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Risk assessment of alcohol and obesity on liver enzymes (transaminases, cholestatic)  [PDF]
Sobia Khawaja, Khalid Mahmood, Alia Munshi, Masarrat Yousuf, Fozia Tabassum, Sohail Shaukat
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.47069
Abstract: Background: This study was designed to investigate the BMI and alcohol consumption effects on hepatic enzymes. The degree of alteration among moderate drinkers is still unclear. Objective: To determine causes of liver failure due to alcohol and obesity. We observed the association between moderate alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and transaminase, cholestatic enzymes. Design: Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphate (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT) were examined in 995 healthy persons. In this study 400 persons were reported as abstainers and 595 participants involved as a moderate drinkers. The study population was further split into according to BMI as follows: <19 (underweight), ≥19 and <25 (normal weight), ≥25 and <30 (over- weight), and ≥30 (obese). Results: Serum ALT (P < 0.002), GGT (P < 0.001) and ALP (P < 0.001) but not AST (P < 0.883) activities in moderate drinkers were higher than those in abstainers. Mean ALT activity is higher in obese and over weight in alcohol consumers and abstainers as compared to mean AST activity in the same groups. ALP activity was increased with BMI in moderate drinkers. In abstainers activity of ALP shows weak relation in order to BMI. Conclusion: The result of moderate alcohol use raises activity of hepatic enzymes with increasing BMI. Most participants with alcohol consumption have an AST/ALT ratio above 1.
Impact of Pesticides Contamination on Nutritional Values of Marinefishery from Karachi Coast of Arabian Sea  [PDF]
Hina Ahsan, Nasim Karim, Syed Sanwer Ali, Alia B. Munshi, Sohail Shaukat
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.49120

The present study explores the chemical and economic aspects of pesticide contamination of marinefishery in relation to nutritional values Marine Pollution of pesticides poses signify can tricks to the environment and non-target organisms ranging from beneficial marine micro organisms, to insects, seaweeds, fish, and mangroves at Karachi Coast. Fish typically contains good quality nutrition, particularly oily fish has maximum commercial values but contamination of fishery is the major problem caused by pesticides and PCBs pollution resulting in serious health hazards. A number of fish and shell fish samples were analyzed for determination of pesticides contamination due to marine environment pollution. It was found that most pesticides pose risk to humans, fishery or the environment because they are designed to kill or adversely affect living organisms. Quantitative analysis of pesticides and PCBs was performed using GC equipped with ECD and the FPD for organophosphorus and GC-MS. The arithmetic mean concentrations of each pesticide were calculated and statistical evaluation was done. Relationship of protein and pesticides level has been determined to determine impact of pesticide on protein content of each type of fish. There is a considerable difference found in the pesticides contents of each type of fishery, which reveals that environmental pollution status that attributes towards pesticides distribution.

Molecular epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Pakistan
Muhammad Alam, Sohail Zaidi, Salman Malik, Shahzad Shaukat, Asif Naeem, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez, Javed Butt
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-115
Abstract: A total of 690 individuals were enrolled for HBV screening with EIA and nested PCR. Positive samples were further analyzed to determine HBV genotypes (A-F) by multiplex-PCR using type specific primers.110 (15.94%) individuals were positive for HBV, including 64% males and 36% females. Out of these, 66 samples (65.34%) were classified into genotype D, 27 (26.73%) were of genotype B while 5(4.95%) had genotype A. In 3 (2.98%) samples, multiple genotypes were detected (genotype A+B; 2(1.99%) and genotypes B+D; 1(0.99%). Nine (8.18%) samples remained untyable.In Asia, genotypes B and C are the most prevalent but our study reveals that genotype D is predominant and HBV infection constitutes a significant health problem in Pakistan.Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a well recognized and major health problem leading to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide especially in the developing countries. Approximately, 2 billion people in the world have been infected by HBV [1], 400 million of who are chronic carriers [2]. The virus causes acute hepatitis of varying severity [3] and persists in 95% of children and 2–10% of adult patients [4] leading to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma [5] and even fulminant hepatitis [6]. In Pakistan, HBV infection rate is increasing day by day. The reason may be the lack of proper health facilities or poor economical status and less public awareness about the transmission of major communicable diseases like Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus.Hepatitis B virus exhibits genetic variability with an estimated rate of 1.4 – 3.2 × 10-5 nucleotide substitution per site per year [7] which resulted in well recognized subtypes of the virus. In addition, virus variants arise during replication as a result of nucleotide misincorporations in the absence of any proof reading capacity by the viral polymerase. HBV has been classified into 8 well defined genotypes on the basis of an inter-grou
Epidemiology and clinical findings associated with enteroviral acute flaccid paralysis in Pakistan
Mohsan Saeed, Sohail Z Zaidi, Asif Naeem, Muhammad Masroor, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Anis Khan
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-6
Abstract: Stool specimens of 1775 children, aged less than 15 years, suffering from acute flaccid paralysis were collected after informed consent within 14 days of onset of symptoms during January 2003 to September 2003. The specimens were inoculated on RD and L20B cells using conventional tube cell culture while micro-neutralization test was used to identify the non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) serotypes. Detailed clinical information and 60-days follow-up reports were analyzed for NPEV-associated AFP cases.NPEV were isolated from 474 samples. The male to female ratio was 1.4:1. The isolation of NPEV decreased significantly with the increase in age. Cases associated with fever at the onset of NPEV-associated AFP were found to be 62%. The paralysis was found asymmetrical in 67% cases, the progression of paralysis to peak within 4 days was found in 72% cases and residual paralysis after 60 days of paralysis onset was observed in 39% cases associated with NPEV. A clinical diagnosis of Guillian-Barre syndrome was made in 32% cases. On Microneutralization assay, echo-6 (13%) and coxsackievirus B (13%) were the most commonly isolated serotypes of NPEV along with E-7, E-13, E-11, E-4 and E-30. The isolates (n = 181) found untypable by the antiserum pools were confirmed as NPEV by PCR using Pan-Enterovirus primers.The present study suggests that NPEV are a dominant cause of AFP and different serotypes of NPEV are randomly distributed in Pakistan. The untypable isolates need further characterization and analysis in order to determine their association with clinical presentation of a case.Enteroviruses (genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae) are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. Enteroviruses are associated with diverse clinical syndromes ranging from minor febrile illness to severe, potentially fatal conditions (e.g., aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, paralysis, myocarditis, and neonatal enteroviral sepsis) and could be linked with the development of some chron
Common Genotypes of Hepatitis B virus prevalent in Injecting drug abusers (addicts) of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan
Muhammad Alam, Sohail Zaidi, Shehzad Shaukat, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez, Asif Naeem, Shamim Saleha, Javed Butt, Salman Malik
Virology Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-4-63
Abstract: Intravenous drug abusers are considered as a major risk group for the acquisition and transmission of blood borne infections like hepatitis B, however, in Pakistan, no such data has ever been reported about the epidemiology of HBV and its genotypes in Injecting Drug Users. 250 individuals were analyzed for hepatitis B virus genotypes after prior screening with serological assay for the detection of HBsAg.56 (22.4%) individuals were found positive on ELSIA for HBsAg. The genotype distribution was found to be as: genotype D, 62.5%; genotype A, 8.92% while 28.57% individuals were found to be infected with a mixture of genotype A and D.There is an urgent need of the time to develop public health care policies with special emphasis towards the control of HBV transmission through high risk groups especially Injecting Drug Users.Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a well recognized and major health problem leading to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide especially in the developing countries. Approximately, 2 billion people in the world have been infected by HBV [1], 400 million of who are chronic carriers [2]. The virus causes acute hepatitis of varying severity [3] and persists in 95% of children and 2–10 % of adult patients [4] leading to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma [5] and even fulminant hepatitis [6]. In Pakistan, HBV infection rate is increasing day by day. The reason may be the lack of proper health facilities or poor economical status and less public awareness about the transmission of major communicable diseases like Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus.The seropositivity rate of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) varies in the different regions of the world with a considerable low rate in the developed countries like 0.6% in Wales, England, 1.2 % in USA. However, the developing countries depicts a high alarming rate reporting 19.6% in Egypt, 2–10% in India, 3.5% in Palestine and 1.6–7.7% i
Serotype Diversity of Astroviruses in Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2009–2010
Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Shahzad Shaukat, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez, Muhammad Naeem, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061667
Abstract: Astroviruses are globally known enteropathogens causing gastroenteritis and diarrhea, with eight well defined serotypes. Epidemiological studies have recognized serotype-1 as the most common subtype but no such data is available in Pakistan. During 2009–2010, we found astroviruses in 41 out of 535 (7%) samples collected from hospitalized children. Thirty one strains belonged to serotype-1 and clustered into two distinct lineages. Serotype-3, -4 and -6 were detected with 97–98% genetic homology to Indian and Chinese strains.
Characterization of a Novel Enterovirus Serotype and an Enterovirus EV-B93 Isolated from Acute Flaccid Paralysis Patients
Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Salmaan Sharif, Adnan Khurshid, Tariq Mahmood, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080040
Abstract: Non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide. Most of these infections are asymptomatic but few can lead to systemic and neurological disorders like Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP). Acute Flaccid Paralysis is a clinical syndrome and NPEVs have been isolated frequently from the patients suffering from AFP but little is known about their causal relationship. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the NPEV serotypes recovered from 184 stool samples collected from AFP patients in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in north-west of Pakistan. Overall, 44 (95.6 %) isolates were successfully typed through microneutralization assay as a member of enterovirus B species including echovirus (E)-2, E-3, E-4, E-6, E-7, E-11, E-13, E-14, E-21 and E-29 while two isolates (PAK NIH SP6545B and PAK NIH SP1202B) remained untypeable. The VP1 and capsid regions analysis characterized these viruses as EV-B93 and EV-B106. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that PAK NIH isolates had high genetic diversity and represent distinct genotypes circulating in the country. Our findings highlight the role of NPEVs in AFP cases to be thoroughly investigated especially in high disease risk areas, with limited surveillance activities and health resources.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: To analyze the rate of Pneumothorax after CT guided TNAB of lung masses , and correlating it with the size of thelesion. Design: Descriptive study. Setting: Department of Radiology Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Period: From June 2002 to April 2003, Patientsand method: Seventy patients underwent CT guided FNA of the chest masses. Results: Out of Seventy, 18 patients i.e.; 26 % developedPneumothorax. Lesion less than 1 cm , out of 6 patients 3 developed pneumothorax ( 50 %), lesions 1-2 cm 5 out of 11 developedpneumothorax(45%), lesions with size of 2-3 cm 5 out of 14 patients developed pneumothorax ( 35%), lesions between 3-4 cm 2 out of 8developed pneumothorax (25%), lesion sized 4-5 cm 1 out of 15 developed pneumothorax (6%), and lesion with more than 5 cm size 1 out of 16 developed pneumothorax ( 6%) . Conclusion: The study shows that the rate of Pneumothorax after CT guided TNAB of Lung Massesincreases as the size of the lesion decreases.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To know the findings of MDCT in cases of Abdominal Tuberculosis. Patients and Methods: Fifty eight patients withsuspicion of abdominal tuberculosis were scanned and the findings were evaluated. All the patients received IV and oral contrast. The patients were referred from the medical and surgical departments of Shalamar Hospital, Lahore. Toshiba 4 Slice Aquilion was used for scanning. The exclusion criterion was patients on Anti tuberculous drugs and urogenital tuberculosis. Results Following 6 findings were observed in 47 abnormal scans, Out of other 11 scans 9 had other diseases like diverticulitis, Appendicitis and Bowel Lymphoma. 2 were normal. Close medical and Surgical follow up was obtained in all cases. Ascites = 35, Omental / Mesenteric Thickening / Involving = 27, Small Bowel wall thickening = 07, Large bowel wall thickening including Caecal wall thickening = 06, Abdominal Lymphadenopathy= 26, Solid Organ Involvement, Liver=01, Spleen=02. Conclusion: Ascites was the most common finding in Patients with Abdominal Tuberculosis and Involvement of liver being the least common finding amongst the group.
Human Parechovirus Genotypes -10, -13 and -15 in Pakistani Children with Acute Dehydrating Gastroenteritis
Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Shahzad Shaukat, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez, Nadia Nisar, Muhammad Naeem, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078377
Abstract: Human parechoviruses are known to cause asymptomatic to severe clinical illness predominantly respiratory and gastroenetric infections. Despite their global prevalence, epidemiological studies have not been performed in Pakistan. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 110 fecal specimen and found 26 (24%) positive for viral RNA with HPeV-10 (n = 3, 23%), HPeV-13 (n = 4, 31%) and HPeV-15 (n = 6, 46%) genotypes. Clinical features of patients with different HPeV genotypes were compared. All HPeV positive children were aged ≤4 years (mean 13.92 months). The male-to-female ratio was 1: 1.17 (46.2 vs 53.8%) with significant association (p = .031) to HPeV infectivity. HPeV-10 and -13 were found during summer while HPeV-15 was only detected during late winter season. Disease symptoms were more severe in children infected with HPeV-10 and -13 as compared to HPeV-15. Fever and vomiting were observed in 100% cases of HPeV-10 and -13 while only 17% patients of HPeV-15 had these complaints. Phylogenetic analyses showed that HPeV-10, -13 and -15 strains found in this study have 9–13%, 16.8% and 21.8% nucleotide divergence respectively from the prototype strains and were clustered to distinct genetic lineages. This is the first report of HPeV-15 infection in humans although first identified in rhesus macaques. The arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif present at the C-terminal of VP1 responsible for the viral attachment to cellular integrins was not found in all of these strains. In conclusion, these findings enhance our knowledge related to the epidemiology and genetic diversity of the HPeV in Pakistan and support the need for continued laboratory based surveillance programs especially in infants and neonatal clinical settings. Further, the parechovirus pathogenesis, cross-species transmission and disease reservoirs must be ascertained to adopt better prevention measures.
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