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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1317 matches for " Solomon Gebre-Selassie "
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Hepatitis B Virus Co-Infection: Yet Another Reason for Early Initiation of Treatment in HIV Infected Individuals  [PDF]
Yared Hailaye, Muluken Dessalegn, Solomon Gebre-Selassie
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.34040

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection with HIV is becoming a major challenge due to shared routes of transmission. The burden is apparent in regions with widespread use of antiretroviral treatment, which led to the enhanced emergence of liver-related diseases and mortality. Though there are conflicting results about the effect of chronic HBV infection on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (CD4+ cell count and HIV viral load, HIV RNA copies/ml), HAART is known to cause immune mediated HBV specific liver damage after it reconstitutes cell-mediated immunity. The relationship of different HAART regimes with immune recovery is an area of research interest. Objective: It is in order to determine the changes in immune recovery during HBV infection in the setting of HAART among HIV positive individuals attending care and treatment services. Methods: Two cohorts of co-infected patients were analyzed from data of one to seven months retrospectively. The first group (n = 380) was antiretroviral drug naive and the second cohort (n = 380) was on HAART for the entire period. The study was conducted in one referral hospital and six health centers. Data were gathered from 760 patients using their intake form, their follow-up form and their medical records supplemented by data from a structured questionnaire. HBV infection was determined by using HBsAg rapid and confirmatory tests and CD4 cells were enumerated

Satisfaction with outpatient health services at Jimma Hospital, South West Ethiopia
Lemessa Oljira, Solomon Gebre-Selassie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2001,
Abstract: Background: The opinions of users about the health care services and the degree of their satisfaction may indicate the efficiency of the services. Objective: To assess consumer satisfaction of outpatient health care services. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at Jimma hospital from November to February 1999. Data were collected by health-workers using pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 385 outpatients, females, were interviewed at exit of hospital. The majority, 140 (36.4%) of the users were within the age group of 30-39 years. About 56% of the females visited the hospital for children's health care while 87.2% of the males visited for own health care. Overall, 57.1% of interviewee believed that the service they received was either good or very good. Satisfaction with health care was found to have a direct relationship with increase in age but has an inverse relation with increase in educational level of respondents. It has a significant association with length of waiting and consultation time, type of investigations performed and securing prescribed medications from hospital pharmacy (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, efficient health service management to improve drug supply and quality of service are recommended. (Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 2001, 15(3): 179-184)
Seroprevalence of HBsAg and its risk factors amoung pregnant women in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia
Mohammed Awole, Solomon Gebre-Selassie
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2005,
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infections among Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases in Public Hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Abel Girma Ayele,Solomon Gebre-Selassie
ISRN Tropical Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/563821
Abstract: Background and Aims. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are major public health problems worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C virus infections in patients with chronic liver diseases in three public hospitals in Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia. Methods. The study was conducted on 120 clinically diagnosed chronic liver disease patients. Possible associated factors with infections by the viruses were collected from patient using questionnaire. Serum was screened for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antihepatitis C virus antibodies using qualitative immunochromatographic method. Results. Hepatitis B surface antigen was detected in 43 (35.8%) and anti-HCV antibody 27 (22.5%) patients clinically diagnosed to have chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis B virus infection was higher in males 29/76 (38.2%) compared to 14/44 (31.8%) females, while antihepatitis C virus antibody was higher in females 13/44 (29.5%) compared to 14/76 (18.4%) males. Of the study participants, 3 (2.5%) had dual hepatitis B and C virus coinfection. Conclusion. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV antibody was high in patients below 50 years of age. Dental extraction procedure at health facility was associated with hepatitis C virus infection (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.21–7.17, ). 1. Introduction Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver, most commonly caused by a viral infection. Of these viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for a substantial proportion of liver diseases worldwide. These viruses are responsible for liver damages ranging from minor disorders to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Approximately 7% of the world’s population (350 million people) are infected with HBV and 3% (170 million people) with HCV [1]. On the basis of the HBV carrier rate, the world can be divided in 3 regions of high, medium, and low endemicity. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the HBV carrier rate is over 8% [2]. Combined HBV and HCV infection is possible because of common modes of viral transmission [3]. HBV is transmitted through exposure to infective blood, semen, other body fluids, or from infected mothers to infants at the time of birth. Transmission may also occur through transfusions of HBV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. HCV is mostly also transmitted through exposure to infective blood through transfusions of HCV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated
A Study on Maternal Viral Load, CD4 Cell Counts and Time of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 in Two Hospitals in Central Ethiopia  [PDF]
Merga Gonfa,Solomon Gebre-Selassie
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100619

Background: Vertical transmission of HIV among women who have no access to ART is estimated to be 25% - 35% in Africa. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the time of MTCT of HIV-1 the efficacy of ART on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 in two hospitals. Methods: Prospective cohort study was conducted from November 2011 to May 2012. A total of 162 participants, 81 mothers (24 non-breastfeeding and 57 breastfeeding) and 81 infants were involved in the study. Venous blood from mothers and heel blood (dried blood spot) from infants were collected and processed in Adama Regional laboratory. All dried blood spot specimens of infants reactive on ELISA test were assessed by DNA-based polymerase chain reaction tests (DNA PCR) to determine HIV infection. Data were entered and analysed using SPSS version 19 computer software. Results: Five infants were infected with HIV at the end of this study. The overall rate of vertical transmission of HIV was 6.2%. Maternal viral load at delivery was independently associated with both inutero and intra-partum transmission (OR = 27.0, 95% CI, 3.5 - 210, p = 0.001). Maternal viral load at 6 weeks of birth and low infant birth weight was associated with intra-partum transmission among breastfeeding mothers (OR = 25.5, 95% CI, 1.14 - 572, p = 0.04) and (OR = 29.6, 95% CI, 3.2 - 273, p = 0.004), respectively. There were 40% MTCT of HIV among non ARV drug users and only 3.9% among those used ARV drugs during their current pregnancy. Conclusion: Strategies planned to reduce maternal viral load during pregnancy can be successful in substantially reducing vertical transmission of HIV. In addition, other contributing factors for MTCT of HIV-1 should be controlled.

Prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected adult patients in Southwestern Ethiopia
Mohammed Awole, Solomon Gebre-Selassie, Tesfaye Kassa, Gebre Kibru
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Parasitic infection of the intestinal tract is a major source of disease in patients with HIV particularly in the tropics, where diarrhea is a common complaint with variable severity and specific pathogens are be identified in more than half of the HIV/AIDS patients with persistent diarrhea. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their association with diarrhea of HIV infected patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 372 consecutive patients from Feb.-July, 2001, on HIV infected and non-infected patients which were confirmed by Wellcozyme ELISA(Murex, UK). Chronic diarrhea was defined as three or more lose stool passed daily for more than two weeks. Parasite infections were diagnosed by examination of single stool specimen which were examined as fresh wet mounts, formol-ether concentration technique and Modified acid fast stain. Result: Diarrhea was more prevalent in HIV infected 99(51.1%) than in HIV non infected patients 53(29.5%). Regardless of their diarrhea status, the general prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV infected and HIV non-infected were 44.8% and 34.4% respectively. Among the 192 HIV infected patients 54 (28.1%) and 45(23.4%) of them had chronic and acute diarrhea respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites were 28(51.9%)in patients with chronic and 17(37.8%) in those acute with diarrhea. C. parvum, I. belli, and C. catyenesis oocyst were detected only in HIV infected patients with chronic diarrhea (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.01 respectively), whereas the majority of (60%-100%) S.stercoralis, S. mansoni, E. histolytica, and G. lamblia were detected in diarrheic stool samples of HIV infected patients (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study re-affirms the previously held view that in more of HIV patients with chronic diarrhea etiologic agent can be identified. Diarrhea and intestinal parasites prevalence were higher in HIV infected than HIV non-infected patients. Intestinal coccidian are opportunist infections which are found exclusively in HIV patients with chronic diarrhea. [Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2003;17(1):71-78] The retirement of malaria control workers as a critical problem for vector control in Oromia, Ethiopia Wakgari Deressa, Dereje Olana, Shelleme Chibsa : A retrospective record review for the period of seven years was done on retirement and death in February 2001 to assess the current status of malaria control workers in Oromia Regional State. The number of malaria control workers who left Malaria Control Programme due to retirement and death has dramatically increased across the last seven years with an average of about 15 workers annually. Among 106 malaria workers who left the programme during the period, 60% of them were retired and 26% deceased. It was also found that 89% of them were malaria technicians with specialized technical expertise in vector control, while the remaining 11% were highly experienced microscopists. Trainin
Therapeutic Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Northern Ethiopia
Gebremedhin Kinfu,Solomon Gebre-Selassie,Nigus Fikrie
Malaria Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/548710
Abstract: Introduction. Multidrug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum is spreading throughout Africa. This has posed major challenges to malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in North Ethiopia. Methods. This prospective study was undertaken during August–November 2009 on 71 malaria patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria set by the WHO. Patients were followed up for 28 days. Thick and thin blood films were prepared by Giemsa stain for microscopy to determine parasite density. A standard six-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine was administered over three days and was followed up with clinical and parasitological evaluations over 28 days. Results. The cure rate (ACPR) was found to be high (97.2%) in this study. The parasite and fever clearance time was also rapid. Artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the study area showed 97.2% cure rate and only 2.8% failure rate. Conclusion. The result showed that the drug could continue as first line for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the study area. The efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine needs to be carefully monitored periodically in sentinel sites representing different areas of the country. 1. Introduction Malaria is one of the major public health problems worldwide causing more than one million deaths each year. It is widespread in hot humid regions of Africa, Asia, and South and Central America [1]. According to world health organization (WHO) estimation, about 300–500 million people are infected with malaria every year. More than 90% of all malaria cases are in sub-Saharan Africa. Nearly 85% of malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum and is responsible for about 90% of the deaths from malaria [2]. Malaria has been consistently reported as one of the three leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Areas below 2000 meters above sea level are considered to be potentially malarious [3]. Malaria-related morbidity and mortality has been increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, primarily as a result of increased resistance to the common first line drugs—chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) [4, 5]. Accordingly, the WHO recommends that treatment policies for falciparum malaria in all countries experiencing resistance to monotherapy should be combination therapies containing artemisinin derivatives. Artemisinin antimalarial drugs decrease parasite
The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food animals in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia
Tesfaye Kassa, Solomon Gebre-selassie, Daniel Asrat
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is known to occur in the intestinal systems of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause acute diarrhoeal diseases in humans worldwide, they mostly manifest themselves in an apparently healthy carrier state in other mammalian species. However, little is known about the presence of campylobacter bacteria in various food animals as possible sources of infection to humans in Ethiopia. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in various food animals in Jimma zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural farm animal settings in Jimma, southwest Ethiopia in the period between January 2004 to April 2004. Fecal specimens were collected from 485 various food animals (cattle, n=205; poultry, n=191; pigs, n=18; sheep n=71) and cultured using standard methods. Results: Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 192 (39.6%) out of 485 fecal specimens taken from various urban and rural farm animals. The highest isolation rate was recorded among chickens (68.1%), followed by pigs (50.0%), sheep (38.0%) and cattle (12.7%). Among the 192 thermophilic campylobacters isolated, 135 (70.3%) were identified to be C. jejuni, 51 (26.6%) were C. coli and 6 (3.1%) were C. lari. C. jejuni was the most prevalent species in chickens (80.8%), followed by sheep (59.3%) and cattle (53.8%). All isolates found in pigs were identified to be C. coli (100%). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that thermophilic campylobacters are very frequent among various food animals in Ethiopia, suggesting possible risks of infection to people through the consumption of contaminated animal products or through contact with infected animals. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 19(3) 2005: 225-229
Malaria and water resource development: the case of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia
Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Worku Legesse, Wim Van Bortel, Solomon Gebre-Selassie, Helmut Kloos, Luc Duchateau, Niko Speybroeck
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-21
Abstract: A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out between October and December 2005 in Jimma Zone, south-western Ethiopia, among children under 10 years of age living in three 'at-risk' villages (within 3 km from dam) and three 'control' villages (5 to 8 km from dam). The man-made Gilgel-Gibe dam is operating since 2004. Households with children less than 10 years of age were selected and children from the selected households were sampled from all the six villages. This included 1,081 children from 'at-risk' villages and 774 children from 'control' villages. Blood samples collected from children using finger prick were examined microscopically to determine malaria prevalence, density of parasitaemia and identify malarial parasite species.Overall 1,855 children (905 girls and 950 boys) were surveyed. A total of 194 (10.5%) children were positive for malaria, of which, 117 (60.3%) for Plasmodium vivax, 76 (39.2%) for Plasmodium falciparum and one (0.5%) for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. A multivariate design-based analysis indicated that, while controlling for age, sex and time of data collection, children who resided in 'at-risk' villages close to the dam were more likely to have P. vivax infection than children who resided farther away (odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.32) and showed a higher OR to have P. falciparum infection than children who resided in 'control' villages, but this was not significant (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 0.84, 6.88). A classification tree revealed insights in the importance of the dam as a risk factor for malaria. Assuming that the relationship between the dam and malaria is causal, 43% of the malaria occurring in children was due to living in close proximity to the dam.This study indicates that children living in close proximity to a man-made reservoir in Ethiopia are at higher risk of malaria compared to those living farther away. It is recommended that sound prevention and control programme be designed and implemented around
Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever Profile at Jimma Hospital, Ethiopia: a retrospective study
W Legesse, S Gebre-Selassie
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Louse-borne relapsing fever has been restricted to countries with poor socio economic status, the most important foci being Burundi, Rwanda and Ethiopia. Borrelia recurrentis is the etiologic agent for louse-borne relapsing fever and occurs as epidemic under conditions of overcrowding, poverty, draught and famine. Objective: To assess the Louse-borne Relapsing Fever profile in Jimma Hospital and suggest practical control measures to alleviate the disease burden of the community in the region. Design: All RF cases recorded in Jimma hospital for the last five years (1997 to 2001) were used to investigate the pattern of the diseases in relation to sex, coffee growing seasons, and mortality rates. Methods: A total of 617 patients were included in the study from the hospital records. Results: The number of louse-borne relapsing fever cases recorded during the study period showed both sexes run the same level of risk of contracting the disease (p>0.05, n=5). On the other hand, the number of cases during the dry season was relatively higher than the wet season in the same year and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.05, n=5). The observed seasonal variation in the number of cases appears to be mainly attributed to the coffee harvesting period coinciding to the dry season. The number of cases as well as mortality rate declined from 1997 to 2000 but a sudden increase in both parameters was observed in 2001. This may be attributed to the coffee price fall and the ensuing deterioration of living standards and personal hygiene among the rural communities. Conclusion: A notable increase in number of cases during the year 2001 as well as the sudden upsurge of the mortality rate to 6% may have been caused from the combined effects of poverty, misdiagnosis and late arrival of patients to hospitals. Poverty alleviation and provision of free of charge health care scheme should be instituted in the region to control the disease. Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences Vol. 1 (1) 2005: pp. 596-64
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