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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1438 matches for " Sohail Anwar "
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The basic blocks of the universe matter: Boltzmann fundamental particle and energy quanta of dark matter and dark energy  [PDF]
Murad Shibli, Sohail Anwar
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.39099
Abstract: Recent astronomical NASA observations indicates that visible matter contributes only to about 4% of the universe total energy density, meanwhile, dark matter and dark energy contributes to 26% and 70% of the universe total energy, respectively, with an average density close to 10–26 kg/m3. This paper proposes an equation of state of dark energy and dark matter as one unified entity. This equation is derived based on the ideal gas equation, Boltzmann constant, Einstein energy-mass principle and based on the assumption that dark energy and dark matter behave as a perfect fluid. This analysis presents what could be the most fundamental particle and quanta of dark matter and dark energy. Considering NASA’s Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer (CMB) which estimated that the sky has an average temperature close to 2.7251 Kelvin, then the equivalent mass and energy of the proposed fundamental particle is determined. It is found that this candidate particle has an equivalent mass of 4.2141 × 10–40 Kg which is equivalent to 3.7674 × 10–23 J. Surprisingly, this value has the same order of Boltzmann constant KB = 1.38 ×10–23 J/K. This candidate particle could be the most fundamental and lightest particle in Nature and serves as the basic block of matter (quarks and gluons). Moreover, assuming a uniform space dark energy/dark matter density, then the critical temperature at which the dark matter has a unity entity per volume is determined as 34.983 × 1012 K. Analytically, it proposes that at this trillion temperature scale, the dark matter particles unified into a new quark-hydron particle. Finally, tentative experimental verification can be con ducted using the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).
A Novel Generalized Nonholonomy Criteria and Physical Interpretation of Holonomic/Nonholonomic Constraints of a Free-Flying Space Robot with/without Interaction with a Flying Target Satellite  [PDF]
Murad Shibli, Sohail Anwar
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2011.24032
Abstract: This paper presents a new nonholonomy criteria and reveals the physical interpretation of holonomoic and nonholonomic constraints acting on a free-flying space robot with or without interaction with a free Flying/Floating target object. The analysis in this paper interprets the physical interpretation behind such constraints, and clarifies geometric and kinematic conditions that generate such constraints. Moreover, a new criterion of finding the holonomy/nonholonomy of constraints impose on a free-flying space robot with or without interaction with a floating object is presented as well. The proposed criteria are applicable in case of zero or non-zero initial momentum conditions. Such nonholonomy criteria are proposed by utilizing the concept of orthogonal projection matrices and singular value decomposition (SVD). Using this methodology will also enable us to verify online whether the constraints are violated in case of real-time applications and to take a correction action or switch the controllers. This criterion is still yet valid even the interaction with floating object is lost. Applications of the proposed criteria can be dedicated to in-orbit servicing robotic satellite to capture malfunctioned spacecrafts and satellites, docking space of NASA and Russian shuttles with International Space Station (ISA), building in-orbit stations, space rescue missions and asteroids dust sampling. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed criterion.
Designing an Automatic Control System for the Improved Functioning of a Solar Wall with Phase Change Material (PCM)  [PDF]
Patrick Favier, Laurent Zalewski, Stephane Lassue, Sohail Anwar
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2016.51003
Abstract: Solar walls constitute an important green architectural feature that positively contributes to energy saving in buildings. Different configurations may be proposed, such as, solar wall with Phase Change Material (PCM), composite solar wall, photovoltaic solar wall, zigzag solar wall, and solar hybrid wall. Being environmentally friendly, these passive solar components can provide thermal comfort and help save energy. Their disadvantages include principally unpredictable heat transfer, heat losses by night for some systems or inverse thermo-siphon phenomenon. Appropriate energy management techniques can be used to control and optimize the performances of solar walls. An experimental study for energy management of a PCM based solar wall is described in this paper. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed automatic control system in regulating the capture of solar energy.
Professional Ethics in Construction Industry of Pakistan
Nadeem Ehsan,Sohail Anwar,Muhammad Talha
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2009,
Determination of Installation Heights For Codling Moth`s Synthetic Pheromone Traps in Apple Canopy
Muhammad Faheem Malik,Liaquat Ali,Sohail Anwar
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Pheromone traps of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L., Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were installed at different heights (2, 4, 6 and 8 m from the ground) in apple (Pyrus malus Linn., Rosaceae: Pomoidea) canopy in a private farmer orchard, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. Maximum capture was through the traps, hanged at 4 m from the ground. The study reveals that pheromone traps could use for the control of codling moth if installed at suggested height.
A Study on the Pulmonary Manifestations of Rheumatoid Arthritis from a North Indian Town  [PDF]
Nazish Fatima, Mohammed Shameem, Abida Malik, Parvez Anwar Khan, Fatima Shujatullah, Sohail Ahmed, Nabeela  
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2013.33020

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by articular involvement, extra-articular involvement, and the presence of serum rheumatoid factor. Pulmonary involvement in RA is a common extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that confers significant morbidity and mortality. We undertook this study to determine the prevalence and spectrum of pulmonary abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from a North Indian town. 62 patients who met the American College of Rheumatology (formerly the American Rheumatism Association) 1987 classification criteria for RA were subjected to clinical examination of chest, X-Ray-chest (CXR), pulmonary function tests (PFT) and high resonance computed tomography (HRCT). 40.3% patients had some pulmonary symptoms with exertional dyspnoea in 21%, cough with expectoration in 17.7%, fine respiratory rales in 11.3%, patients X-ray chest bilateral lower zone haziness in 16% and prominent pulmonary vasculature in 3.2%. 43% had abnormal PFT-restrictive pattern in 29%, obstructive pattern 8% and mixed pattern in 6.4%. HRCT revealed abnormal findings in 33.8% commonest being ground glass pattern in both lower lobes 19.3%, sub pleural reticulations in 9.6%, pleural thickening in 3.2% and pulmonary vascular prominence in 1.6%. To provide optimal treatment, physicians must always consider the possibility of associated pulmonary manifestations when patients with RA are evaluated.

Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Assessment of Lipid Profile Estimation in Different Grades of Fatty Liver on Ultrasound  [PDF]
Bhojo Mal Tanwani, Anwar Ali Jamali, Ghulam Mustafa Jamali, Ameer Ali Jamali, Muhammad Ali Sohail
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2018.83007
Abstract: Background: Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is common hepatic disorder which is recognized as a great health problem causing different diseases worldwide. To determine non-alcoholic fatty liver and assess the relation of fasting total lipids with different grades of fatty liver (NAFLD) subjects diagnosed through ultrasound. By identifying the risk factors of Lipid Profile and NAFLD, the health care provider can properly manage it, even awareness specific for patients and community as general being launched to diminish the morbidity and mortality by this study. Methods: This cross-sectional research carried out at Medicine Department of PMCH, Shaheed Benazirabad. This study comprises 300 subjects of NAFLD. Patients who attended the medicine department with abdominal complains after examination consultant advised ultrasound. The ultrasound performed in Radiology department, patients with findings of fatty liver selected, and history taken from all the patients with special regard to alcoholism. Fasting lipid profile done in all patients included in present study. The blood samples collected from a vein and immediately sent to the laboratory. Results: This present study enlisted total 300 patients out of them 203 (67.7%) belonged to male gender and 97 (32.3%) were females. A ratio of 2.1:1 observed in male and female subjects. There were 176 (58.7%) patients in grade I, while 82 (27.3%) patients in grade II and 42 (14%) patients in grade III. The cholesterol value was abnormal in 186 (62%), while normal in remaining 114 (38%) patients. Triglycerides were abnormal in 152 (50.7%) while in 148 (49.3%) patients were normal. HDL in 155 (51.7%) patients was abnormal while 145 (48.3%) patients had normal values. Low density lipoprotein value in 117 (39%) patient was abnormal and 183 (61%) patient normal. Very low-density lipoprotein in 117 (39%) patients was abnormal and 183 (61%) patient normal. The mean age and SD of patients in present study was 46.83 ± 8.82, with minimum 30 years and maximum age 65 years respectively (p value 0.000). The mean and SD of total cholesterol value was 154.66 ± 58.88 mg/dl (p value 1.000), TG 180.98 ± 96.46 mg/dl (p value 0.974), HDL-C 32.13 ± 5.88 mg/dl (p value 0.000), LDL-C 116.41 ± 41.002 mg/dl (p value 0.000), and VLDL-C was 43.47 ± 34.34 mg/dl (p value 0.000). Conclusions: In current study, variable changes in lipid profile observed amongst NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) patients who diagnosed on ultrasound. Early diagnosis and treatment
Effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) on serum glucose level and various protein parameters in acetaminophen intoxicated rabbits
Kanwal Zahra,Muhammad Imran Sohail,Muhammad Anwar Malik
Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology , 2012, DOI: 10.5455/jice.20120403013109
Abstract: Aim: Liver function tests, including total plasma proteins, albumin, bilirubin and glucose were analyzed to find out the hepatocurative and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica charantia. Method: The study was divided into two categories. In first category, the livers of rabbits were intoxicated with acetaminophen, and then Momordica fruit extract was given to observe its hepatocurative effects. Results: The results indicated significant changes in concentrations of the parameters in acetaminophen-challenged rabbits. In the second category, treatment was started by giving Momordica fruit extract dose orally for 10 days and 15 days to two groups of rabbits, respectively. Then, livers of rabbits were damaged with acetaminophen and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica were observed. Conclusion: The results showed that the animals treated with Momordica fruit extract experienced less liver damage due to acetaminophen intoxication, indicating that Momordica has hepatoprotective properties. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000): 7-12]
An Improved Swarm Optimization for Parameter Estimation and Biological Model Selection
Afnizanfaizal Abdullah, Safaai Deris, Mohd Saberi Mohamad, Sohail Anwar
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061258
Abstract: One of the key aspects of computational systems biology is the investigation on the dynamic biological processes within cells. Computational models are often required to elucidate the mechanisms and principles driving the processes because of the nonlinearity and complexity. The models usually incorporate a set of parameters that signify the physical properties of the actual biological systems. In most cases, these parameters are estimated by fitting the model outputs with the corresponding experimental data. However, this is a challenging task because the available experimental data are frequently noisy and incomplete. In this paper, a new hybrid optimization method is proposed to estimate these parameters from the noisy and incomplete experimental data. The proposed method, called Swarm-based Chemical Reaction Optimization, integrates the evolutionary searching strategy employed by the Chemical Reaction Optimization, into the neighbouring searching strategy of the Firefly Algorithm method. The effectiveness of the method was evaluated using a simulated nonlinear model and two biological models: synthetic transcriptional oscillators, and extracellular protease production models. The results showed that the accuracy and computational speed of the proposed method were better than the existing Differential Evolution, Firefly Algorithm and Chemical Reaction Optimization methods. The reliability of the estimated parameters was statistically validated, which suggests that the model outputs produced by these parameters were valid even when noisy and incomplete experimental data were used. Additionally, Akaike Information Criterion was employed to evaluate the model selection, which highlighted the capability of the proposed method in choosing a plausible model based on the experimental data. In conclusion, this paper presents the effectiveness of the proposed method for parameter estimation and model selection problems using noisy and incomplete experimental data. This study is hoped to provide a new insight in developing more accurate and reliable biological models based on limited and low quality experimental data.
An Evolutionary Firefly Algorithm for the Estimation of Nonlinear Biological Model Parameters
Afnizanfaizal Abdullah, Safaai Deris, Sohail Anwar, Satya N. V. Arjunan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056310
Abstract: The development of accurate computational models of biological processes is fundamental to computational systems biology. These models are usually represented by mathematical expressions that rely heavily on the system parameters. The measurement of these parameters is often difficult. Therefore, they are commonly estimated by fitting the predicted model to the experimental data using optimization methods. The complexity and nonlinearity of the biological processes pose a significant challenge, however, to the development of accurate and fast optimization methods. We introduce a new hybrid optimization method incorporating the Firefly Algorithm and the evolutionary operation of the Differential Evolution method. The proposed method improves solutions by neighbourhood search using evolutionary procedures. Testing our method on models for the arginine catabolism and the negative feedback loop of the p53 signalling pathway, we found that it estimated the parameters with high accuracy and within a reasonable computation time compared to well-known approaches, including Particle Swarm Optimization, Nelder-Mead, and Firefly Algorithm. We have also verified the reliability of the parameters estimated by the method using an a posteriori practical identifiability test.
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