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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6314 matches for " Sonia Saad "
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Combined Effects of PPARγ Agonists and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors in Human Proximal Tubule Cells
Katherine Pegg,Jie Zhang,Carol Pollock,Sonia Saad
PPAR Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/982462
Abstract:
Combined Effects of PPARγ Agonists and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors in Human Proximal Tubule Cells
Katherine Pegg,Jie Zhang,Carol Pollock,Sonia Saad
PPAR Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/982462
Abstract: We aimed to determine whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, in addition to a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, prevents high-glucose-induced proximal tubular fibrosis, inflammation, and sodium and water retention in human proximal tubule cells exposed to normal glucose; high glucose; high glucose with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone or with the P-EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib; or high glucose with both pioglitazone and gefitinib. We have shown that high glucose increases AP-1 and NFκB binding activity, downstream phosphorylation of EGFR and Erk1/2, and fibronectin and collagen IV expression. Pioglitazone reversed these effects but upregulated NHE3 and AQP1 expression. Gefitinib inhibited high glucose induced fibronectin and collagen IV, and EGFR and Erk1/2 phosphorylation and reversed pioglitazone-induced increases in NHE3 and AQP1 expression. Our data suggests that combination of an EGFR inhibitor and a PPARγ agonist mitigates high-glucose-induced fibrosis and inflammation and reverses the upregulation of transporters and channels involved in sodium and water retention in human proximal tubule cells. Hence EGFR blockade may hold promise, not only in limiting tubulointerstitial pathology in diabetic nephropathy, but also in limiting the sodium and water retention observed in patients with diabetes and exacerbated by PPARγ agonists. 1. Introduction Cellular sodium and water transport are dysregulated in diabetes mellitus resulting in volume-mediated hypertension and cardiac complications. We have previously demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) and high-glucose-induced sodium reabsorption in proximal tubule cells by increasing the activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3). This is dependent on EGFR signalling and downstream activation of serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (Sgk-1) [1]. Enhanced expression and/or activity of the EGF receptor (EGFR) has previously been observed in the kidneys of diabetic animals [2] and tubular EGFR expression correlates with the extent of interstitial fibrosis [3]. Furthermore, the EGFR is activated/transactivated by multiple factors inherent in the diabetic milieu, including high glucose [4], angiotensin II (AngII) [5], and aldosterone [6], all of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Recent studies have supported the hypothesis that inhibition of the EGFR provides an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy [7]. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are synthetic peroxisome
Assessing the Usability of Institutions Web Pages  [PDF]
Saad Subair
International Journal of Internet and Distributed Systems (IJIDS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijids.2014.23003
Abstract: The usability of the web pages is assessed using some statistical models. Researchers argue that many usability results and recommendations lack empirical and experimental data. Universities web pages are chosen as subjects for this work. Series of experiments have been conducted to investigate into the usability and design of the universities web pages. Prototype web pages have been developed according to the structured methodologies of web pages design and development. Four universities web pages were evaluated together with the prototype web pages using a questionnaire which was designed according to the Human Computer Interactions (HCI) concepts. The data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression models. The correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive and negative correlations between many items. The regression analysis revealed that the most significant factors (items) that contributed to the best model of the universities web pages design and usability were: multimedia in the web pages, the web pages icons (alone) organization and design, and graphics attractiveness. The results showed some of the limitations of some heuristics used in conventional interface system design and proposed some additional heuristics in web pages design and usability.
Saltwater Intrusion in Jizan Coastal Zone, Southwest Saudi Arabia, Inferred from Geoelectric Resistivity Survey  [PDF]
Saad Mogren
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.63022
Abstract: This work focuses on the causes of water quality deterioration in the coastal plain of Jizan area, southwest Saudi Arabia using vertical electrical sounding (VES) surveys. Schlumberger electrode array is used in the study with the current electrode spacing ranging from 400 to 600 m to delineate the thickness of the shallow aquifer and its possible interaction with the sea water. The differences in resistivity are associated with the variations in lithology and groundwater saturation and salinity. The interpretation of VES curves reveals low resistivity zones characterizing the study area. These zones reflect saline water intrusion in the coastal aquifer. Generally, it is observed that the resistivity of saturated zone decreases towards the sea, indicating the influence of seawater. Based on the interpretation of the constructed resistivity pseudo-sections and 1-D sequential inversion models, three factors are identified to control the seawater intrusion into the shallow groundwater aquifers: 1) presence of faults that contribute extensively in the seawater intrusion as the seawater invades the coastal aquifers through the crushed rocks in fault zones related to the Red Sea rifting, 2) over-withdrawal of groundwater from the coastal aquifers, resulting in saline water intrusion from the sea into the freshwater aquifer, and 3) the lithological variation where the alluvial sediments of the ancient buried wadi (dry valley) channels provide potential pathways for saltwater intrusion and make a hydraulic connection between the aquifer and the sea water.
Analysis of the Performance Indicators of the PV Power System  [PDF]
Saad Odeh
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2018.66005
Abstract: The energy assessment of the PV power systems is carried out by using different types of performance indicators that benchmark the output of these systems against the PV panel maximum output at hypothetical operation conditions. In this paper, a comparative analysis of six types of performance indicators is conducted and a new performance indicator which considers PV panel slope and orientation is proposed. The proposed indicator is benchmarking the PV system actual output against the maximum output of the same system if it would operate in two axis tracking mode. The proposed performance indicator is used to develop a friendly user calculator of PV system output that can be used by, energy providers and PV system installers to evaluate the output of the PV grid connect network. The advantage of the developed calculator is high-lighted by a case study that estimates energy capacity of different residential rooftop PV systems installed in a residential suburb in Sydney.
In Vivo Study of Spherical Gold Nanoparticles: Inflammatory Effects and Distribution in Mice
Hui Chen, Alisha Dorrigan, Sonia Saad, Dominic J. Hare, Michael B. Cortie, Stella M. Valenzuela
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058208
Abstract: Objectives Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of 21 nm have been previously well characterized in vitro for their capacity to target macrophages via active uptake. However, the short-term impact of such AuNPs on physiological systems, in particular resident macrophages located in fat tissue in vivo, is largely unknown. This project investigated the distribution, organ toxicity and changes in inflammatory cytokines within the adipose tissue after mice were exposed to AuNPs. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with a single dose of AuNPs (7.85 μg AuNPs/g). Body weight and energy intake were recorded daily. Tissues were collected at 1 h, 24 h and 72 h post-injection to test for organ toxicity. AuNP distribution was examined using electron microscopy. Proinflammatory cytokine expression and macrophage number within the abdominal fat pad were determined using real-time PCR. Results At 72 hours post AuNP injection, daily energy intake and body weight were found to be similar between Control and AuNP treated mice. However, fat mass was significantly smaller in AuNP-treated mice. Following IP injection, AuNPs rapidly accumulated within the abdominal fat tissue and some were seen in the liver. A reduction in TNFα and IL-6 mRNA levels in the fat were observed from 1 h to 72 h post AuNP injection, with no observable changes in macrophage number. There was no detectable toxicity to vital organs (liver and kidney). Conclusion Our 21 nm spherical AuNPs caused no measurable organ or cell toxicity in mice, but were correlated with significant fat loss and inhibition of inflammatory effects. With the growing incidence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, our findings offer a new avenue for the potential development of gold nanoparticles as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of such disorders.
The Relationship between Program Evaluation Experiences and Stakeholder Career Satisfaction  [PDF]
Saad F. Shawer, Saad A. Alkahtani
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.38196
Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between program evaluation experiences and stakeholder career satisfaction. The study employs mixed paradigms, descriptive and correlational research, qualitative evaluation, interviews, rating-scales and the parametric Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation. Data analysis reveals differences between the descriptive and correlational findings. The descriptive findings show low faculty and program director career satisfaction at the beginning of program evaluation while concluding program evaluation experiences show a dramatically high career satisfaction. Correlational results, however, indicate not only a relatively low but also negative correlation between initial and final program evaluation experiences in career satisfaction. The study concludes a relationship exists between initial and final program evaluation experiences in stakeholder career satisfaction. The more program evaluation experiences stakeholders have, the less career dissatisfaction signs they show. Supportive program evaluation contexts lower program stakeholder negativity and encourage effective implementation and use of program evaluation.
THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT: AN OVERVIEW
SONIA
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: A man without education is no more than an animal. The growth and development of a state is primarily dependent upon the quality of education given to the people. In India Right to Education Act (RTE) was passed on 4th August 2009 which provides for free and compulsory education for children between the age of 6 and 14 years. The Act came into force on 1 April 2010. The problems on the path of education of children includes child labour, misery of girl child in India and poor quality of education. Article 51A of constitution also makes its obligatory for parent or guardian as the case may be to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years. Although RTE Act is a major landmark in the history of India but there are certain limitations of the Act which if removed then education will reach every child in India which is their right. “There is only one purpose in the whole of Life –Education”.“Otherwise what is the use of me and women, land and wealth”. – Swami Vivekananda“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world”.– Nelson Mandela
Plumbagin Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy via Interruption of Pathways that Include NOX4 Signalling
Rachel Yong, Xin-Ming Chen, Sylvie Shen, Swarna Vijayaraj, Qing Ma, Carol A. Pollock, Sonia Saad
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073428
Abstract: NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is reported to be the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the kidneys during the early stages of diabetic nephropathy. It has been shown to mediate TGFβ1-induced differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Despite TGFβ1 being recognised as a mediator of renal fibrosis and functional decline role in diabetic nephropathy, the renal interaction between Nox 4 and TGFβ1 is not well characterised. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Nox4 inhibition on TGFβ1-induced fibrotic responses in proximal tubular cells and in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy. Immortalised human proximal tubular cells (HK2) were incubated with TGFβ1 ± plumbagin (an inhibitor of Nox4) or specific Nox4 siRNA. Collagen IV and fibronectin mRNA and protein expression were measured. Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice were administered plumbagin (2 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (DMSO; 50 μl/mouse) for 24 weeks. Metabolic, physiological and histological markers of nephropathy were determined. TGFβ1 increased Nox4 mRNA expression and plumbagin and Nox4 siRNA significantly inhibited TGF-β1 induced fibronectin and collagen IV expression in human HK2 cells. STZ-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice developed physiological features of diabetic nephropathy at 24 weeks, which were reversed with concomitant plumbagin treatment. Histologically, plumbagin ameliorated diabetes induced upregulation of extracellular matrix protein expression compared to control. This study demonstrates that plumbagin ameliorates the development of diabetic nephropathy through pathways that include Nox4 signalling.
The Impact of Maternal Cigarette Smoke Exposure in a Rodent Model on Renal Development in the Offspring
Ibrahim Al-Odat, Hui Chen, Yik Lung Chan, Sawiris Amgad, Muh Geot Wong, Anthony Gill, Carol Pollock, Sonia Saad
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103443
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate whether maternal cigarette smoke exposure can disrupt fetal kidney development by changing the expression of growth and transcription factors essential for renal development, and thereafter predispose the offspring to chronic kidney disease later in life. Female Balb/c mice (6 weeks) were exposed either to cigarette smoke or air under identical conditions, 6 weeks prior to mating, during gestation and during lactation. Male offspring were sacrificed at three time points, postnatal day (P)1, P20 (weaning age), and 13 weeks (mature age). Blood, urine, and kidneys were collected for analysis. At P1, the developmental genes fibroblast growth factor 2, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor and paired box 2 were upregulated at mRNA and protein levels; whilst fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 7 and FGF10 were downregulated. At P20, mRNA expression of FGF2, FGF10 and Wingless-type 4 was upregulated by maternal smoke exposure. These changes were normalised in adulthood. Nephron development was delayed, with fewer nephron numbers from P1 persisted to adulthood; while glomerular volume was increased at P20 but reduced in adulthood. Pro-inflammatory marker monocyte chemoatractant protein 1 (MCP1) was increased in the kidney by maternal smoke exposure. These changes were accompanied by an increased albumin/creatinine ratio in adulthood, suggesting reduced renal dysfunction. In conclusion maternal cigarette smoke exposure prior to and during pregnancy, as well as lactation leads to significant renal underdevelopment and functional abnormalities in adulthood. This study confirms the hypothesis that maternal smoking predisposes offspring to chronic kidney disorders.
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