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Seasonal Variations in Groundwater of the Phreatic Aquiferous Formations in Douala City-Cameroon: Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk Akoachere, Sonia Ebot Egbe, Thomson Areapkoh Eyong, Sophie Ngomune Edimo, Simon Ngomba Longonje, Diana Besem Tambe, Nji Bihmimihney Nelly
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105328
This study was to determine the seasonal variations of groundwater, the influence of the rock formations on the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic-agro-industrial quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters; Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality indices. From physicochemical parameters; in the rainy season, pH ranged from, 4.6-7.1; EC, 0.023-1.63 mS/cm; Temperature, 26.3-290C andTDS, 0.015-1.09 mg/L and in the dry season pH ranged from 5-7.2; EC, 0.01-1.61 mS/cm; Temperature, 24.4-29.50C andTDS, 0.01-1.08 mg/L. Forty groundwater samples; 20 per season, wet and dry were analysed. Themajor ions fell below WHO acceptable limits for both seasons. The sequences of abundance of major ions were, Ca2 >K >Mg2 >NH4 >Na , HCO3->Cl->SO42->NO3->HPO42- in wet season and Ca2 >Mg2 >K >Na >NH4 , HCO3->Cl->SO42->HPO42->NO3- in dry season. Ion-exchange, simple dissolution and uncommon dissolution processes determined groundwater character. Groundwater ionic content was as a result of ion exchange from rock-weathering. Water types are; MgCl and MgHCO3 in both seasons. Hydrogeochemical facies are; Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, characteristic of groundwater some distance along its flow path and Ca-Mg-HCO3, characteristic of freshly recharged groundwater from precipitation. The groundwater indices of; Sodium Percent (% Na), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) , Kelley’s ratio (KR), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), USSL? and Wilcox index were determined, evaluated and found to be suitable for agro-industrial uses in all seasons. Permeability Index (PI) , Water quality index (WQI) and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR) were not suitable in some areas and in some seasons.
Groundwater Monitoring in the Gneisso-Basaltic Fractured Rock Aquiferous Formations of Kumba, Southwest Region Cameroon: Seasonal Variations in the Aqueous Geochemistry and Water Quality  [PDF]
R. A. Akoachere, Y. M. Ngwese, S. E. Egbe, T. A. Eyong, S. N. Edimo, D. B. Tambe
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.611003
Abstract: The objective was to determine and monitor seasonal changes during four hydrological seasons: Wet season (September), Wetdry season (December), Dry season (March) and Drywet season (June) in the groundwater aqueous geochemistry and its domestic-agro-industrial quality using physicochemical parameters and hydrogeochemical tools: Temperature, Electrical Conductivity EC, pH, Total dissolved solids TDS, Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams Durov diagrams, total hardness HT, Water quality index WQI, Sodium adsorption ratio SAR, Percent Sodium %Na, Kelly’s Ratio KR, permeability index PI, Magnesium adsorption ratio MAR, Residual sodium carbonate RSC and Wilcox diagram. Field physicochemical parameters ranged from: Wet season; pH 3.9 - 6.9; Temperature, 23.3°C - 29.1°C; EC, 10 - 1900 μS/cm; TDS, 6.7 - 1273 mg/L; Wetdry, pH, 5.7 - 11.7; Temperature, 23.6°C - 28.3°C; EC, 1 - 1099 μS/cm, TDS, 0.67 - 736.33 mg/L; Dry pH, 5.7 - 13.1; Temperature, 26.3°C - 30.2°C; EC, 12 - 770 μS/cm, TDS, 8.04 - 515.9 mg/L and Drywet, pH, 4 - 7.4; Temperature, 25.8°C - 30.7°C; EC, 10 - 1220 μS/cm, TDS, 6.7 - 817.4 mg/L. Seventy-two groundwater samples, 18 per season were analysed. All ionic concentrations fell below acceptable World Health Organization guidelines in all seasons. The sequence of abundance of major ions are; Wet, Ca+ > Mg2+ > Na+ = K+ > NH4+, HCO3? > Cl? > NO3? > SO42? > HPO42?; Wetdry Ca+ > K+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > NH4+, HCO3? > Cl? > SO42? > NO3? > HPO42?; Dry Ca+ > K+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > NH4+, HCO3? > Cl?> NO3? > SO42? > HPO42?; Drywet NH4+ > Ca+ > K+ > Mg2+ > Na+; Cl? > HCO3? > NO3? > SO42? > HPO42?. Groundwater ionic content was due to rock weathering and ion exchange reactions. CaSO4 is the dominant water type in Wet and Wetdry seasons; followed by CaHCO3, Na + K-Cl Wet, CaSO4 and
An Exploratory Study of Altruism in Greek Children: Relations with Empathy, Resilience and Classroom Climate  [PDF]
Sophie Leontopoulou
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.15047
Abstract: The aims of this exploratory study were two-fold: a. to identify any relations between children’s altruism and a set of demographic and other personal and social characteristics of Greek children, such as empathy, resilience and classroom climate; and b. to examine the psychometric properties of a newly-developed measure of altruistic behaviour in children, namely the Altruistic Behaviour Questionnaire (ABQ). 232 male and female students of the 5th and 6th class of Primary School in Northern Greece participated in this study. The ABQ was found to have adequate internal consistency and concurrent and construct validity. Using a hierarchical regression analysis, altruism in children was found to be reliably predicted by participants’ gender and academic performance, by empathy and also by resilience; nevertheless, the more socially determined variable of classroom climate only marginally predicted altruism. The importance of including training in the development and manifestation of altruism in emotional education programmes and resilience interventions at school is highlighted.
Social Capital and Willingness-to-Pay for Community-Based Health Insurance in Rural Cameroon
Hermann Pythagore Donfouet,Jean-Roger Essombè Edimo,Pierre-Alexandre Mahieu,Eric Malin
Global Journal of Health Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v3n1p142
Abstract: Community-based health insurance in developing countries is often perceived as a way to improve the health state of rural households. An open question is whether the social capital has a positive impact on the demand for health insurance. A contingent valuation study was conducted to explore the influence of the social capital on the demand for health insurance. The main results are that (i) most of the rural households are willing to pay for community-based health insurance (ii) the social capital has a positive impact on the willingness to pay for community-based health insurance. The policy implications of the results are discussed.
Bank Characteristics and Procyclicality: A Theoretical Approach  [PDF]
Marie-Sophie Gauvin
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2014.33007

The 2007-2008 crisis highlighted liquidity management troubles. We witness a real estate asset price boom during the pre-crisis period and a difficulty for banks to raise funding afterwards. Consequently, bank choices in response to the conduct of the monetary policy along the cycle can be studied. Despite usual financial accelerator, the excessive (lack of) confidence of banks in the upward (down) phase explains procyclical balance sheet movements. Moreover, the monetary policy effects on bank behaviors vary according to their initial specifications. From a theoretical point of view, this paper examines the response of the banking sector to monetary authorities impulses, in function of their initial characteristics. So, the paper highlights a theoretical model, based on accounting identities, in which banks are distinguished in different categories according to their level of capitalization and liquidity. The principal result is that the less capitalized and liquid banks have more procyclical behaviors.

Manufacture of a Low Oxalate Mitsumame-Type Dessert Using Rhubarb Juice and Calcium Salts  [PDF]
Sophie Faudon, Geoffrey Savage
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.517174
Abstract: Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) juice was used to make a Japanese soft mitsumame-type dessert sweet. The dessert was prepared from extracted rhubarb juice, which was cooked with sugar, agar and guar gum, then allowed to set in sweet moulds. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were determined in the ingredients and the final products using HPLC chromatography. To reduce the soluble oxalate content of the dessert while retaining the colour and taste of the final product, increments of CaCl2 and CaCO3 were added to the test dessert mixes. The addition of CaCl2 reduced the pH from 3.55 ± 0.03 to pH 3.09 ± 0.02 while addition of CaCO3 increased the pH from 3.55 ± 0.03 to 4.96 ± 0.01. In both cases, the incremental addition of calcium reduced the soluble oxalate content of the sweets by converting it to insoluble oxalate.
Effective Yield Strength for Material Powder Consolidated at Stage II Compaction  [PDF]
Larbi Siad, Sophie Ganglo?
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2014.49028
Abstract: This work is concerned with the estimation from the outside of effective yield strength for the stage II consolidated material package of axisymmetric solid particles. Once an appropriate simple representative axisymmetric unit cell is chosen, the kinematical approach of the yield design homogenization method is used in order to obtain external estimates which has been found depending on the loading history (isostatic and closed die compactions) as well as on the relative density of the material powder. For comparison purpose, finite element simulations that describe the behavior of spherical elastic plastic particles uniformly distributed inside the material powder are carried out.
Assessing Ecotoxicity in Marine Environment Using Luminescent Microalgae: Where Are We At?  [PDF]
Sophie Sanchez-Ferandin
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.615252
Abstract: Nowadays, microalgae are particularly used to assess the environmental impact of contaminants in aquatic systems. Naturally present in some algal species, bioluminescence is highly used in application fields related to environmental monitoring. Bioluminescent dinoflagellates have played a pivotal role in this domain. When exposed to heavy metals or toxic organic compounds, bioluminescent dinoflagellates have the capacity to decrease light emission. In addition, new molecular tools allow the possibility to produce genetically modified microorganisms which are able to perform luminescence. Combined with the luciferase reporter gene, two main genetic constructions can be employed. Activation of a specific inducible promoter induces the luminescence gene transcription and this signal increases over time. Constitutive promoters result in a high basal expression level of the reporter gene. During exposure to a potential toxic pollutant, the basal expression level will decrease due to the toxic effect. Toxicity bioassays based on engineered luminescent Chlorophyta microalgae are among the most sensitive tests and are an invaluable complement to classical toxicity assays.
Effectiveness of a Broad-Spectrum Sunscreen in the Prevention of Melasma in Asian Pregnant Women  [PDF]
Sophie Seité, Seok Beom Park
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2013.33A2002

Chloasma, or melasma, is a commonly acquired pigmentary disorder among Asian women. It may be considered as a physiological change during pregnancy. The incidence in Asian women is higher than that in other ethnic groups but further epidemiologic data are needed. There are very few studies related to the benefits of sunscreens to prevent this dermatosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a broad-spectrum sunscreen in the prevention of melasma in Korean pregnant women. We tested the effectiveness and tolerance of a sunscreen product (SPF 50+, UVA-PF 30) during a 12-month clinical trial including 220 Korean parturients with skin type III and IV. 217 women completed the study. Only 3 (1%) of the study population developed melasma, which was mild (MASI grade between 1.2 and 2.7). In addition, the clinical effectiveness of the evaluated sunscreen was judged good to excellent by the majority of study participants and by the research dermatologists. The excellent tolerance of the sunscreen under evaluation was confirmed “good” to “excellent” in 95% and 97% of cases. This study clearly demonstrates that this broad-

"Shopping" à la fran?aise: approvisionnement alimentaire et sociabilité
Chevalier, Sophie;
Horizontes Antropológicos , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-71832007000200004
Abstract: l'auteur décrit les pratiques d'approvisionnement alimentaire des habitants de trois villes fran?aises, paris, lyon et besan?on, en les contrastant avec des banlieusards. elle montre que ces citadins des centres villes fréquentent les commerces alimentaires de proximité l'analyse de ces pratiques révèlent que c'est la dimension sociale qui est la plus importante à examiner pour comprendre ces pratiques d'approvisionnement, en lien avec la sociabilité de quartier. c'est la possibilité de créer des liens personnalisés entre commer?ant et client, et "d'être un client reconnu comme habitant d'un quartier". les commerces "font" la vie de quartier pour la plupart des interlocuteurs des centres villes étudiés. il existe donc à la fois une sociabilité et une socialisation autour de l'activité d'approvisionnement: "faire ses courses" crée du lien social.
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