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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298245 matches for " Spencer J Henson "
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Public perceptions of drinking water: a postal survey of residents with private water supplies
Andria Q Jones, Catherine E Dewey, Kathryn Doré, Shannon E Majowicz, Scott A McEwen, Waltner-Toews David, Mathews Eric, Deborah J Carr, Spencer J Henson
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-94
Abstract: A cross-sectional postal survey of 246 residences with private water supplies was conducted in May 2004. Questions pertained to the perceptions of water quality and alternative water sources, water testing behaviours and the self-identified need for further information.Private wells, cisterns or both, were the source of household water for 71%, 16% and 13% of respondents, respectively. Although respondents rated their water quality highly, 80% also had concerns with its safety. The most common concerns pertained to bacterial and chemical contamination of their water supply and its potential negative effect on health. Approximately 56% and 61% of respondents used in-home treatment devices and bottled water within their homes, respectively, mainly due to perceived improvements in the safety and aesthetic qualities compared to regular tap water. Testing of private water supplies was performed infrequently: 8% of respondents tested at a frequency that meets current provincial guidelines. Two-thirds of respondents wanted more information on various topics related to private water supplies. Flyers and newspapers were the two media reported most likely to be used.Although respondents rated their water quality highly, the majority had concerns regarding the water from their private supply, and the use of bottled water and water treatment devices was extensive. The results of this study suggest important lines of inquiry and provide support and input for public education programs, particularly those related to private water testing, in this population.Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, predominantly from groundwater wells [1]. In Canada, the legal responsibility for the condition of private water supplies, such as private wells and cisterns, lies with their owners [2]. There are reports, however, that Canadians with private water supplies test their water intermittently, if at all [1,3], and that water treatment within their
Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses
Andria Q Jones, Catherine E Dewey, Kathryn Doré, Shannon E Majowicz, Scott A McEwen, David Waltner-Toews, Spencer J Henson, Eric Mathews
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-129
Abstract: In September 2003, three focus group discussions were conducted; two with men and women aged 36–65 years, and one with men and women 20–35 years of age.Overall, participants had positive perceptions of their private water supplies, particularly in the older age group. Concerns included bacterial and chemical contamination from agricultural sources. Testing of water from private supplies was minimal and was done less frequently than recommended by the provincial government. Barriers to water testing included the inconvenience of the testing process, acceptable test results in the past, resident complacency and lack of knowledge. The younger participants greatly emphasized their need for more information on private water supplies. Participants from all groups wanted more information on water testing, and various media for information dissemination were discussed.While most participants were confident in the safety of their private water supply, the factual basis for these opinions is uncertain. Improved dissemination of information pertaining to private water supplies in this population is needed. Observed differences in the concerns expressed by users of different water systems and age groups may suggest the need for targeted public education strategies. These focus groups provided significant insight into the public perception of private water supplies and the need for public health outreach activities; however, to obtain a more representative understanding of the perceptions in this population, it is important that a larger scale investigation be performed.Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, predominantly from groundwater wells [1]. Numerous studies report that Canadian private water supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for microbial and chemical contamination [1-5], and it is estimated that 45 percent of all waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada involve non-municipal systems, largely in rural or
Population distribution and burden of acute gastrointestinal illness in British Columbia, Canada
M Kate Thomas, Shannon E Majowicz, Laura MacDougall, Paul N Sockett, Suzie J Kovacs, Murray Fyfe, Victoria L Edge, Kathryn Doré, James A Flint, Spencer Henson, Andria Q Jones
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-307
Abstract: The magnitude and distribution of acute GI in British Columbia (BC), Canada was evaluated via a cross-sectional telephone survey of 4,612 randomly selected residents, conducted from June 2002 to June 2003. Respondents were asked if they had experienced vomiting or diarrhoea in the 28 days prior to the interview.A response rate of 44.3% was achieved. A monthly prevalence of 9.2% (95%CI 8.4 – 10.0), an incidence rate of 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.4) episodes of acute GI per person-year, and an average probability that an individual developed illness in the year of 71.6% (95% CI 68.0–74.8), weighted by population size were observed. The average duration of illness was 3.7 days, translating into 19.2 million days annually of acute GI in BC.The results corroborate those from previous Canadian and international studies, highlighting the substantial burden of acute GI.Gastrointestinal illness (GI) is a global public health concern. In developed countries, GI is typically mild and self-limiting, but has considerable economic impact due to high morbidity [1-3]. Recent studies on the burden of GI in the general population of a number of countries have been reported [4-12]. To estimate the burden of GI in the Canadian population, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC; formerly Health Canada) developed the National Studies on Acute Gastrointestinal Illness (NSAGI) initiative in 2000. Population-based studies, designed to describe self-reported, acute GI in selected Canadian populations, are part of this initiative. In March 2002, the PHAC completed the first such population study in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada [13]. In order to determine if the burden of GI was the same across the country, a second population study was completed in the province of British Columbia (BC) in June 2003. Additionally, since public health in Canada is primarily a provincial responsibility, this study was conducted to provide information to BC policy makers. The current paper describes the frequen
Estrogen Regulation of Anti-Apoptotic Bcl-2 Family Member Mcl-1 Expression in Breast Cancer Cells
Jennifer L. Schacter, Elizabeth S. Henson, Spencer B. Gibson
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100364
Abstract: Estrogen is implicated as an important factor in stimulating breast cancer cell proliferation, and presence of estrogen receptor (ER) is an indication of a good prognosis in breast cancer patients. Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member that is often over expressed in breast tumors, correlating with poor survival. In breast cancer, it was been previously shown that epidermal growth factor receptors up-regulate Mcl-1 but the role of estrogen in increasing Mcl-1 expression was unknown. In ERα positive cell lines MCF-7 and ZR-75, estrogen treatment increased Mcl-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA level. In two ERα negative cell lines, SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231, estrogen failed to increase in Mcl-1 protein expression. We found that ERα antagonists decreased estrogen mediated Mcl-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA level. Upon knockdown of ERα, Mcl-1 mRNA expression after estrogen treatment was also decreased. We also found that ERα binds to the Mcl-1 promoter at a region upstream of the translation start site containing a half ERE site. Streptavidin-pull down assay showed that both ERα and transcription factor Sp1 bind to this region. These results suggest that estrogen is involved in regulating Mcl-1 expression specifically through a mechanism involving ERα.
Classifying the precancers: A metadata approach
Jules J Berman, Donald E Henson
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-3-8
Abstract: Terms in the UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) related to precancers were extracted. Extracted terms were reviewed and additional terms added. Each precancer was assigned one of six general classes. The entire classification was assembled as an XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language) file. A Perl script converted the XML file into a browser-viewable HTML (HyperText Mark-up Language) file.The classification contained 4700 precancer terms, 568 distinct precancer concepts and six precancer classes: 1) Acquired microscopic precancers; 2) acquired large lesions with microscopic atypia; 3) Precursor lesions occurring with inherited hyperplastic syndromes that progress to cancer; 4) Acquired diffuse hyperplasias and diffuse metaplasias; 5) Currently unclassified entities; and 6) Superclass and modifiers.This work represents the first attempt to create a comprehensive listing of the precancers, the first attempt to classify precancers by their biological properties and the first attempt to create a pathologic classification of precancers using standard metadata (XML). The classification is placed in the public domain, and comment is invited by the authors, who are prepared to curate and modify the classification.Premalignant lesions are arguably the most important disease entities of modern man. In theory, the identification and elimination of cancer precursors would lead to the near-eradication of cancer [1]. The importance of the precancers was recently emphasized by the American Association for Cancer Research Task Force on the Treatment and Prevention of Intraepithelial Neoplasia [2]. In this report, the Task Force recognized IEN [intraepithelial neoplasia] as a near-obligate precursor to invasive cancer and identified IEN as a treatable disease. "Reducing IEN burden, therefore, is an important and suitable goal for medical (noninvasive) intervention to reduce invasive cancer risk and to reduce surgical morbidity. Achieving the prevention and regression of IEN confers an
P. J. Spencer
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/s0104-79301996000200011
Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress
Sarah J. Spencer
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00109
Abstract: Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal) nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the endocrine arm of the body's response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and/or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC) regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.
Canonical Source Reconstruction for MEG
Jérémie Mattout,Richard N. Henson,Karl J. Friston
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/67613
Abstract: We describe a simple and efficient solution to the problem of reconstructing electromagnetic sources into a canonical or standard anatomical space. Its simplicity rests upon incorporating subject-specific anatomy into the forward model in a way that eschews the need for cortical surface extraction. The forward model starts with a canonical cortical mesh, defined in a standard stereotactic space. The mesh is warped, in a nonlinear fashion, to match the subject's anatomy. This warping is the inverse of the transformation derived from spatial normalization of the subject's structural MRI image, using fully automated procedures that have been established for other imaging modalities. Electromagnetic lead fields are computed using the warped mesh, in conjunction with a spherical head model (which does not rely on individual anatomy). The ensuing forward model is inverted using an empirical Bayesian scheme that we have described previously in several publications. Critically, because anatomical information enters the forward model, there is no need to spatially normalize the reconstructed source activity. In other words, each source, comprising the mesh, has a predetermined and unique anatomical attribution within standard stereotactic space. This enables the pooling of data from multiple subjects and the reporting of results in stereotactic coordinates. Furthermore, it allows the graceful fusion of fMRI and MEG data within the same anatomical framework.
Physical activity, weight status and diet in adolescents: are children meeting the guidelines  [PDF]
Spencer E. Boyle, Georgina L. Jones, Stephen J. Walters
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.210167
Abstract: Childhood obesity is on the increase and maintaining regular physical activity and consuming a healthy diet have become essential tools to combat the condition. The United Kingdom government has recommended guidelines for optimal levels of diet and activity in children. The aim of this paper is to describe and compare self-reported physical activity levels, diet, and Body Mass Indices (BMI) amongst adolescent children, aged 11-15, in the South West (SW) and North West (NW) regions of England and to see if these children were meeting the current targets for optimal levels of: physical activity; fruit/vegetable consumption; fat consumption and BMI. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of four secondary schools and 1,869 children using the self-reported Western Australian Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (CAPANS) physical activity instrument and a food intake screener questionnaire, in summer and winter. We found that 25% (469/1869) 95% CI: 23% to 27%, of children engaged in 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day; 53% (995/1866) 95% CI: 51% to 56%, took 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day; while 22% (407/1861) 95% CI: 20% to 24% consumed recommended amount of fats, and 23.7% (276/1164) 95% CI: 21% to 26%, of pupils were obese or overweight as classified by their BMI. Self reported physical activity in young people regardless of area is lower than previously reported and the lack of students engaging in 60 minutes moderate to vigorous activity could have serious public health consequences. If sustained, this could lead to more overweight adults, and more ill health.
Ankle Arthroscopy, Lateral Ligament Repair and Peroneal Tendon Reefing for Chronic Lateral Ankle Instability: The Triad vs Arthroscopy with Ligament Repair  [PDF]
John J. Anderson, Loren K. Spencer, Zflan Fowler
Surgical Science (SS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2015.69058
Abstract: Peroneal tendon and retinacular pathology contributes to chronic lateral ankle instability. The “gold standard” surgical treatment for chronic lateral ankle instability has been the Brostrom-Gould procedure with its modifications. An ankle arthroscopy is an adjuvant procedure to address any intra-articular pathology. We review our results of two study groups. The first group underwent an ankle arthroscopy and a Brostrom-Gould procedure. The second group (triad) underwent an ankle arthroscopy, the Brostrom-Gould procedure and excision of low lying peroneal muscle belly with tightening of the inferior peroneal retinaculum. The triad technique was performed on 97 patients and results compared to 71 ankle arthroscopies with the Brostrom-Gould procedure. The patients were contacted at a mean follow-up time of 30 months for postoperative ACFAS scores, VAS scores, and overall satisfaction. Patients were also asked to report incidence of ankle sprain recurrence. The average postoperative ACFAS hindfoot and ankle score was 92 for the triad group and 89 for the arthroscopic debridement and Brostrom-Gould group. The average overall satisfaction was 98% in the triad group and 91% in the scope and Brostrom group. There were 4 (4.3%) recurrences in the triad group and 12 (17.6%) in the Brostrom-Gould with scope group. Each group had a similar incidence of wound healing complications. Peroneal tendon and retinacular pathology contributes to continued ankle instability and pain. We believe that the triad procedure is superior to the Brostrom-Gould procedure.
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