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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5554 matches for " South Africa "
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Ultra-Deep Drilling through 3.5-Billion-Year-Old Crust in South Africa
Maarten de Wit
Scientific Drilling , 2011, DOI: 10.2204/iodp.sd.11.09.2011
Integrated Catchment Value Systems  [PDF]
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.13022
Abstract: Historic models of conservation are being superseded by the integration of ecological, economic and social dimensions into a simultaneously sustainable and supportive whole. This transition is evident as South Africa evolves from an apartheid history to novel governance including the equitable, sustainable and efficient use of water within an arid and increasingly climate-challenged landscape. The concept of ‘value chains’, established in industrial and government thinking, has been applied to wa-ter issues. We explore and extend ‘value chain’ thinking to cover various important dimensions of water management, taking account of both developed-world assumptions and developing world realities. This analysis exposes the limitations of linear ‘value chains’, and the need to join them up into cyclic sys-tems if they are to protect or improve the capacity of water systems to support the sustainable livelihoods and wellbeing of people dependent upon diverse ecosystem services within catchments. Informed by practical work by the authors in catchments within South Africa, we develop an integrated catchment value system model to support action research dialogues for the delivery of sustainable water ser-vices.
Performance in the Construction Industry— A Conceptual and Theoretical Analysis  [PDF]
George Hove, Adewale Banjo
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2015.32017
Abstract: Small businesses growth and profitability is a national problem in South Africa (SA) and the Emerging Contractors (ECs) in the construction industry are no exception. ECs are alleged to fail to live up to the expectations of different stakeholders. This paper looks back at the level of understanding of the performance construct especially the ECs and their stakeholders in South Africa. It establishes that there are no unique characteristics that have been translated into the performance construct and contributed by defining performance for ECs in the construction in the context of today’s South African changing environment.
Closing the treatment gap for depression co-morbid with HIV in South Africa: Voices of afflicted women  [PDF]
Inge Petersen, Jill Hanass Hancock, Arvin Bhana, Kaymarlin Govender, Members of Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME)
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.53A074

This Background: In South Africa the rising comorbidity of mental disorders with other non-communicable and communicable diseases, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), has helped raise the public health priority of mental ill-health. Depression, in particular, compromises anti-retroviral treatment (ART) adherence and virological suppression, thus threatening the effectiveness of South Africa’s ART programme. Given that evidence-based treatment for depression comprises medication and/ or Western-derived psychotherapies, responding to the current interest in expanding mental health services for PLWHA demands an understanding of how best to provide culturally competent care within existing resource constraints. Aim: To explore the context and local understandings of depression in women living with HIV to inform the development of contextually appropriate mental health services that could be delivered within existing resource constraints inSouth Africa. Method: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were held with 35 women living with HIV in South Africa who met the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder. Results: Being HIV-positive per se was not reported to be a major cause of depression. Instead, a number of social factors were reported. These included stigma and discrimination, poverty, and stressful life events. Symptoms of depression, especially social withdrawal, negative ruminating thoughts and excessive worry suggestive of comorbid anxiety, functioned to exacerbate and trap women in a negative depressive cycle. Social support emerged as a dominant coping strategy. Group-based interventions, which afford greater opportunities for improved social support, were mooted as the most appropriate intervention by the majority of participants. Individual counselling provided through a home visitation programme was suggested for those who were too ill or too poor to attend

Severity of the Rheumatoid Arthritis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Study of 403 Senegalese Observations  [PDF]
Moustapha Niasse, Ba?dy Sy Kane, Abdoul Aziz Ndiaye, Awa Cheikh Ndao, Boundia Djiba, Seynabou Fall, Ngoné Diaba Diack, Fatimata Bintou Sall, Michel Assane Ndour, Nafy Diagne, Atoumane Faye, Biram Codou Fall, Souha?bou Ndongo, Abdoulaye Pouye
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2017.74016
Abstract: Introduction: We assess the severity of the rheumatoid arthritis in a Senegalese African black population. Patients and methods: It is a retrospective study achieved in the service of Internal Medicine of Aristide Le Dantec teaching hospital of Dakar between January 2005 and December 2016 in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. We specified for every patient the predictive data of severity of the rheumatoid arthritis. Results: Four hundred and three patients have been gathered (39 men and 364 women), with the mean age of 45.8 years. An active tobacco addiction was noticed in 10 patients. The diagnostic delay was on average of 72 months. Characteristic articular deformations were noticed in 215 patients (53.3%). They were correlated to male (p = 0.038), to age (p = 0.001) and to the activity of the rheumatoid arthritis (p = 0.0445). Systemic manifestations have been observed in 213 cases (52.9%), particularly anemia (50.8%). They were correlated to the anti-CCP antibodies (p = 0.047). The ESR was increased at the first hour in 84.4% of cases (median: 43 mm; extreme: 1and 160). CRP was elevated in 63.71% of cases (median of 12 mg/l; extreme: 1 and 384). The rheumatoid factor was positive in 57.6% of the cases. The anti-CCP antibodies were present in 89.2% of the cases. Articular erosions were objectified in all cases. A DAS 28 superior to 5.1 was noticed in 71% of cases. Conclusion: The rheumatoid arthritis was severe in our study.
Antibiotics Prophylaxis in Patients with CAKUT, Does It Actually Prevent UTI? A Single Center Experience at South Africa  [PDF]
Nneka Chioma Okoronkwo, Abdullahi Mudi, Cecil Levy, Thuli Khumalo, G. Moonsamy
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2018.84011
Abstract: Background: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are a well-documented risk factor for the development of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. Prevention of UTI in this group of patients is advocated due to their increased risk of renal scarring, hypertension and end stage kidney failure. Methods: A 10-year retrospective review of CAKUT patients at the Johannesburg Academic Hospital, who were placed on prophylactic antibiotics over a certain period was done. The rate of UTI, the types of causative organisms isolated and the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing UTI were documented. Results: Thirty-six (36) out of 134 patients had been started on prophylactic antibiotics after the diagnosis of CAKUT was made. There was a statistically significant association between the use of prophylactic antibiotics and the rate of UTI (p < 0.001). Patients who were not on a prophylactic antibiotic were five times more likely to have a UTI than those who were on a prophylactic antibiotic (OR = 5.21, P = 0.001, 95% CI: 1.9906 - 13.6277). There was a statistically significant association between the type of bacteria isolated and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis (p = 0.031). Conclusion: Antibiotic prophylaxis was very effective in decreasing the rate of UTI in our cohort of patients with CAKUT.
What’s new is old: Comments on (more) archaeological evidence of one-million-year-old fire from South Africa
Travis Rayne Pickering
South African Journal of Science , 2012,
Abstract: The essential roles of fire in human evolution and in humanity’s technological mastery of the natural world are disproportional to our understanding of its earliest domestication. Archaeologists researching relatively recent occurrences of fire, only after ~0.4 Ma and mostly in Europe, are particularly critical of earlier archaeological claims of fire from African sites older than 1.0 million years old.
"A Generous Imaginary: Contingencies of Value in the South African Charity Run"
Ivan Rabinowitz
International Journal of Motorcycle Studies , 2007,
Fear of crime in South Africa: Obsession, compulsion, disorder
Ravi Baghel
Transcience : a Journal of Global Studies , 2010,
Abstract: This paper proposes a five-factor social psychological model for understanding the “fear of crime” in South Africa. It argues that this phenomenon goes beyond fear, and beyond crime and is influence by the social psychological context, and the recent rapid changes in society. Consequently any attempt to address fear of crime must make an attempt to address these factors; or else actuarial and spectacular responses shall continue to offer temporary relief from anxiety, without doing anything to address this phenomenon in the long term.
The treasure trove of yeast genera and species described by Johannes van der Walt (1925-2011)
Maudy Th. Smith,Marizeth Groenewald
IMA Fungus , 2012,
Abstract: Yeast taxonomy and systematics have in recent years been dealt with intensively primarily by a small group of individual researchers with particular expertise. Amongst these was Johannes P. van der Walt, who had a major role in shaping our current understanding of yeast biodiversity and taxonomy. Van der Walt based his taxonomic studies not only on available cultures, but also by going into the field to isolate yeasts from various substrates. This pioneering work led to the discovery of many new genera and species, which were deposited in the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) collections for future studies in taxonomy, genomics, and industrial uses. These treasures collected during more than 60 years provide an outstanding legacy to the yeast community and will continue to exist in his absence. This contribution provides a comprehensive overview of the current nomenclatural and taxonomic status of the yeast genera and species introduced by van der Walt during his career.
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