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Mercury in Canned Tuna in Spain. Is Light Tuna Really Light?  [PDF]
Montserrat González-Estecha, María José Martínez-García, Manuel Fuentes-Ferrer, Andrés Bodas-Pinedo, Alfonso Calle-Pascual, José María Ordó?ez-Iriarte, Cristina Fernández-Pérez, Nieves Martell-Claros, Miguel ángel Rubio-Herrera, Emilia Gómez-Hoyos, José Jesús Guillén-Pérez
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.47A007

In Spain, certain population-based studies have shown high blood mercury (Hg) levels due to the high consumption of fish. Some studies have stated that one of the most consumed fish in Spain is canned tuna. Different Spanish organisms consider that it is safe to consume canned tuna as it supposedly has a low mercury content, particularly in so-called light tuna. However, in Spain light tuna is mainly yellowfin and bigeye tuna, while in other countries it is mainly skipjack tuna. This study analyzed 36 cans of the most popular brands in Spain and examined the influence of the type of tuna, packaging medium (olive oil, sunflower seed oil, water or marinade), different brands, prices and expiration dates. Mercury concentrations (mg/kg) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and thermal decomposition amalgamation. The medians observed were (mg/kg): light tuna: 0.314; IQR: 0.205 - 0.594, white tuna: 0.338; IQR: 0.276 - 0.558, skipjack: 0.311; IQR: 0.299 - 0.322, frigate tuna: 0.219; IQR 0.182 - 0.257 and mackerel: 0.042; IQR 0.029 - 0.074. We found statistically significant differences between white tuna, light tuna and mackerel (p = 0.004); light tuna and mackerel (p = 0.002) and white tuna and mackerel (p = 0.006). However, we found no differences between white tuna and light tuna, or among packaging medium, brands, prices or expiration dates. The limit of 0.500 mg/kg of mercury in canned tuna was exceeded by the following percentages of the cans: 33.3% of light tuna, 16.7% of white tuna, and 0% of Skipjack, frigate tuna and mackerel. The mercury content of the cans of Spanish light tuna that were analyzed was variable and high. The results of this study indicate that stricter regulation of Hg in canned tuna is necessary. Until then, it is safer to recommend that vulnerable populations such as children and pregnant women consume canned mackerel, which has a markedly lower mercury content.

Conformity to Traditional Gender Norms in a Feminized Occupation: The Influence on Health Behaviors  [PDF]
María del Pilar Sánchez-López, Ana Isabel Saavedra, Virginia Dresch, Rosa Limi?ana
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.620317
Abstract: The object of this study is to examine the relationships between conformity to traditional gender norms and health in a special group of the Spanish population, male/female nurses. Nursing is a particularly good example of feminized occupation. Spanish male (n = 98) and female (n = 98) nurses matched in diverse sociodemographic variables complete measures of gender norms and health behavior variables. Measures of conformity to gender norms in female and male nurses are compared with those of the general population. The analysis of the inter-gender relationships and health highlights a clearly masculine pattern for men and a clearly feminine one for women. A detailed analysis of the scores in each of the scales reveals a pattern of illness in male nurses that is still masculine despite their lower conformity, as a group, to masculine norms, and a clearly feminine illness pattern in female nurses. The consideration of gender from a multidimensional perspective (the different factors that make up Masculinity and Femininity, as assessed in this work) has allowed us to study the relations between gender norms and health in more detail. Limitations and implications are discussed.
In No-Man’s Land. Community, Identities and Moral Lives in Depopulated Settings in the North of Spain  [PDF]
Angel Paniagua
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2011.11002
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to study the different ways depopulation is reflected from moral or ethical perspectives of geographical thinking. The objective here is to determine how moral lives (that reflect different opinions about the situational justice, spatial-environmental identity, affective morality and individual trajectory) are maintained in depopulated regions. It has been acknowledged that socio-cultural traditions in each space orientate the moral construction of depopulation, both in relation to socio-ecological repercussions, and also to construction of the community, or in processes of intra or extra-area socio-political negotiation. Some case studies are presented which have been analysed from a qualitative methodological approach, which considers residence in the area, systematic observations and semi-structured interviews.
El proceso en Espa?a de la adopción de una legislación eficaz para la prevención del tabaquismo
Córdoba,Rodrigo; Villalbí,Joan R.; Salvador-Llivina,Teresa; López-García Aranda,Víctor;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272006000600004
Abstract: the prevention movement has been the key agent involved in smoking control policies. this study describes the context and the process in which law 28/2005 was passed in spain with a synthesis of its substance. it provides the background of the events leading up to spain's current smoking control law in addition to an analysis of the role played by the different social actors in the process and the arguments and strategies employed in opposition by the tobacco industry. a review is also provided of the political agents, highlighting that decentralized countries have further problems in enforcing regulations. this case offers lessons for the future.
International Conference 'Iconografía lbérica e Iconografía Itálica: Propuestas de interpretación y lectura'. Rome, 11th-13th November 1993.
Joaquín Navarro
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 1994, DOI: 10.5334/pia.55
The Immigration that Caught Us Unprepared: The Swing of the Immigration Policies
Gloria Inés Ospina
UNISCI Discussion Papers , 2007,
Abstract: This article analyzes the evolution of policies and legislation on immigration in Spain, from the transition to democracy until now. As a conclusion, some suggestions for the countries that send or receive migration flows are offered.
Book review: Aja, Eliseo y Arango, Joaquín (eds.) (2007): La Inmigración en Espa a 2006. Anuario de inmigración y políticas de inmigración, Barcelona, Bellaterra
Gloria Inés Ospina
UNISCI Discussion Papers , 2008,
Book review: Corral Salvador, Carlos (2007): Confesiones religiosas y Estado espa ol: régimen jurídico, Madrid, BAC
Antonio Marquina
UNISCI Discussion Papers , 2007,
The Use of Newspapers for L2 Reading: Practical Activities  [PDF]
Gloria Luque-Agulló, Lucas González-Fernández
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.34072
Abstract: Nowadays the acquisition of literacy skills in the foreign language is a highly demanding task cognitively speaking. To improve this learning process, this paper presents a three-fold approach using print and virtual newspapers: first, a brief theoretical revision of the issues involved in learning how to read in a foreign language or transfer L1 reading skills to the foreign language, second, a wide selection of activities to be used when working with newspapers, and third, two sessions that exploit newspapers in the classroom which can constitute part of a wider lesson plan for Students preparing the English test for the University Entrance Exam (2nd of Bachillerato in the Spanish Educative System).
Predictors of Electoral Participation among Spanish and Latin American Undergraduates  [PDF]
José Juan Vázquez, Sonia Panadero, Ana B. García-Varela
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31010

This paper presents the results of a study of 709 undergraduates in Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chile, and Spain, countries with different developmental levels that held the first free elections following their respective dictatorships within a thirteen year span. The paper analyzes the electoral participation of undergraduates in relation to different factors. Results show a high electoral participation among Salvadoran, Nicaraguan, and Spanish undergraduates, while low turnout is observed among Chileans. The best predictors of electoral participation of undergraduates are related to their nationality, economic status, interest in politics, gender or living away from home.

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