. The prevalence of underweight (<﹣2 z-score) is 20.8%, of which 8.4% is severely malnourished (<﹣3 z-score). An age of less than 60 months is significantly associated with poor nutritional status (OR = 0.3, CI 0.2 - 0.5). TB-HIV co-infection is significantly associated with poor nutritional status (OR = 0.4, CI 0.2 - 0.6). It was noticed that the outcome is favorable (recovery) in patients with good nutritional status (OR = 12, CI 8.0 - 18.9). Conclusion: Underweight is present in Congolese tuberculosis children. An adequate nutritional policy is needed to improve the prognosis of the disease.
Magnetic Field Induction and Time Intervals of the Electron Transitions Approached in a Classical and Quantum-Mechanical Way  [PDF]
Stanis?aw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.211161
Abstract: The motion of electron wave packets of a metal is examined classically in the presence of the magnetic field with the aim to calculate the time intervals between two states lying on the same Fermi surface. A lower limiting value of the transition time equal to about 10–18 sec is estimated as an average for the case when the states are lying on the Fermi surface having a spherical shape. Simultaneously, an upper limit for the electron circular frequency in a metal has been also derived. A formal reference of the classical transition time to the time interval entering the energy-time uncertainty relations known in quantum mechanics is obtained.
Relation between the Intervals ΔE and Δt Obtained in the De-Excitation Process of Electrons in Metals  [PDF]
Stanis?aw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.33030
Abstract: A relation between the intervals of energy and time, derived in a former paper and associated with the electron transitions on the Fermi surface of a metal, is examined in comparison with the experimental data. These data are obtained from the de-excitation process of electrons in metals. A comparison between theory and experiment demonstrated that the new relation between energy and time is fitted much better for the experimental results than the well-known relation due to the Heisenberg theory.
Quantum of the Magnetic Flux Characteristic forExperiments Performed on the Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Effects  [PDF]
Stanis?aw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.411A1003
Abstract:

Experimentally the plateaus characteristic for the integer quantum Hall effect is obtained in vicinity of specific values of the magnetic induction. The paper demonstrates that the ratios of these induction values to carrier concentration in the planar crystalline samples approach systematically the quanta of the magnetic flux important for the behavior of superconductors. Moreover, the same quanta can be deduced from the Landau levels theory and their application in the magnetoresistance theory gives results being in accordance with experiments. The quanta of the magnetic flux similar to those for the integer quantum Hall effect can be obtained also for the fractional quantum Hall effect. This holds on condition the experimental ratio of the magnetic flux to carrier concentration is multiplied by the filling factor of the Landau level.

Bohr’s Spectrum of Quantum States in the Atomic Hydrogen Deduced from the Uncertainty Principle for Energy and Time  [PDF]
Stanis?aw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.514127
Abstract:

A modified uncertainty principle coupling the intervals of energy and time can lead to the shortest distance attained in course of the excitation process, as well as the shortest possible time interval for that process. These lower bounds are much similar to the interval limits deduced on both the experimental and theoretical footing in the era when the Heisenberg uncertainty principle has been developed. In effect of the bounds existence, a maximal nuclear charge Ze acceptable for the Bohr atomic ion could be calculated. In the next step the velocity of electron transitions between the Bohr orbits is found to be close to the speed of light. This result provides us with the energy spectrum of transitions similar to that obtained in the Bohr’s model. A momentary force acting on the electrons in course of their transitions is estimated to be by many orders larger than a steady electrostatic force existent between the atomic electron and the nucleus.

Circular Scale of Time and Energy of a Quantum State Calculated from the Schrödinger Perturbation Theory  [PDF]
Stanis?aw Olszewski
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.515152
Abstract: The main facts about the scale of time considered as a plot of a sequence of events are submitted both to a review and a more detailed calculation. Classical progressive character of the time variable, present in the everyday life and in the modern science, too, is compared with a circular-like kind of advancement of time. This second kind of the time behaviour can be found suitable when a perturbation process of a quantum-mechanical system is examined. In fact the paper demonstrates that the complicated high-order Schrodinger perturbation energy of a non-degenerate quantum state becomes easy to approach of the basis of a circular scale. For example for the perturbation order N = 20 instead of 19! ≈ 1.216 × 1017 Feynman diagrams, the contribution of which should be derived and calculated, only less than 218 ≈ 2.621 × 105 terms belonging to N = 20 should be taken into account to the same purpose.
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