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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1770 matches for " Spencer Hayes "
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Air Plasma Spray for First Aid  [PDF]
Spencer Kuo
Open Journal of Emergency Medicine (OJEM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojem.2016.43010
Abstract: Hemorrhage during trauma occurred in emergency situations is a significant challenge. It may be life threatening if it is not treated swiftly. A new device which can effectively stop bleeding to save life of injured person, especially in battlefield situations and accidents, is presented. A plasma generator is designed to generate a low temperature air plasma spray for treating wounds. The spectral spike at 777.4 nm in the emission spectrum of the plasma plume and the spatial distribution of this emission line’s spectral intensity indicate that abundant atomic oxygen is generated and sprays out of the generator by about 25 mm. Atomic oxygen carried by the plasma spray can quickly activate the cascading of coagulation processes and works as dry disinfectant to advance healing. Tests on blood droplets reveal the strong dependence of blood clotting on the amount of atomic oxygen applied in the plasma treatment, which is maneuvered by increasing the plasma treatment time or decreasing the exposure distance; in both approaches, the degree of blood clotting increases. Treated smeared blood samples show that an increase of the erythrocyte concentration and a drastic decrease of the platelet count are also correlated to the increase of atomic oxygen dose applied in the plasma treatment. The results reveal the mechanisms of air plasma blood coagulation and wound healing. As animal models, pigs were used in the tests of stopping wound bleeding from a cross cut in the ham area, from a hole in an ear’s saphenous vein, and from cuts to arteries in an ear and in a real leg, all stopped swiftly. Moreover, both artery cuts were secure to remove tourniquet; downgrade of tourniquet necessary wound in under 2 minutes was demonstrated. The healing progress of cross cut wounds was observed. The healing time was shortened to about half. This battery power plasma spray can be carried to or placed at anywhere available for first aid applications. It stops bleeding swiftly to save life, and also downgrades tourniquet necessary wound to extend the golden period of saving the remaining part below tourniquet.
On Hemostasis of Cold Atmospheric Air Plasma  [PDF]
Spencer Kuo
Open Journal of Emergency Medicine (OJEM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojem.2018.64012
Abstract: The efficacy and mechanism of a cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma (CAAP), which carries abundant atomic oxygen (OI), on blood coagulation are studied. The tests on sodium citrate mixed blood-droplet samples show that 1) The heat delivered by the CAAP has no impact on the observed clot formation, 2) Plasma effluent activates platelets to promote coagulation state and cascade, and 3) The degree of clotting increases with the OI flux delivered by the CAAP. The full clotting time is shortened from about 25 minutes of the natural clotting time to about 16 s of the CAAP treatment time. The tests on smeared blood samples show that the reduction of the platelet count and the increase of RBC count are proportional to the applied OI flux. In vivo tests, using swine as nimal model, swift hemostasis of large and deep cut wounds on the back by the CAAP treatment was demonstrated. A cut artery was sealed completely with 25 s treatment. The pressure applied by a finger on the cut artery could be removed immediately after the treatment and there was no re-bleed. Based on the in vitro test results and the animal model trials, CAAP coagulation mechanism is presented.
The Response Activation Model and Cross-Modal Facilitation and Inhibition of Return: A Trajectory Analysis
Lawrence E.M. Grierson, Timothy N. Welsh, Steve Hansen, Nicola J. Hodges, Spencer Hayes, James LyonsDigby Elliott
The Open Psychology Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874350100801010035]
Abstract: Non-informative spatial cues presented prior to a goal-directed movement influence not only movement initiation time but also the spatial characteristics of the movement trajectories. These trajectory effects are thought to stem from an integration of competing motor responses. In the present experiments, trajectories of rapid aiming movements were examined under the constraints of a cue-target inhibition of return (IOR) paradigm. Aiming movements were made to targets that were preceded by a cue stimulus in the same or different location. Four experiments were conducted in which the modality of the cue and target stimulus was manipulated across vision and audition. Although facilitation effects were present under the cross modality protocols, IOR effects were observed only for same cue-target pairings. At short stimulus onset asynchronies, limb trajectories deviated toward the target that had just been cued, particularly when the cue occurred in left space. These trajectory effects are consistent with response activation models of selective attention and movement preparation.
A BMP-FGF Morphogen Toggle Switch Drives the Ultrasensitive Expression of Multiple Genes in the Developing Forebrain
Shyam Srinivasan ,Jia Sheng Hu ,D. Spencer Currle,Ernest S. Fung,Wayne B. Hayes,Arthur D. Lander ,Edwin S. Monuki
PLOS Computational Biology , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003463
Abstract: Borders are important as they demarcate developing tissue into distinct functional units. A key challenge is the discovery of mechanisms that can convert morphogen gradients into tissue borders. While mechanisms that produce ultrasensitive cellular responses provide a solution, how extracellular morphogens drive such mechanisms remains poorly understood. Here, we show how Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) and Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) pathways interact to generate ultrasensitivity and borders in the dorsal telencephalon. BMP and FGF signaling manipulations in explants produced border defects suggestive of cross inhibition within single cells, which was confirmed in dissociated cultures. Using mathematical modeling, we designed experiments that ruled out alternative cross inhibition mechanisms and identified a cross-inhibitory positive feedback (CIPF) mechanism, or “toggle switch”, which acts upstream of transcriptional targets in dorsal telencephalic cells. CIPF explained several cellular phenomena important for border formation such as threshold tuning, ultrasensitivity, and hysteresis. CIPF explicitly links graded morphogen signaling in the telencephalon to switch-like cellular responses and has the ability to form multiple borders and scale pattern to size. These benefits may apply to other developmental systems.
Stroke and Constipation
—Coincidence or Interrelated?
 [PDF]

Jayaprada Kasaraneni, Margaret Hayes
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.619313
Abstract: Emile Gautier once said, “Freedom of the bowels is the most precious, perhaps even the most essential, of all freedoms—one without which little can be accomplished.” This paper will explore the neuronal physiology, pathophysiology, theories regarding the correlation between stroke and constipation along with a few treatment options. Patients often recovering from stroke complain of constipation and it is most likely attributed to changes in diet, ambulation, or fluid balance. However, there are not many studies to reflect the correlation between other less significant symptoms and stroke presentation.
Immigrant Entrepreneurs: The Face of the New Nashville  [PDF]
Galen Spencer Hull
iBusiness (IB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2010.21001
Abstract: This paper examines the remarkable growth of the foreign-born population in Middle Tennessee over the past couple of decades and the significant role that immigrant entrepreneurs are playing in the economic development of the region. The largest segment of the foreign-born is Hispanic, with Mexico accounting for the greatest percentage, and sizeable numbers of Kurds, Somalis, Sudanese, and Laotians. The Chinese and Indian communities are prominent in business. At the same time, the issue of illegal immigration is working its way to the top of the legislative agenda in the U.S. Congress, making it all the more important for us to document this phenomenon. Middle Tennessee, comprising the greater Nashville metropolitan area, is now home to thousands of new residents from around the world, earning it the sobriquet as one of the nation’s New Ellis Islands. Since the 1970s research has confirmed the important contribution that the small business sector is making to the U.S. economy, accounting for a large portion of job creation and innovation. Richard Herman and Robert Smith, in their recent book entitled Immigrant, Inc., make the case that immigrant entrepreneurs are driving the new American economy and will save the American worker. The paper draws upon research conducted by faculty and graduate students in the College of Business at Tennessee State University during 2008-2009. With funding from the Tennessee Board of Regents, a College of Business team conducted a series of focus groups, face to face interviews, and an extensive questionnaire in the fall of 2008 and spring of 2009. On three occasions the TSU team hosted public forums in which the results of the survey were shared with those participating in it as well as public officials responsible for economic and community development. Team members relied upon the intermediary services of immigrant chambers of commerce and other community organizations with ties to foreign-born business owners. In the course of the survey the Metro Nashville government conducted a referendum on a proposal to require an English Only amendment on public documents. The Mayor’s Office and Nashville Chamber of Commerce lobbied against the amendment, which was roundly defeated. But it was a coalition of immigrant groups that rallied against the amendment, bringing them together in a common cause that made the difference. There is reason to believe that a New Nashville is taking form and finding its voice.
Air plasma for medical applications  [PDF]
Spencer P. Kuo
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.59061
Abstract: The design and the electric and emission characteristics of two handheld air plasma spray generators are presented. The plasma is generated by 60 Hz periodic discharges between two concentrically cylindrical electrodes. A ring magnet is used to rotate arc discharges, which sprays outward by an air flow. The rotation of arc discharges keeps the generated plasma in non-equilibrium state and at relatively low temperature (<55°C). The plasma effluent yet contains high energy electrons which dissociate molecular oxygen into atomic oxygen. The emission spectroscopy of the plasma plume reveals that the plasma effluent, which carries abundant atomic oxygen, extends from the cap of the plasma spray by about 25 to 30 mm. Tests on blood droplets and smeared blood samples revealed the effectiveness and mechanism of low temperature air plasma on clotting blood. Tests on oral pathogens show that air plasma creates a zone of microbial growth inhibition in each of six treated samples, including those of grampositive bacteria and fungi, and on a cultivating biofilm sample of Streptococcus mutans UA159. The medical applications of the air plasma sprays for 1) bleeding control, 2) wound healing, and 3) dental disinfection, are then illustrated and discussed. As animal models, pigs were used in the tests of stopping wound bleeding and post-operative observation of wound healing by this air plasma spray. The results show that the bleeding from a cut to an ear artery is stopped swiftly; this air plasma spray also shortens wound healing time to about half (from 14 days to 8 days) after stopping the bleeding of a cross cut wound in the ham area. In-vitro tests demonstrate that the plasma effluent of the spray can prevent the formation of dental biofilms and further eliminate the mature biofilms.
A Comparison of Children’s Fitness in the Northwest and Southwest of England  [PDF]
Spencer Earl Boyle
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2014.44020
Abstract: The data from this paper was gathered from a larger cross-sectional study examining children’s physical activity participation in the Northwest and the Southwest of England. The purpose of this study was to carry out a battery of health and fitness tests with children in both areas to examine possible differences in various aspects of fitness or health by area. Heart rate recovery, flexibility, body fat, hand grip strength, upper body strength, explosive strength and agility were all measured using youth fitness tests endorsed by EUROFIT and YMCA with 59 boys and 57 girls across both areas. There were no statistically significant differences in both groups of children in hand grip strength, flexibility and agility. Statistically significant differences were noted between both groups of children in explosive strength, upper body strength and measured body fat percentage. Overall the study showed mixed results that may indicate area of residence influences aspects of fitness or activity. Further study is recommended to assess whether physical activity could play a role in the associated fitness characteristics.
Air Plasma Mitigation of Shock Wave  [PDF]
Spencer P. Kuo
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology (AAST) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aast.2016.12006
Abstract: Shock wave is a detriment in the development of supersonic aircrafts; it increases flow drag as well as surface heating from additional friction; it also initiates sonic boom on the ground which precludes supersonic jetliner to fly overland. A shock wave mitigation technique is demonstrated by experiments conducted in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel. Non-thermal air plasma generated symmetrically in front of a wind tunnel model and upstream of the shock, by on-board 60 Hz periodic electric arc discharge, works as a plasma deflector, it deflects incoming flow to transform the shock from a well-defined attached shock into a highly curved shock structure. In a sequence with increasing discharge intensity, the transformed curve shock increases shock angle and moves upstream to become detached with increasing standoff distance from the model. It becomes diffusive and disappears near the peak of the discharge. The flow deflection increases the equivalent cone angle of the model, which in essence, reduces the equivalent Mach number of the incoming flow, manifesting the reduction of the shock wave drag on the cone. When this equivalent cone angle exceeds a critical angle, the shock becomes detached and fades away. This shock wave mitigation technique helps drag reduction as well as eliminates sonic boom.
Shock Wave Mitigation by Air Plasma Deflector  [PDF]
Spencer P. Kuo
Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology (AAST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aast.2018.34006
Abstract:
When the spacecraft flies much faster than the sound speed (~1200 km/h), the airflow disturbances deflected forward from the spacecraft cannot get away from the spacecraft and form a shock wave in front of it. Shock waves have been a detriment for the development of supersonic aircrafts, which have to overcome high wave drag and surface heating from additional friction. Shock wave also produces sonic booms. The noise issue raises environmental concerns, which have precluded routine supersonic flight over land. Therefore, mitigation of shock wave is essential to advance the development of supersonic aircrafts. A plasma mitigation technique is studied. A theory is presented to show that shock wave structure can be modified via flow deflection. Symmetrical deflection evades the need of exchanging the transverse momentum between the flow and the deflector. The analysis shows that the plasma generated in front of the model can effectively deflect the incoming flow. A non-thermal air plasma, generated by on-board 60 Hz periodic electric arc discharge in front of a wind tunnel model, was applied as a plasma deflector for shock wave mitigation technique. The experiment was conducted in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel. The results show that the air plasma was generated symmetrically in front of the wind tunnel model. With increasing discharge intensity, the plasma deflector transforms the shock from a welldefined attached shock into a highly curved shock structure with increasing standoff distance from the model; this curved shock has increased shock angle and also appears in increasingly diffused form. In the decay of the discharge intensity, the shock front is first transformed back to a well-defined curve shock, which moves downstream to become a perturbed oblique shock; the baseline shock front then reappears as the discharge is reduced to low level again. The experimental observations confirm the theory. The steady of the incoming flow during the discharge cycle is manifested by the repeat of the baseline shock front.
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