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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1989 matches for " Souleymane Ouédraoogo "
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Cassava By-Products as Feed for Pigs in Burkina Faso: Production Processes, Nutritive Values and Economic Costs  [PDF]
Timbilfou Kiendrébéogo, Nouhoun Zampaligré, Souleymane Ouédraoogo, Youssouf Mopaté Logténé, Chantal Yvette Kaboré-Zoungrana
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105711
Introduction: In Burkina Faso, as in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the low availability and high cost of feed is the main limiting factor for pigs’ productivity. While cassava byproducts are well known and used in many countries to overcome this constraint, very little is known on its uses as feed in Burkina Faso. Objective: The study aims to develop processes for the production of pig feeds from cassava leaves and by products (peelings and residues of sieving for gari making). Experimentations: Some cassava leaves, peelings and residues of sieving gari were collected, sun-dried and milled (peels and residues) or mortared (leaves). The dry matter contents were 88.89%, 90.83% and 91.67% respectively for food of cassava peeling (FCP), leaves (FCL), and gari sieving residues (GRSF). The crud protein (CP) contents were 28.87% for FCL, 4.22% for FCP and 1.72% for GRSF. Crude fiber (CB) and ADF were 15.98% and 30.6% for FCP, 15.79% and 23.29% for FCL and 3.27% and 4.45% for GRSF. The NDF content of FCL (45.32%) was higher than the FCP (38.36%) and GRSF (18.42%) feed respectively. Lignin levels were more important in FCP than in FCL and GRSF. The digestible energy (DE) contents were 2424 kcal for FCL, 2683 kcal for FCP and 3471 kcal DE for GRSF. The production costs of a kg of Dry Matter (DM) of FCP were 15 FCFA, FCL were 101 FCFA and 150 FCFA for GRSF. Conclusion: Pig’s feed production based on cassava by-products in Burkina Faso is a good opportunity to make feed more available at reduced cost. Further research is needed to assess pigs zootechnical performances and cost benefits of pig’s diets with these feeds.
Inventory and Distribution of Mango Mealybugs Species in Western Burkina Faso: Relative Abundance and Population Fluctuation  [PDF]
Karim Nébié, Souleymane Nacro, Issoufou Ouédraogo, Dona Dakouo, Lenli Claude Otoidobiga
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2016.43020
Abstract: Rastrococus invadens was the only reported mealybug species on the mango tree in Western Burkina Faso. This study aimed at carrying out the inventory and showing the importance and distribution of other mealybug species associated with the mango tree. It was also important to determine the periods of abundance of these species vis-a-vis R. invadens. For this purpose, the density of mealybugs was assessed in three study sites (Toussiana, Bérégadougou and Orodara) in Western Burkina Faso. The observations were made from June 2014 to June 2015 at a frequency of 15 ± 1 days. They focused on 20 leaves (5 leaves/cardinal point) levied on each mango tree. The species identified as Ferrisia virgata Cockerell and Icerya aegyptiaca Douglas were collected from mangos infested by R. invadens representing 98% - 99% of the density of the observed mealybug species. The periods of abundance of F. virgata and I. aegyptiaca were respectively the dry season and the rainy season. The effect of temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on the populations of F. virgata and I. aegyptiaca was also discussed. These results highlight the distribution range of F. virgata and I. aegyptiaca worldwide including Burkina Faso. R. invadens was the main mealybug species on mango in Burkina Faso in general and in the Western region of the country in particular.
Study of the Efficiency of the Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta indica’s Seeds and Deltamethrin on Jatropha curcas L. Insect Pests: Case of Calidea panaethiopica (Hemoptera: Scutelliridae) and Aphtona whitfieldi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  [PDF]
Momine Bidiga, Souleymane Nacro
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2016.44022
Abstract: The efficiency of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica’s seeds and deltamethrin 12.5 EC was tested for the control of Calidea panaethiopica and Aphtona whitfieldi populations, two major insect pests of Jatropha curcas L. in Burkina Faso. This study was conducted in 2013 during the dry season and in 2014 during the raining season. In the laboratory, tests of toxicity by contact on paper blotter and by ingestion on organs of the plant and their repulsive effect on paper blotter were performed in vitro on the insect pests adults caught on J. curcasplantations as compared with controls. The aqueous excerpts of neem seeds were prepared at different lengths of steeping (12 h, 24 h and 48 h) and the deltamethrin 12.5 EC was diluted at different doses (4 ml, 8 ml and 16 ml/L). The results of this experiment showed the evidence of the efficiency of the doses 8 ml/L and 16 ml/L of deltamethrin 12.5 EC, and those of 24 h and 48 h for the excerpts of neem seeds. These efficient doses were evaluated in the field in 2013 and 2014. The highest decreases of C. panaethiopica (0.327) and of A. whitfieldi (0.501) populations were recorded with the 16 ml/L dose of deltamethrin in 2014 raining season. During the 2013 dry season, more insect pests were recorded (0.389 for C. panaethiopica and 0.679 for A. whitfieldi) with that dose. But these results were not significantly different from those of 8 ml/L. Regarding the A. indica extracts, the best decrease of populations in the 1st year (0.36 for C. panaethiopica and 1.278 for A. withfieldi) was recorded with the 48 h maceration. But in 2014 because of the effect of rainfalls that dose was less effective than that of 24 h maceration with 0.399 for C. panaethiopica and 1.208 for A. whitfieldi. The efficiency interval of the tested insecticides was two to three weeks in low or no rainfall conditions and one to two weeks in rainy season conditions.
Assessment of Constraints to the Adoption of Technologies Promoted by the Integrated Pest Management Training Program in Cotton-Based Cropping Systems in Western Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Souleymane Nacro, Karim Sama
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2018.62011
Abstract: Our study was conducted from August 2008 to March 2009 in the Houet province, western Burkina Faso. It consisted in the assessment of the constraints to the adoption by cotton growers of technologies promoted by the IPM program through Farmers’ Field Schools in cotton-cereals-livestock systems. We did so by surveying a sample of 185 farmers trained in IPM and by describing farmers’ practices before and after the training in IPM. The results showed that the average dose of organic manure, NPK and urea used by famers after their training were respectively 3.8 tons/ha, 163 kg/ha and 65 kg /ha as compared with 2.4 tons/ha, 140 kg/ha and 51 kg/ha before the training. Regarding the use of pesticides, 94.6% of farmers used protection equipment during the sprayings after the training against 21.6% of them before the training. However, the average number of sprays did not vary significantly. It was 6 before the training and only 5 after. The botanical pesticides were used by 31% of farmers after the training as compared with 0% of users before the training in IPM. The training did not affect much crop yields. The constraints identified and classified according to their relative importance included the lack of agricultural equipment, and animals for ploughing, difficulties in inputs access, labor shortage, the lack of organic manure, and marketing problems. These technical, social and economic constraints have been analyzed and recommendations have been made to work them out.
Distribution of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Precancerous Cervical Lesions in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Charlemagne Ouédraogo, Théodora Mahoukèdè Zohoncon, Esther M. A. Traoré, Souleymane Ouattara, Prosper Bado, Clarisse T. Ouedraogo, Florencia W. Djigma, Djénéba Ouermi, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Olga Lompo, Simon A. Akpona, Jacques Simpore
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.64025
Abstract: Aims: We aimed at identifying the high-risk HPV genotypes associated with high-grade dysplastic cervical lesions in Burkina Faso. The available vaccines to Burkina Faso only protect against two high risk HPV genotypes: HPV 16 and 18. Are the genotypes identified in the high-grade precan-cerous lesions in this survey covered by the available vaccines? Methods: The detection and genotyping of high-risk HPV have been conducted based on 118 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archived tissues using the “HPV Genotypes 14 Real-TM Quant” (Sacace biotechnologies®, Italy) kit allowing for the detection of fourteen high-risk HPV genotypes: HPV 16, 31, 18, 39, 45, 59, 33, 35, 56, 68, 51, 52, 58 and 66. Results: The prevalence of high-risk HPV infections was 48.8% based on the appropriate PCR results (21/43). The most common HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (21.7%), HPV 35 (13.0%) and HPV 45 (13.0%). Two cases of multiple infections between HPV 39 - 45 and HPV 39 - 59 have been observed. HPV 16 was not detected in this study. Conclusions: We noted a high prevalence rate for HPV 39, HPV 35 and HPV 45, which are not covered by the commercial vaccines. We also found that the prevalence of HPV 18 was very low in this study and HPV 16 was not detected.
Anatomo-Clinical Case: Coexistence of Tuberculosis with Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Carcinoma  [PDF]
Aimé Sosthène Ouédraogo, Hierrhum Aboubacar Bambara, Franck Auguste Hermann Ademayali Ido, Welbnoaga Norbert Ramdé, Rimwaogdo Jeremie Sawadogo, Ibrahim Savadogo, Souleymane Ouattara, Hassami Barry, Assita Sanou-Lamien, Olga Melanie Lompo
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2018.84015
Abstract: Introduction: The coexistence of tuberculosis with axillary lymph node metastasis in breast carcinoma is uncommon. Observation: We report a case of a patient aged 59 years presenting a painless nodule in the right breast for one year. The scan and mammography revealed a long-axis node of 3 × 2 × 1 cm in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast ranked stage IV by the American College of Radiology (ACR), associated with a set of axillary lymph nodes and the largest one measuring 15 × 15 × 20 millimeters (mm). The breast biopsy helped diagnose a Scarff Bloom Richardson (SBR) grade II non-specific invasive carcinoma, modified by Ellis and Elston. A right mastectomy associated with a lymph node dissection was performed. We noticed a not well defined and whitish 5 mm tumor mass associated with 16 lymph nodes removed. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of SBR grade II non-specific invasive carcinoma with invasion of 7 lymph nodes (N+ = 7/16). In 3 metastatic lymph nodes, there were epithelioid and gigantocellular granulomas with full central necrosis. The Ziehl Neelsen staining had highlighted acid-fast bacilli. The tumor was oestrogen and progesteron receptor, without an overexpression of the oncoprotein human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), which corresponds to a 0 score and the Ki 67 proliferation index assessed at 10%. The patient was given an anti-tuberculosis treatment combining Rifampicin (H), Isoniazid (I), Pyrazinamid (Z), Ethambutol (E) over 2 months and secondly a combination of Rifampicin and Isoniazid over 4 months (2RHZE/4 RH). The anti-tumor chemotherapy used a protocol combining 3 FAC60+ 3 Docetaxel (F = Fluorouracil®; A = Adriblastin®, C = Cyclophosphamid). Conclusion: This coexistence is uncommon, of incidental discovery and necessitates a multidisciplinary care.
Some Biological Features of Aphtona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an Insect Pest of Jatropha curcas L. in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Alizèta Sawadogo, Souleymane Nacro
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2016.44024
Abstract: Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major insect pest of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiacae) in Burkina Faso and other countries in West Africa. The insect pest feeds on the roots and the leaves of the plant. When the attacks are heavy, the plant may lose all its leaves and die off. Unfortunately, little information is available on the biology of this insect pest. A study was conducted on the biology of this insect pest in the Sissili province, South Burkina Faso and resulted in the knowledge of some of the biological features of the insect pest. Aphthona whitfieldi was reared from 13th July to 22th October 2015. Larvae and pupae were collected in J. curcas plantations near Léo, the capital city of the Sissili province, and brought to the laboratory for rearing. The insects were observed daily and the dimensions and the duration of each stage were recorded. We recorded two larval stages (1st and 3rd): a pre-pupa and a pupal stage. The pupa was free and white milk-like. Both the pre-pupa and the pupal stages lasted for five days. The 1st instar larva was smaller than the third one.
Natural Enemies of Calidea panaethiopica (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae): An Insect Pest of Jatropha curcas L. in the South-Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Younous Waka? Djimmy, Souleymane Nacro
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2016.44021
Abstract: Jatropha curcas L. is a non-edible oleaginous plant of Euphorbiacea family. Its seeds provide oil for industrial use, and when grown as a biofuel, J. curcas can be used to restore degraded soil by improving their fertility and by controlling water and wind erosion. The plant also reduces CO2 emission by carbon sequestration. However, J. curcas is attacked by many insect pests including C. panaethiopica, a polyphagous heteroptera of the Scutelleridae family. Larvae and adults of the insect pest feed on J. curcas flowers, fruit, and seeds, thereby causing quantitative and qualitative losses. Despite the economic importance of this insect pest, there is little known about its potential natural enemies. A survey of the natural enemies of C. panaethiopica was carried out from 3rd June 2013 to 29th May 2014 on three J. curcas production sites in the South-Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso. Three Hymenopteran egg parasitoids all belonging to the Scelionidae family were found. These included Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston), Psixstriaticeps (Dodd), and Gryon sp. Several predator species belonging to the Araneae, Tarachodidae and Mantidae families were also found. The egg parasitism increased progressively between June and September 2013, reaching a peak (43%) in September 2013. The number of spiders and mantises was higher between July and August 2013. The highest numbers of natural enemies associated with the insect pest were recorded in J. curcas monoculture plantations.
The Effect of Aphthona whitfieldi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations’ Density on the Growth of Jatropha curcas in Burkina Faso  [PDF]
Alizèta Sawadogo, Souleymane Nacro
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2017.54013
Abstract: Aphthona whitfieldi Bryant (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major insect pest of Jatropha curcas L. in Burkina Faso. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of the insect pest populations’ density on the growth of the plant. To achieve this purpose, 90-day aged single plants were caged in a randomized complete block design experiment with 5 treatments and 5 replicates. The treatments consisted of increasing numbers of adults of A. whitfieldi used to infest the caged plants: T0 (0 adult = check), T1 (100 adults), T2 (200 adults), T3 (300 adults), T4 (400 adults). All caged plants were infested 21 days after transplantation and the evaluation started 14 days later one on every 2-week basis from September 18, 2014 to February 19, 2015. The growth parameters of the plant were assessed. The results showed that the intensity of damage caused by A. whitfieldi on the growth of young plants of J. curcas varied according to the treatment (i.e., according to the number of adult individuals infesting the plant at the beginning). The higher the number, the heavier the level of damage caused by the pest. So, the growth of the J. curcas plant was inversely proportional to the number of A. whitfieldi infesting individuals. There was also a positive linear correlation between the defoliation rate and the height of the seedlings. The status of this insect pest was confirmed by the results of this study.
Prevalence of Group B Streptococcus among Pregnant Women in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)  [PDF]
Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Yacouba Sawadogo, Der Adolphe Somé, An Vercoutere, Soufiane Sanou, Souleymane Ouattara, Fernand Michodigni, Armel Poda, Moussa Bambara, Lassana Sangaré, Sylvain Godreuil
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2019.93008
Abstract: Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae, which asymptomatically colonizes the female genital tract, is one of the leading causes of septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in neonates. This study was conducted in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization among pregnant women. Methods: Six hundred and eleven (611) pregnant women were screened for GBS colonization between July and December 2016. Vaginal swab samples were aseptically collected from the subjects after oral informed consent. Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate and identify GBS isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of GBS isolates was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results: Colonization prevalence was 6.05%. No risk factors associated with the carriage rate was statistically identified. All isolates were susceptible to Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Cefotaxime, Levofloxacin, Vancomycin and Nitrofurantoin. Resistance to antibiotics was found for erythromycin (35.14%), lincomycin (16.22%) and penicillin G (10.81%). Conclusion: Although a low carriage (6.05%) rate and isolates were susceptible to many antibiotics found in this study, a policy of systematic screening of pregnant women at least in the third trimester must be promoted.
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