Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Any time

2019 ( 146 )

2018 ( 299 )

2017 ( 299 )

2016 ( 296 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 151243 matches for " Solomon H. Snyder "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /151243
Display every page Item
Ancient Origin of the New Developmental Superfamily DANGER
Nikolas Nikolaidis, Dimitra Chalkia, D. Neil Watkins, Roxanne K. Barrow, Solomon H. Snyder, Damian B. van Rossum, Randen L. Patterson
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000204
Abstract: Developmental proteins play a pivotal role in the origin of animal complexity and diversity. We report here the identification of a highly divergent developmental protein superfamily (DANGER), which originated before the emergence of animals (~850 million years ago) and experienced major expansion-contraction events during metazoan evolution. Sequence analysis demonstrates that DANGER proteins diverged via multiple mechanisms, including amino acid substitution, intron gain and/or loss, and recombination. Divergence for DANGER proteins is substantially greater than for the prototypic member of the superfamily (Mab-21 family) and other developmental protein families (e.g., WNT proteins).?DANGER proteins are widely expressed and display species-dependent tissue expression patterns, with many members having roles in development. DANGER1A, which regulates the inositol trisphosphate receptor, promotes the differentiation and outgrowth of neuronal processes. Regulation of development may be a universal function of DANGER family members. This family provides a model system to investigate how rapid protein divergence contributes to morphological complexity.
Researching terrorism in South Africa: More questions than answers
H Solomon
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012,
Abstract: South Africa confronts a tangible terror threat in the form of some terrorists targeting the country itself, whilst others find it useful as an operational base to strike at targets elsewhere. Far from attempting to provide a comprehensive study of this phenomenon, this article aims to point out the pitfalls of researching terrorism in the South African context. This largely stems from mixed signals emanating from the South African government as well as the reluctance on the part of Pretoria’s securocrats to answer questions pertaining to terrorism. Two reasons are advanced to explain this: incompetence and political correctness. Such mixed signals, it is argued, also confuse the security apparatus of the state itself. This, in turn, serves to frustrate counter-terror efforts.
The state and conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
H Solomon, C Cone
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies , 2004,
From war economies to peace economies in Africa
A Broodryk, H Solomon
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies , 2010,
Abstract: One reason for the persistence and protracted nature of conflict on the African continent is the phenomenon of war economies. These have transformed the nature of war itself where the object is not at neutralizing an enemy but to institutionalize violence at a profitable level of intensity. Transforming war economies into peace economies constitute a unique challenge to post-conflict reconstruction strategies on the African continent. This article explores these challenges and critically examines whether the African Union (AU) and New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) post-conflict reconstruction strategies meets these challenges. The article concludes with some recommendations to policy-makers in order to ensure that this transition from war to peace economies does indeed take place in order to ensure a more peaceful continent.
Human Genome-Wide RNAi Screen Identifies an Essential Role for Inositol Pyrophosphates in Type-I Interferon Response
Niyas Kudukkil Pulloor,Sajith Nair equal contributor,Aleksandar D. Kostic equal contributor,Pradeep Bist,Jeremy D. Weaver,Andrew M. Riley,Richa Tyagi,Pradeep D. Uchil,John D. York,Solomon H. Snyder,Adolfo García-Sastre,Barry V. L. Potter,Rongtuan Lin,Stephen B. Shears,Ramnik J. Xavier,Manoj N. Krishnan
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003981
Abstract: The pattern recognition receptor RIG-I is critical for Type-I interferon production. However, the global regulation of RIG-I signaling is only partially understood. Using a human genome-wide RNAi-screen, we identified 226 novel regulatory proteins of RIG-I mediated interferon-β production. Furthermore, the screen identified a metabolic pathway that synthesizes the inositol pyrophosphate 1-IP7 as a previously unrecognized positive regulator of interferon production. Detailed genetic and biochemical experiments demonstrated that the kinase activities of IPPK, PPIP5K1 and PPIP5K2 (which convert IP5 to1-IP7) were critical for both interferon induction, and the control of cellular infection by Sendai and influenza A viruses. Conversely, ectopically expressed inositol pyrophosphate-hydrolases DIPPs attenuated interferon transcription. Mechanistic experiments in intact cells revealed that the expression of IPPK, PPIP5K1 and PPIP5K2 was needed for the phosphorylation and activation of IRF3, a transcription factor for interferon. The addition of purified individual inositol pyrophosphates to a cell free reconstituted RIG-I signaling assay further identified 1-IP7 as an essential component required for IRF3 activation. The inositol pyrophosphate may act by β-phosphoryl transfer, since its action was not recapitulated by a synthetic phosphonoacetate analogue of 1-IP7. This study thus identified several novel regulators of RIG-I, and a new role for inositol pyrophosphates in augmenting innate immune responses to viral infection that may have therapeutic applications.
Relationship of nine constants  [PDF]
Michael Snyder
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.59117

Through the process of trial and error, four unitless equations made up of nine constants have been found with exact answers. The related constants are the Speed of Light [1], the Planck constant [2], Wien’s displacement constant [3], Avogadro’s number [4], the universal Gravity constant [5], the Ampere constant [6], the Faraday constant [7], the Gas constant [8] and Apery’s constant [9].

Use of administrative claims data for comparative effectiveness research of rheumatoid arthritis treatments
Seo Kim, Daniel H Solomon
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3472
Abstract: Since the first approval of biologic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 1998, the treatment of the disease has changed substantially. A number of different biologic agents targeting various cytokines are currently available, but few data exist comparing the effectiveness of one biologic agent with another, highlighting the importance and need for comparative effectiveness research (CER) in RA [1]. In fact, comparative effectiveness of biologic therapy in RA was one of the top 25 priority research topics recommended by the Institute of Medicine in 2009 [2].A number of different study designs such as randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials, and observational studies using various data sources including patient registries, electronic medical records, and administrative claims databases can be considered for CER. The use of randomized clinical trials is limited in CER because of intrinsic weaknesses such as lack of generalizability, insufficient sample size, inadequate follow-up time, and high cost. Observational study designs include prospective registries and retrospective analysis of administrative healthcare data, often collected for insurance payment.Prospective RA patient registries have a number of benefits, including detailed information on RA diagnosis, disease activity, and treatment, but often have limited generalizability and sample size, and incomplete data on comorbidities and other medications [3]. Observational studies, particularly those using large administrative claims databases, have therefore become increasingly popular sources of CER or comparative safety research, because they have several important strengths such as large size and efficiency, generalizability, high validity and completeness of prescription drug data, and low cost [4]. Furthermore, a previous validation study showed that RA patients can be accurately identified using a combination of diagnosis codes and disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DM
The relationship between cancer and rheumatoid arthritis: still a large research agenda
Thorvardur Love, Daniel H Solomon
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/ar2417
Abstract: In a recent issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Smitten and colleagues [1] reported the results of a meta-analysis of studies looking at the relative risk of malignancies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients compared to the general population, as expressed by a standardized incidence ratio (SIR). While their finding of a SIR of 1.05 for all malignancies in this group supports previous studies, they report SIRs for lymphoma of 2.08 and lung cancer of 1.63, and decreased relative risks for colorectal cancer of 0.77 and breast cancer of 0.84. These results suggest that the previously reported SIR close to 1 for all malignancies in RA patients [2] may be explained in part by an increased relative risk for some site-specific malignancies and a reduction in the relative risk for others.When attempting to separate the reported association between malignancy and RA, the subject of the review by Smitten and colleagues, from the association reported for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers [3], it is important to avoid bias introduced by different patterns of drug use. Smitten and colleagues did not separately analyze TNF blocker treated patients, with 4,917 RA patients from studies on TNF blockers included with other studies for the main analysis. However, given that these two groups of patients on TNF blockers represent only 2.2% of the overall cancer group and 2.9% of the lymphoma group, it seems reasonable to conclude that these patients did not have a large effect on the overall relative risks.A study by Baecklund and colleagues [4] suggested that there is a relationship between the level of inflammation in RA patients and their risk of developing lymphoma. This strengthens the hypothesis that the association observed between TNF blockers and lymphomas is a consequence of severe RA patients being more likely to receive such drugs. It is also possible that TNF blockers may abolish a TNF-driven mechanism that keeps an indolent lymphoma in check. Should such a mechanism
Top Quark Physics at the Tevatron
P. Bhat,H. Prosper,S. Snyder
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X98002389
Abstract: The discovery of the top quark in 1995, by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron, marked the dawn of a new era in particle physics. Since then, enormous efforts have been made to study the properties of this remarkable particle, especially its mass and production cross section. In this article, we review the status of top quark physics as studied by the two collaborations using the p-pbar collider data at sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. The combined measurement of the top quark mass, m_t = 173.8 +- 5.0 GeV/c^2, makes it known to a fractional precision better than any other quark mass. The production cross sections are measured as sigma (t-tbar) = 7.6 -1.5 +1.8 pb by CDF and sigma (t-tbar) = 5.5 +- 1.8 pb by D0. Further investigations of t-tbar decays and future prospects are briefly discussed.
New Sustainable Market Opportunities for Surplus Food: A Food System-Sensitive Methodology (FSSM)  [PDF]
Thomas H. O’Donnell, Jonathan Deutsch, Cathy Yungmann, Alexandra Zeitz, Solomon H. Katz
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.610093
Abstract: An important way to address global food security is to make better use of the food already produced. Since at least one third of global food is wasted before consumption, there are enormous incentives to cut this waste and create a more sustainable food system. This paper focuses upon saving food loss at the supermarket level in the US and channeling this food stream in new and efficient ways to those in hunger. A more comprehensive Food System-Sensitive Methodology has been used to pilot and evaluate a surplus food management program that diverts culled fresh fruits and vegetables from grocery stores that would otherwise be disposed of in landfills. Instead, produce is processed for donation or for new businesses. Nearly 35,000 pounds of produce was culled from a grocery store chain in Philadelphia. Twenty-five percent of this was not suitable for culinary uses, ten percent consisted of relatively small quantities of food that did not warrant further research, and about 33 percent is suitable for use at area food shelters and pantries. An experimental sample taken from the remaining 15,000 pounds was used for recipe research and development for diversion to new commercial enterprises. We analyzed a scenario where a supermarket receives $0.25 per pound for culled produce, generating about $8700 dollars in average monthly revenue while eliminating disposal costs. New commercial possibilities for the unused food were then explored. The scenario included community-based enterprises that could process the produce into value-added products that could be wholesaled back to the store at sufficient profits to support 2 - 4 community employees. Extrapolating these results to the approximately 38,000 large supermarkets in the United States suggests that much of the 1,100,000,000 pounds of produce that is currently sent to landfills can be repurposed. If diverted to new foods each of the 46.1 million SNAP recipients could figuratively receive an equivalent of 24 pounds of fruit and vegetable products per annum. This initial analysis suggests that repurposing surplus produce from supermarket discards can have significant beneficial outcomes for new food markets and the environment.
Page 1 /151243
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.