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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 93 matches for " Sobia Khwaja "
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Walnut Trim down Lipid Profile and BMI in Obese Male in Different Ethnic Groups of Quetta Population, Pakistan  [PDF]
Rehana Mushtaq, Rubina Mushtaq, Sobia Khwaja, Zahida Tasawar Khan
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.410139

A total of 64 male obese subjects were randomized to observe the effect of 40 g of walnut in daily breakfast on lipid profile and Body Mass Index (BMI), total Cholesterol (CHO), Triglyceride (TG) High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in obese male subjects of various ethnics i.e. Baloch (B), Pathan (P), Hazara (H) and Punjabi (PU) residing in Quetta region of Balochistan for this purpose four weeks controlled study was designed. A batch of 32 obese male subjects 8 from each ethnic group as a control and another batch of 32 obese males 8 from each ethnic group as treated were selected. Twelve hour fasting blood samples a day after stoppage of walnut were taken from obese control and obese treated subjects. Daily walnut consumption in obese male subjects evidently demonstrated reduced BMI in all ethnic groups. Walnut supplementation in obese exhibited significant reduction in cholesterol level in Baloch (P < 0.001) and Punjabi (P < 0.01) males. There was profound and statistically significant [B (P < 0.05), P (P < 0.05), H (P < 0.01) and PU (P < 0.05)] elevation in HDL-C in all male ethnic groups. In male sub-population LDL-C was significantly [P (P < 0.01), H (P < 0.001) and PU (P < 0.05)] reduced in these groups. In these subjects walnut supplementation showed pronounced reduction [B (P < 0.001), P (P < 0.05), H (P < 0.001) and PU (P < 0.001)] in triglyceride levels. The constructive influence of walnut on lipid profile suggests that walnut rich diet may have advantageous effects beyond changes in plasma lipid level.

Study of Serum Cholesterol Level in Adult Obese Population of Karachi, Pakistan  [PDF]
Rubina Mushtaq, Rehana Mushtaq, Ambreen Akram, Sobia Khwaja, Shabbir Ahmed
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2014.411024

Background: The present study was planned to investigate the level of cholesterol in obese/non-obese (normal) individuals according to their body mass index (BMI) and age in different population residing in Karachi. Aim: Comparison of serum cholesterol values of obese with normal subjects and comparison of BMI of obese and normal individuals. Methods: Selection of obese subjects was according to the WHO (1998) criteria. A total of 40 subjects 18 - 55 years of age participated in the study, among which 30 subjects (Mean Age = 29.47 ± 1.99) were obese (Mean BMI = 35.41 ± 0.878) and 10 were controls with Mean age = 21.00 ± 0.547 and BMI = 19.96 ± 0.432. An overnight fasting blood sample was obtained and serum total Cholesterol (T-CH) level was estimated. Results: Obese persons having Mean T-CH = 202.6 ± 14.3 and controls having Mean T-CH = 173.3 ± 14.0. The data were further divided into males and females. Obese females were 11 with their BMI 31.836 ± 0.21, mean age ranged at 28.73 ± 4.04 and T-CH 191.8 ± 21.8, while that of control females were 6 in number with their BMI ranged at 19.183 ± 0.507, age 21.000 ± 0.894 and Cholester 148.7 ± 16.0 in controls. Total numbers of obese males were 19 with their BMI ranged at 37.49 ± 1.14, age ranged at 29.89 ± 2.19 and cholesterol level ranged at 208.89 ± 19.1. Control males were 4 in number with their BMI ranged at 21.125 ± 0.075, age 21.250 ± 0.479 and their T-CH 128.7 ± 8.72. Conclusion: The results of current study have reflected that BMI and total cholesterol concentration are higher in obese subjects.

Effect of TRH and TSH on Circulatory Glucose and Fatty Acids Responses in Hypoinsulenemic Male Dwarf Goats  [PDF]
Rubina Mushtaq, Rehana Mushtaq, Abdul Majeed Cheema, Sobia Khwaja
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2014.513113
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus or hypoinsulinemia was induced successfully in the male dwarf goats aged be-tween 2 - 3 years with 2 consecutive administrations of streptozotocin. A comparable group of intact control goats was also maintained. In ruminants including goats unlike non-ruminants, insulin generally displays ineffectiveness or resistance in their biochemical setup to facilitate gluco-neogenesis, the only source of glucose in these animals. In present study almost in the absence of insulin through induced hypoinsulinemia the effects of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) (30 μg/kg body weight) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (2.5 μg/kg body weight) on circulatory glucose and different fatty acid fractions were studied in insulin resistant ruminant model. Fatty acid fractions were estimated by gas chromatography. Both TRH and TSH administration lowered glycemia in insulin deficient goats compared to the controls but significantly with TSH dose only. In intact goats the detectable circulating long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) fractions of lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid were undetected except linoleic acid in the hypoinsulinemic state, however were found restored following TRH and TSH administrations and some of LCFAs; stearic (6417%), oleic (1676%) and linoleic acid (1225%) increased exceptionally with TSH dose. In Intact goats however the hormones variedly increased the fractions. The volatile fatty acid fractions (VFAs) of formic, acetic, propionic, iso-butyric, n-butyric, iso-valeric, n-valeric, iso-caproic, n-caproic and heptanoic acid were detected in the goats. The most VFAs fractions markedly increased in hypoinsulinemic goats compared to the control goats following TRH and TSH infusion. These results have indicated that endogenously stimulated thyroid hormones with TRH and TSH in insulin deficient state inhibit the mechanisms of utilizing the fatty acids in glucose production. Therefore the study reveals thyroid hormones inhibitory effects on gluconeogenesis in insulin resistance and hyperglycemia.
Monitoring of biochemical effects of organochlorine pesticides on human health  [PDF]
Sobia Khwaja, Rubina Mushtaq, Masarrat Yousuf, Muhammad Attaullah, Fozia Tabbassum, Rabiya Faiz, Rehana Mushtaq
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58182

The present study was designed to analyze organochlorine pesticide residues in the blood samples of the residents of Karachi. Biochemical and hematological parameters were tested thoroughly for changes as a result of organochlorine residues. In the blood samples which were drawn from both genders, organochlorine compounds like α-endosulfan (1.565 mg/kg) and β-endosulfan (1.233 mg/kg) were found in higher quantities and were the most frequently detected compounds. Average concentrations of the detected compounds (mg/kg) were: HCH (0.819); Cyclodienes (2.839); Diphenylaliphatics (0.240). An evident finding was the alteration in enzyme activity in higher residue samples. Levels of GPT, GOT, ALP, Choline-esterase and γ-GT were tested in all samples and observed major shifts in the upper and lower limits in high residue samples as compared with the normal values. Analysis of the blood parameters were carried out thoroughly and checked the levels of TLC, RBC, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, Platelets and differential leucocytes (Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils and Monocytes) but found no distinct changes and hence no convincing relation was observed. Results of the present investigation of OCs in different blood sera indicated that bioconcentration and biomagnification of these chemicals were common phenomena in the population of Karachi city and this may be accountable for a variety of diseases and health hazards.

Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) in nursing primiparous and multiparous women  [PDF]
Sobia Khwaja, Rubina Mushtaq, Rehana Mushtaq, Masarrat J. Yousuf, Fozia Tabbassum
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.411132

Impact of PCBs was studied as a major source of physiological effects even very low concentration of PCBs transferred to the infants by mother’s milk. Milk samples were collected from primipara and multipara women. A significant variation pattern was observed in the level of PCB congeners, as PCBs are lipophilic in nature, another possibility arises that great deals of residues are passed on to infants through mother’s milk. A technique was developed to find out polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in breast milk. PCBs were extracted by Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD) and analyzed by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector. The precision (RSD < 10%, n = 125), recovery (85% to 110%) and limit of quantification (between 0.50 and 3.00 μg·L-1), the chi square analysis at p ≤ 0.05 has shown that the PCB level was higher in multipara as compared to primipara. The analysis of the thirty samples revealed PCB levels above 6.85 μg·L-1 in breast milk samples by analyses of a mixture of PCB congeners. All PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 123 (+149), 118, 114, 153, 105, 138 (+163), 167, 156 (+171), 157, 180, 170, 189) were found at high level in primiparous and multiparous. Thus, a high correlation between the contamination of breast milk and environmental pollution of PCBs was observed.

Evaluation of Advance Wheat Lines for Slow Yellow Rusting (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. Tritici)
Sobia Tabassum
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v3n1p239
Abstract: Stripe rust (yellow rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat in Pakistan. Lack of durable resistance in local wheat varieties is the main reason for stripe rust epidemic which could limit yields. The use of genetically resistant wheat varieties is the most economic way of controlling the disease. Evaluation of 135 advance wheat lines for slow yellow rusting was conducted during cropping season 2008-2009 under natural epidemics at field locations of Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad and Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak (Northwest), Pakistan. Resistance level based on final disease severity (FDS) along with other slow rusting parameters relative area under disease progress curve (rAUDPC) and relative infection rate (RIR) was assessed. A total of 25 wheat lines were identified to potentially have durable resistance with low frequency of disease severity (10-30%) and lower relative AUDPC values (2-66%). Based on the slowing rusting data, RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) primers were used in order to evaluate genetic diversity among 25 lines. Of 20 OPA (Operon series) primers tested, 4 (20%) primers were polymorphic that showed amplification differences among 25 genotypes. OPA-06 and OPA-04 revealed the highest polymorphism (67% and 50%) while OPA-02 and OPA-17 exhibited the lowest polymorphism (33% and 25%) respectively. From the amplification profile, a total of five RAPD markers were obtained in this study. A similarity matrix data depicted that most of these genotypes are genetically very close (60-100%). The 25 advance lines identified from slow rusting evaluation with five RAPD markers may have partial resistance genes and can be used as slow yellow rusting lines with longer field life in Pakistan breeding program.
Can Simple Preoperative Hemoglobin Testing Screen Symptomatic Anemia in Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Surgeries in Third World Countries?  [PDF]
Sobia Khan, Mueen Ullah Khan, Khalid Samad
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2012.24034
Abstract: Background: Patients coming for ambulatory surgeries are mostly healthy adults and asymptomatic anemia in these patients is rare. According to international standards, perioperative period is not an appropriate setting to screen and investigate the cause of asymptomatic anemia, but in third world countries where iron deficiency is rampant, it is generally required as per local hospitals policy to test hemoglobin levels prior to any surgery in order to prevent morbidity. The purpose of our study is to look at the prevalence of anemia in patient undergoing minor elective ambulatory surgeries. Method: This was a cross sectional observational study conducted at tertiary care unit, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 385 ASA-I (American Society of Anesthesiologist) and II patient’s age ranged 18 - 60 years, scheduled for day care surgical procedures were enrolled in the study. Results: Anemia was detected in 74 (19.2%) patients and its prevalence was found to be higher in females and in patients above 50 years of age. However, the presence of anemia did not have any influence on the perioperative outcomes or management. Conclusion: The routine preoperative hemoglobin testing does not have any effect on the perioperative outcomes in asymptomatic patients who are planned for elective day care surgeries.
Suppressed response to hormonal contraceptives in women of Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan  [PDF]
Yasmeen Faiz Kazi, Sobia Saleem, Nasreen Kazi
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511248

Objective: Contraception has gained gradual popularity in many parts of the developing world including Pakistan. Despite this increase in acceptance, the birth rate remains high. Failure of contraception has been reported in the literature, which made us aim to conduct this study. The efficiency of hormonal contraceptives in the study area was assessed and this is the first report from Pakistan. Methods: A total of 200 women (aged 20-30 and 31-40 years; n = 100 each) with minimum consistent use of hormonal contraceptives in the form of pills (Combined oral contraceptives) for 12 months were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected from women of each age group and corresponding control groups (n = 100) from local hospitals and reproductive health service center. Serum levels of the fertility hormones viz leutinizing and follicle stimulating hormones were measured through ELISA technique. Results: Our data revealed that over all in the both age groups, 72% women had normal, 16% increased and 12% showed decreased levels of leutinizing hormone (p > 0.05) and 67% women showed normal, 33% showed decreased and no increased levels were found for follicle stimulating hormone (p > 0.05). No age-wise significant difference in response was observed among both the age groups tested. Conclusion: Statistically insignificant difference in serum leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone seen among both the age groups of hormonal contraceptive users and control group indicates less effective hormonal contraception response in the study area.

Subcutaneous emphysema in a case of infective sinusitis: a case report
Rasheed Zakaria, Haris Khwaja
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-4-235
Abstract: A 30-year-old Caucasian man presented with sudden onset of a painful, swollen neck and was found, via clinical and radiological examination to have subcutaneous emphysema. A swallow study showed no oesophageal perforation. Computed tomography of his neck and thorax demonstrated pneumomediastinum but no other pathology. Management was conservative with intravenous antibiotics, fluids and no oral intake. He had a history of a productive cough and a flexible nasoendoscopy found purulent sinusitis which was treated with topical nasal washes. The patient was discharged after 72 hours and will be followed up by the otolaryngology-head and neck service.Infective sinusitis is a rare cause of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum. It may be managed conservatively provided there is early recognition and exclusion of more serious pathology, such as a ruptured trachea or oesophagus.Subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema is an uncommon phenomenon with a significant morbidity and mortality. It is usually secondary to infection of the mediastinum, pericardium or lung parenchyma, and is particularly associated with mechanical ventilation, soft tissue infections and underlying pathology of the trachea, oesophagus or bronchial tree. Prompt recognition with treatment of sepsis and repair of any perforated viscus, if indicated, are the main features of management. Here we describe an unusual case of a patient with a short history of seemingly spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum. Forceful paroxysms of coughing due to a purulent sinus infection were identified as the most likely cause. The patient did not require operative intervention and fully recovered with prompt investigation and conservative treatment.A 30-year-old Caucasian man presented to the general surgical service at our institution complaining of pain and skin swelling over his chest for the last 12 to 24 hours. He gave a one-week history of having had an upper respiratory tract infection with pur
The Role of Subject Knowledge in the Effective Teaching of Primary Science
Christine C. Khwaja
Educate~ , 2006,
Abstract: Contextualisation To teach science in a contemporary primary school requires more than a sound knowledge of science. Being able to explain science in a way that is accessible, relevant and inspires interest and confidence among pupils are also other key factors. The review paper that follows examines the literature around some of these issues. Abstract: Teachers' own subject knowledge and understanding in science is considered by many to be the key factor determining their effectiveness as primary science teachers. This paper argues that whilst teachers' subject knowledge and understanding is important, the picture is complex, as many other factors are also involved. Thus the response to ineffective primary science teachers should not simply be to send them on professional development courses to enhance their subject knowledge and understanding. The context of the research for this paper is a longitudinal study investigating how primary teachers engage with science in the classroom and the factors that contribute to their patterns of engagement.
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