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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 252587 matches for " Skye R. Thomas-Hall "
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Ethylene Response Factor 6 Is a Regulator of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Arabidopsis
Nasser Sewelam, Kemal Kazan, Skye R. Thomas-Hall, Brendan N. Kidd, John M. Manners, Peer M. Schenk
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070289
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in plant cells in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during normal growth and development. Although a large number of transcription factor (TF) genes are up- or down-regulated by ROS, currently very little is known about the functions of these TFs during oxidative stress. In this work, we examined the role of ERF6 (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6), an AP2/ERF domain-containing TF, during oxidative stress responses in Arabidopsis. Mutant analyses showed that NADPH oxidase (RbohD) and calcium signaling are required for ROS-responsive expression of ERF6. erf6 insertion mutant plants showed reduced growth and increased H2O2 and anthocyanin levels. Expression analyses of selected ROS-responsive genes during oxidative stress identified several differentially expressed genes in the erf6 mutant. In particular, a number of ROS responsive genes, such as ZAT12, HSFs, WRKYs, MAPKs, RBOHs, DHAR1, APX4, and CAT1 were more strongly induced by H2O2 in erf6 plants than in wild-type. In contrast, MDAR3, CAT3, VTC2 and EX1 showed reduced expression levels in the erf6 mutant. Taken together, our results indicate that ERF6 plays an important role as a positive antioxidant regulator during plant growth and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses.
Isolation and Evaluation of Oil-Producing Microalgae from Subtropical Coastal and Brackish Waters
David K. Y. Lim, Sourabh Garg, Matthew Timmins, Eugene S. B. Zhang, Skye R. Thomas-Hall, Holger Schuhmann, Yan Li, Peer M. Schenk
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040751
Abstract: Microalgae have been widely reported as a promising source of biofuels, mainly based on their high areal productivity of biomass and lipids as triacylglycerides and the possibility for cultivation on non-arable land. The isolation and selection of suitable strains that are robust and display high growth and lipid accumulation rates is an important prerequisite for their successful cultivation as a bioenergy source, a process that can be compared to the initial selection and domestication of agricultural crops. We developed standard protocols for the isolation and cultivation for a range of marine and brackish microalgae. By comparing growth rates and lipid productivity, we assessed the potential of subtropical coastal and brackish microalgae for the production of biodiesel and other oil-based bioproducts. This study identified Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaniella salina and new isolates of Chlorella sp. and Tetraselmis sp. as suitable candidates for a multiple-product algae crop. We conclude that subtropical coastal microalgae display a variety of fatty acid profiles that offer a wide scope for several oil-based bioproducts, including biodiesel and omega-3 fatty acids. A biorefinery approach for microalgae would make economical production more feasible but challenges remain for efficient harvesting and extraction processes for some species.
Momentum transfer dependence of the proton's electric and magnetic polarizabilities
N. L. Hall,A. W. Thomas,R. D. Young
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.117502
Abstract: The Q^2-dependence of the sum of the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the proton is calculated over the range 0 \leq Q^2 \leq 6 GeV^2 using the generalized Baldin sum rule. Employing a parametrization of the F_1 structure function valid down to Q^2 = 0.06 GeV^2, the polarizabilities at the real photon point are found by extrapolating the results of finite Q^2 to Q^2 = 0 GeV^2. We determine the evolution over four-momentum transfer to be consistent with the Baldin sum rule using photoproduction data, obtaining \alpha + \beta = 13.7 \pm 0.7 \times 10^{-4}\, \text{fm}^3.
Plasmin Activation of Glial Cells through Protease-Activated Receptor 1
André R. Greenidge,Kiana R. Hall,Ian R. Hambleton,Richelle Thomas
Pathology Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/314709
Better quality of life with neuropsychological improvement on HAART
Thomas D Parsons, Alyssa J Braaten, Colin D Hall, Kevin R Robertson
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-4-11
Abstract: In a prospective longitudinal study, subjects were evaluated before instituting HAART (na?ve) or before changing HAART regimens because current therapy failed to maintain suppression of plasma viral load (treatment failure). Subjects underwent detailed neuropsychological and neurological examinations, as well as psychological evaluation sensitive to possible confounds. Re-evaluation was performed six months after institution of the new HAART regimen and/or if plasma viral load indicated treatment failure. At each evaluation, subjects underwent ultrasensitive HIV RNA quantitative evaluation in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.HAART successes performed better than failures on measures exploring speed of mental processing (p < .02). HAART failure was significantly associated with increased self-reports of physical health complaints (p < .01) and substance abuse (p < .01). An interesting trend emerged, in which HAART failures endorsed greater levels of psychological and cognitive complaints (p = .06). Analysis between neuropsychological measures and QOL scores revealed significant correlation between QOL Total and processing speed (p < .05), as well as flexibility (p < .05).Our study investigated the relationship between HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and quality of life. HAART failures experienced slower psychomotor processing, and had increased self-reports of physical health complaints and substance abuse. Contrariwise, HAART successes experienced improved mental processing, demonstrating the impact of successful treatment on functioning. With increasing life expectancy for those who are HIV seropositive, it is important to measure cognitive functioning in relation to the actual QOL these individuals report. The study results have implications for the optimal management of HIV-infected persons. Specific support or intervention may be beneficial for those who have failed HAART in order to decrease substance abuse and increase overall physical health.Cogni
Is High Dose Therapy Superior to Conventional Dose Therapy as Initial Treatment for Relapsed Germ Cell Tumors? The TIGER Trial
Darren R. Feldman, Robert Huddart, Emma Hall, J?rg Beyer, Thomas Powles
Journal of Cancer , 2011,
Abstract: Metastatic germ cell tumours (GCTs) are usually cured with cisplatin based chemotherapy and standard treatment algorithms are established. However when this treatment fails and the disease relapses, standard treatment is much more uncertain. Both conventional dose therapy (CDT) and high dose therapy (HDT) are widely used, due to the lack of conclusive data supporting one specific approach. A recent retrospective analysis focusing on this population suggested a significant benefit for HDT. Retrospective analyses are prone to bias, and therefore while this data is provocative it is by no mean conclusive. For this reason the international community is supporting a prospective randomised trial in this area comparing CDT(TIP) with sequential HDT (TICE). The planned open labelled randomised phase III study (TIGER) is due to open in 2011 and will recruit 390 patients to detect a 13% difference in 2 year progression free survival (primary endpoint). It is hoped that this large study will conclusively resolve the uncertainty which currently exists.
Neurofunctional Underpinnings of Audiovisual Emotion Processing in Teens with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Krissy A.R. Doyle-Thomas,Jeremy Goldberg,Peter Szatmari,Geoffrey B.C. Hall
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00048
Abstract: Despite successful performance on some audiovisual emotion tasks, hypoactivity has been observed in frontal and temporal integration cortices in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is understood about the neurofunctional network underlying this ability in individuals with ASD. Research suggests that there may be processing biases in individuals with ASD, based on their ability to obtain meaningful information from the face and/or the voice. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined brain activity in teens with ASD (n = 18) and typically developing controls (n = 16) during audiovisual and unimodal emotion processing. Teens with ASD had a significantly lower accuracy when matching an emotional face to an emotion label. However, no differences in accuracy were observed between groups when matching an emotional voice or face-voice pair to an emotion label. In both groups brain activity during audiovisual emotion matching differed significantly from activity during unimodal emotion matching. Between-group analyses of audiovisual processing revealed significantly greater activation in teens with ASD in a parietofrontal network believed to be implicated in attention, goal-directed behaviors, and semantic processing. In contrast, controls showed greater activity in frontal and temporal association cortices during this task. These results suggest that in the absence of engaging integrative emotional networks during audiovisual emotion matching, teens with ASD may have recruited the parietofrontal network as an alternate compensatory system.
Volume Dependence of the Axial Charge of the Nucleon
N. L. Hall,A. W. Thomas,R. D. Young,J. M. Zanotti
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: It is shown that the strong volume-dependence of the axial charge of the nucleon seen in lattice QCD calculations can be understood quantitatively in terms of the pion-induced interactions between neighbouring nucleons. The associated wave function renormalization leads to an increased suppression of the axial charge as the strength of the interaction increases, either because of a decrease in lattice size or in pion mass.
Observation of Multiple-Gap Structure in Hidden Order State of URu2Si2 from Optical Conductivity
Jesse S. Hall,Travis Williams,Graeme Luke,Urmas Nagel,Taaniel Uleksin,Toomas R??m,Thomas Timusk
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.035132
Abstract: We have measured the far infrared reflectance of the heavy fermion compound URu$_2$Si$_2$ through the phase transition at T$_{HO}$=17.5 K dubbed 'hidden order' with light polarized along both the a- and c-axes of the tetragonal structure. The optical conductivity allows the formation of the hidden order gap to be investigated in detail. We find that both the conductivity and the gap structure are anisotropic, and that the c-axis conductivity shows evidence for a double gap structure, with $\Delta_{1,c}=2.7$ meV and $\Delta_{2,c}=1.8$ meV respectively at 4 K, while the gap seen in the a-axis conductivity has a value of $\Delta_a=3.2$ meV at 4 K. The opening of the gaps does not follow the behaviour expected from mean field theory in the vicinity of the transition.
Quark-hadron duality constraints on γZ box corrections to parity-violating elastic scattering
N. L. Hall,P. G. Blunden,W. Melnitchouk,A. W. Thomas,R. D. Young
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We examine the interference \gamma Z box corrections to parity-violating elastic electron--proton scattering in the light of the recent observation of quark-hadron duality in parity-violating deep-inelastic scattering from the deuteron, and the approximate isospin independence of duality in the electromagnetic nucleon structure functions down to Q^2 \approx 1 GeV^2. Assuming that a similar behavior also holds for the \gamma Z proton structure functions, we find that duality constrains the \gamma Z box correction to the proton's weak charge to be \Re e\, \square_{\gamma Z}^V = (5.4 \pm 0.4) \times 10^{-3} at the kinematics of the Q_{\text{weak}} experiment. Within the same model we also provide estimates of the \gamma Z corrections for future parity-violating experiments, such as MOLLER at Jefferson Lab and MESA at Mainz.
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