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OPTOGENETICS: A NOVEL APPROACH IN PACING HAERT TISSUE AND ENGENDER PROPAGATING CARDIAC IMPULSES
Pasam Naga Abhinay,Bethapudi Victoria,Chandu Babu Rao,Nama Sreekanth
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The cardiac pacemaker controls the rhythmicity of heart contractions and these can be substituted by battery-operated devices as last resource. Optogenetics involves insertion of light-sensitive proteins into human embryonic stem cell to encode DNA making mammalian tissues light-sensitive. The first discovered protein of this type is Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2), which is widely used in neuroscience. The limitation of electrical stimulation of heart, a standard technique can be overcome by using ChR2.The various methods involved in optogenetics and energy needs were discussed in this section. Initially, optogenetics is confined only to neuronal system, later on extended to heart and other organs. This method involves precise localized stimulation and constant prolonged depolarization of cardiomyocytes and cardiac tissue resulting in alterations of pacemaking, Ca2+ homeostasis, electrical coupling and arrhythmogenic spontaneous extra beats.
Formulation and Dissolution Study of Valsartan Immediate Release Tablets
B. Brahmaiah*, K. Sasikanth, Sreekanth Nama , P.Suresh, Patan Adam Khan
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research , 2013,
Abstract: In the present study, design of oral immediate release tablets of Valsartan by direct compression techniquewas carried out. The main aim and objective of the work is to formulate immediate release tablets usingdifferent direct compression vehicles (DCV’S) in different ratios. The main motive is to compare thedissolution profile of these formulations and conclude the best formulation which release drug at a fasterrate. To determine the best fit dissolution profile for the dosage forms. Valsartan tablets were formulated byusing microcrystalline cellulose (diluents), potato starch, acacia (binder) and magnesium stearate(lubricant). The granules were compressed into tablets and were subjected to dissolution studies. Thedissolution profile of the formulation F2 was found to have better dissolution rate compared to others. TheIn-vitro dissolution studies of all the formulations were conducted and the results were obtained, it wasconcluded that formulation F2 was the best with fast release of drug compared to others.
10. An improved stability-indicating HPLC method for Riluzole hydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms
Sreekanth Nama,Bahlul Z.Awen,Babu rao Chandu,Mukkanti Kagga
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research (IJPBR) , 2011,
Abstract: In the present study, a stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of Riluzole hydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form has been reported. The separation was achieved on BDS Hypersil C18 column (100 × 4.6 mm i.d, 3μm) in isocratic elution mode with the mobile phase consisting of 5mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50: 50 (v/v) and the column was maintained at 30°C. The detection of eluent from the column was detected using photo diode array detector (PDA) at 220nm and the flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min. The proposed method has permitted the quantification in the linearity range of 50-400μg/ml. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantitation and robustness. The limit of detection and limit quantification were found to be 0.020μg/ml and 0.093μg/ml, respectively. This method has been successively applied to commercial tablet formulation and no interference from the tablet excipients was found. Riluzole hydrochloride was subjected to different stress conditions such as acid, base and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat and photolytic stress conditions and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. As the proposed method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as stability-indicating method for the determination of these drugs in bulk and commercial products.
4. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the determination of riluzole hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage forms
Sreekanth Nama,Bahlul Z.Awen,Babu rao Chandu,Mukkanti Kagga
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research (IJPBR) , 2011,
Abstract: A reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the estimation of riluzole hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage forms. The separation was achieved on BDS hypersil ODS analytical column (100 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 3.0 μm) using 5M ammonium acetate and acetonitrile in the ratio 50:50 v/v as mobile phase and at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out using a PDA detector at 220 nm. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity and sensitivity. The developed and validated method was successfully applied for the quantitative analysis of Rilutek tablets. The total chromatographic analysis time per sample was about 5 min with riluzole hydrochloride eluting at retention time of about 2.452 min. The method was validated as per ICH guide lines. Validation studies demonstrated that the proposed HPLC method is simple, specific, rapid, reliable and reproducible. The standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 50-400 μg/mL. The LOD and LOQ values for riluzole hydrochloride were 0.02 and 0.09 μg/mL, respectively. The percentage recovery was found to be 99.59 to 100.97 and the %RSD for intraday and inter day precision was found to be 0.503, 0.494, respectively. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the proposed method for the determination of riluzole hydrochloride in bulk and tablet dosage forms.
2. Development and validation of a new spectrophotometric method for the determination of betamethasone in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms
Bahlul Z Awen,Nagiat T Hwisa,Babu Rao Chandu,Sreekanth Nama
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research (IJPBR) , 2010,
Abstract: A simple, sensitive, rapid and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the estimation of betamethasone in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was based on the formation of bluish green chromophore with 0.03% of potassium dichromate and concentrated sulphuric acid, showing the absorption about 601 nm. The proposed method has permitted the quantification of betamethasone over linearity in the range of 10-60μg/mL. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines.
ROLE OF CREATIVE INDUSTRY AND CULTURE ON THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH OF GIANYAR REGENCY OF BALI 1980 - 2010
I KETUT NAMA
International Journal of Economics and Research , 2012,
Abstract: This study intentionally tries to describe the effects of creative industry and the tri hita karana tradition as a unique culture among the Balinese on the economic growth of Gianyar Regency of Bali Province. Data used in the study were secondary ones consisting of the Gross Regional Domestic Product of Gianyar Regency, data of per capita expenditure for ceremonial rites and festivals as proxies of the cultural variables, and output data of creative industry during 1980-2010, and they were analyzed using the OLS regression model. The findings of the study were as follows (1) The creative industry variable has important role in the regional economic growth of Gianyar Regency with contribution of 70 percent to the Gross Regional Domestic Product of the region. Similarly, the creative industry also plays important role as the largest employment provider absorbing 34 percent of total work force. The importance of creative industry in Gianyar’s economy cannot be separated from its art-talented people; (2) Variable of the tri hita karana culture as an effort of the Balinese to establish the balanced relationship with God (parhyangan), with other people (pawongan), and with surrounding environment (palemahan), plays positive role in the economic growth of Gianyar Regency. This positive effect is due to the existence of tri hita karanaideology/culture that is implemented in various kinds of ceremonial rites with all their arts, in which the Balinese Culture becomes so unique and interesting that it attracts the tourists to come to this region. The attendance of a relatively large number of tourists has impact on the increased Gross Regional Domestic Product in the region, and at the same time promoted its regional economic growth.
Protocol indepedence through disjoint encryption under Exclusive-OR
Sreekanth Malladi
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Multi-protocol attacks due to protocol interaction has been a notorious problem for security. Gutman-Thayer proved that they can be prevented by ensuring that encrypted messages are distinguishable across protocols, under a free algebra. In this paper, we prove that a similar suggestion prevents these attacks under commonly used operators such as Exclusive-OR, that induce equational theories, breaking the free algebra assumption.
How to prevent type-flaw and multi-protocol attacks on cryptographic protocols under Exclusive-OR
Sreekanth Malladi
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Type-flaw attacks and multi-protocol attacks on security protocols have been frequently reported in the literature. Heather et al. and Guttman et al. have proven that these could be prevented by tagging encrypted components with distinct constants in a standard protocol model with free message algebra and perfect encryption. However, most "real-world" protocols such as SSL 3.0 are designed with the Exclusive-OR (XOR) operator that possesses algebraic properties, breaking the free algebra assumption. These algebraic properties induce equational theories that need to be considered when analyzing protocols that use the operator. This is the problem we consider in this paper: We prove that, under certain assumptions, tagging encrypted components still prevents type-flaw and multi-protocol attacks even in the presence of the XOR operator and its algebraic properties.
Disabling equational theories in unification for cryptographic protocol analysis through tagging
Sreekanth Malladi
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, we show a new tagging scheme for cryptographic protocol messages. Under this tagging, equational theories of operators such as exclusive-or, binary addition etc. are effectively disabled, when terms are unified. We believe that this result has a significant impact on protocol analysis and security, since unification is at the heart of symbolic protocol analysis. Hence, disabling equational theories in unification implies disabling them altogether in protocol analysis for most operators and theories.
Design and simulation of 64 point FFT using Radix 4 algorithm for FPGA Implementation
K.Sreekanth Yadav
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is one of the rudimentary operations in field of digital signal, image processing and FFT processor is a critical block in all multicarrier systems used primarily in the mobile environment. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an efficient implementation of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The portability requirement of these systems is mainly responsible for the need of low power FFT architectures. . In this study, the development of 64 point FFT, based on Decimation-In- Time (DIT) domain using Radix-4 algorithm. The complex multiplier is one of the most power consuming blocks in the FFT processor. A significant property of the proposed method is that the critical path of the address generator is independent from the FFT transform length N, making it extremely efficient for large FFT transforms. The results confirm the speed and area advantages for large FFTs. Although only radix-4 FFT address generation is presented in the paper, it can be used for higher radix FFT
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