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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 54 matches for " Sirisha Kundrapu "
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Outpatient Healthcare Settings and Transmission of Clostridium difficile
Lucy A. Jury, Brett Sitzlar, Sirisha Kundrapu, Jennifer L. Cadnum, Kim M. Summers, Christine P. Muganda, Abhishek Deshpande, Ajay K. Sethi, Curtis J. Donskey
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070175
Abstract: Background Recent reports suggest that community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) (i.e., no healthcare facility admission within 90 days) may be increasing in frequency. We hypothesized that outpatient clinics could be an important source for acquisition of community-associated CDI. Methods We performed a 6-month prospective study of CDI patients to determine frequency of and risk factors for skin and environmental shedding during outpatient visits and to derive a prediction rule for positive cultures. We performed a point–prevalence culture survey to assess the frequency of C. difficile contamination in outpatient settings and evaluated the frequency of prior outpatient visits in patients with community-associated CDI. Results Of 67 CDI patients studied, 54 (81%) had 1 or more outpatient visits within 12 weeks after diagnosis. Of 44 patients cultured during outpatient visits, 14 (32%) had skin contamination and 12 (27%) contaminated environmental surfaces. Decreased mobility, fecal incontinence, and treatment with non-CDI antibiotics were associated with positive cultures, whereas vancomycin taper therapy was protective. In patients not on CDI therapy, a prediction rule including incontinence or decreased mobility was 90% sensitive and 79% specific for detection of spore shedding. Of 84 clinic and emergency department rooms cultured, 12 (14%) had 1 or more contaminated environmental sites. For 33 community-associated CDI cases, 31 (94%) had an outpatient visit during the 12 weeks prior to onset of diarrhea. Conclusions Patients with recent CDI present a significant risk for transmission of spores during outpatient visits. The outpatient setting may be an underappreciated source of community-associated CDI cases.
Defining the Vulnerable Period for Re-Establishment of Clostridium difficile Colonization after Treatment of C. difficile Infection with Oral Vancomycin or Metronidazole
Turki Abujamel, Jennifer L. Cadnum, Lucy A. Jury, Venkata C. K. Sunkesula, Sirisha Kundrapu, Robin L. Jump, Alain C. Stintzi, Curtis J. Donskey
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076269
Abstract: Background Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that is the most common cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea in developed countries. A significant proportion of patients receiving oral vancomycin or metronidazole for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) develop recurrences. However, the period of vulnerability to re-establishment of colonization by C. difficile after therapy is not well defined. Principal Findings In a prospective study of CDI patients, we demonstrated that most vancomycin-treated patients maintained inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin in stool for 4 to 5 days after therapy, whereas metronidazole was only detectable during therapy. From the time of elimination of the antibiotics to 14 to 21 days after therapy, a majority of stool suspensions supported growth of C. difficile and deep 16S rRNA sequencing demonstrated persistent marked alteration of the indigenous microbiota. By 21 to 28 days after completion of CDI treatment, a majority of stool suspensions inhibited growth of C. difficile and there was evidence of some recovery of the microbiota. Conclusions These data demonstrate that there is a vulnerable period for re-establishment of C. difficile colonization after CDI treatment that begins within a few days after discontinuation of treatment and extends for about 3 weeks in most patients.
KNOW MORE ABOUT PROPITIOUS SEED-FLAX
Sirisha M*
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Linseed, linum usitatissimum is used in Ayuveda for many Vata, Pitta related disorders. The lipid content of the seed contains more than 55% of omega – 3 fatty acid responsible for hypolipidaemic,anticancer, anti inflammatory, anti burn, anti rheumatic, antithrombic and proven useful in atherosclerosis, arrhythmias, cardiac disorders, also in autoimmune diseases. Lignan content contains cyanogenic glucosides and phyto oestrogens. The whole seed is very useful and is known from the ancient times for its activities.Recent years, again people has realized about the valuable therapeutic activities and immense research work already been started. The use of seed is recommended for its omega-3, omega-6 and omega-9, phytoestrogens and cyanogenic glucosides. All these ingredients with diverse pharmacotherapeutic activities make it a propitious seed.
McAfee SecurityCenter Evaluation under DDoS Attack Traffic  [PDF]
Sirisha Surisetty, Student Member, Sanjeev Kumar
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2011.23011
Abstract: During the Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, computers are made to attack other computers. Newer Firewalls now days are providing prevention against such attack traffics. McAfee SecurityCenter Firewall is one of the most popular security software installed on millions of Internet connected computers worldwide. “McAfee claims that if you have installed McAfee SecurityCentre with anti-virus and antispyware and Firewall then you always have the most current security to combat the ever-evolving threats on the Internet for the duration of the subscription”. In this paper, we present our findings regarding the effectiveness of McAfee SecurityCentre software against some of the popular Distributed Denial Of Service (DDoS) attacks, namely ARP Flood, Ping-flood, ICMP Land, TCP-SYN Flood and UDP Flood attacks on the computer which has McAfee SecurityCentre installed. The McAfee SecurityCentre software has an in built firewall which can be activated to control and filter the Inbound/Outbound traffic. It can also block the Ping Requests in order to stop or subside the Ping based DDoS Attacks. To test the McAfee Security Centre software, we created the corresponding attack traffic in a controlled lab environment. It was found that the McAfee Firewall software itself was incurring DoS (Denial of Service) by completely exhausting the available memory resources of the host computer during its operation to stop the external DDoS Attacks.
Success of banking ombudsmen scheme: Myth or reality
Malyadri, Pacha,Sirisha, S.
International Journal of Research Studies in Management , 2012,
Abstract: In the present banking system, excellence in customer service is the most important tool for sustained business growth. Customer complaints are part of the business life of any corporate entity. This is more so for banks because they are service organizations. Over a period of time, the number of complaints against banks with regard to deficiency of their services has been increasing in spite of several efforts taken by the banks on the advice of the Reserve Bank of India. Since the role of banks has changed from ‘Class Bank’ to ‘Mass Bank’, there is a tremendous pressure on the part of banks to satisfy the various needs of the customers. The load of work is increasing day by day on banks taking into account The Banking Ombudsman (BO) Scheme was established by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in 1995 to provide speedy solutions to grievances faced by bank customers. Although the number of complaints received through this forum has increased in recent times, the lack of awareness among the customers was a big concern. Through some proactive measures taken by the RBI and awareness campaigns conducted by the Ombudsman, the scenario looks much brighter today. Even then, a lot needs to be done to make the Scheme function more effectively. Against this backdrop, an attempt has been made to analyze the performance of Banking Ombudsman Scheme. Hence, the purpose of the present paper is to analyses the performance of the Banking Ombudsmen.
Efficient Synthesis of Dispiropyrrolidines Linked to Sugars
Sirisha Nallamala,Raghavachary Raghunathan
International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/340546
Abstract: An expedient method for the synthesis of glyco-dispiropyrrolidines is reported through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction (1,3 DC reaction). The novel glycosyl dipolarophiles derived from D-glucose underwent neat [3+2] cycloaddition reaction with the azomethine ylides generated from 1,2-diketones and sarcosine to give the corresponding glycosidic heterocycles in good yields. 1. Introduction Carbohydrates and their derivatives which are potential useful substrates in chemical and biological fields [1, 2] are present in natural products [3, 4]. Recent studies on these glycomolecules [5, 6], such as proteoglycans, glycoproteins [7, 8], glycolipids [9, 10], and antibiotics, have shed light on the significance of carbohydrate parts (glycons) in molecular recognition for the transmission of biological information [11, 12]. Therefore, it is now recognized that carbohydrates are at the heart of a multitude of biological events. With this stimulating biological background, efficient synthesis of not only carbohydrates themselves but also carbohydrate-containing heterocycles is becoming more and more important in the field of organic chemistry and chemical biology [13]. Hence there has been renewed interest in the synthesis of carbohydrate-based heterocycles. Heterocyclic compounds, particularly five and six membered ring compounds, have occupied a prominent place among the organic compounds in view of their diverse biological activities [14–18]. The spiropyrrolidine ring systems [19, 20] have acquired a prominent place among various heterocyclic compounds owing to their presence in many pharmacologically relevant alkaloids, as typified by rhyncophylline, corynoxeine, mitraphylline, horsifiline, and spirotryprostatins [21–23]. Synthesis and bioactivities of some of the spiropyrrolidines were reported by us recently [24]. Multicomponent intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction is an efficient method for the construction of heterocyclic units in a highly region- and stereoselective manner [25, 26]. In particular, the chemistry of azomethine ylides has gained significance in recent years as it serves as an expedient route for the construction of nitrogen-containing five membered heterocycles [27, 28]. This method is widely used for the synthesis of natural products such as alkaloids and pharmaceuticals [29, 30]. Continuing our interest in the area of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction [31, 32] and prompted by reports on the structural features and biological activity of carbohydrates and spiropyrrolidines, we contemplated fusing structurally unique
Regioselective Synthesis of Dispiro Pyrrolizidines as Potent Antimicrobial Agents for Human Pathogens
N. Sirisha,R. Raghunathan
ISRN Medicinal Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/492604
Abstract: Synthesis of a series of novel dispiro pyrrolizidines has been accomplished by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azomethine ylide generated from secondary amino acids and diketones with bischalcones. These compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity. Most of the synthetic compounds exhibited good antibacterial activity against microorganisms. 1. Introduction 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is one of the important tools for the construction of five membered heterocycles [1], and many important natural products have been synthesized by this method [2, 3]. Pyrrolidine-based natural products are very useful in preventing and treating rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and allergies and also possess anti-influenza virus and anticonvulsant activities [4]. The azomethine ylide represents one of the most reactive and versatile classes of 1,3-dipoles and is readily trapped by a range of dipolarophiles forming substituted pyrrolidines [5]. Spiro compounds represent an important class of naturally occurring substances characterized by highly pronounced biological properties [6, 7]. Chalcones belong to the broad class of compounds present in almost all vascular plants, not only in their terrestrial parts but also in roots, as well as in flakes and seeds. Chalcones are precursors of flavonoids and play a crucial role in their biosynthesis [8, 9]. Depending on the substitution pattern on the two aromatic rings, a wide range of pharmacological activities has been identified for various chalcones [10, 11]. These include among others cytotoxic, antiprotozoal [12], antibacterial, antifungal [13], and antitumor activities [14, 15]. More recently, there has been strong interest in the antimalarial activity of chalcones and bischalcones [16]. As a part of the ongoing research program on the synthesis of complex novel spiro heterocycles [17], herein we report for the first time an expeditious protocol for the synthesis of novel dispiro pyrrolizidines through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azomethine ylide generated from various diketones and secondary amino acids with bischalcones derived from terephthalaldehyde and substituted acetophenones as dipolarophiles. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity, and the results are presented in this paper. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. General Procedure for the Synthesis of Bischalcones 3a–c A solution of substituted acetophenone (2 equiv) and terephthalaldehyde (1 equiv) in methanolic solution of NaOH (60%) was stirred for 20?h at room temperature. The solution was poured into ice-cold water at
Melatonin: A Novel Indolamine in Oral Health and Disease
V. K. Chava,K. Sirisha
International Journal of Dentistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/720185
Abstract: This paper attempts to summarise the findings accumulated within the last few years concerning the hormone of darkness “melatonin.” Based on its origin, from the pineal gland until recently it was portrayed exclusively as a hormone. Due to its lipophilic nature, it is accessible to every cell. Thus, in the classic sense it is a cell protector rather than a hormone. Recent studies, by Claustrat et al. (2005), detected few extrapineal sources of melatonin like retina, gastrointestinal tract, and salivary glands. Due to these sources, research by Cutando et al. (2007), is trying to explore the implications of melatonin in the oral cavity, in addition to its physiologic anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory and oncostatic functions at systemic level that may be receptor dependent or independent. Recently, certain in vivo studies by Shimozuma et al. (2011), detected the secretion of melatonin from salivary glands further emphasising its local activity. Thus, within our confines the effects of melatonin in the mouth are reviewed, adding a note on therapeutic potentials of melatonin both systemically and orally. 1. Introduction In light of the growing evidence, researchers are attempting to understand how the body naturally “turns off” inflammation. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is one such powerful hormone derived from an essential amino acid tryptophan [1]. It has various local and systemic functions playing a critical role in controlling inflammatory reactions. It is predominantly synthesised and secreted from pineal gland and other extrapineal sources like retina, gastrointestinal tract, lens, and immune system cells [2]. The effects of melatonin were described in 1917 but were first isolated from bovine pineal gland and structurally identified in 1958 by Lerner and colleagues [3]. Melatonin derives its name from serotonin, based on its ability to blanch the skin of amphibians [4]. The unique, highly lipophilic nature of melatonin makes it accessible to every cell. It is found in high concentrations in the bone marrow, intestine, and at the sub-cellular level in the mitochondria and nucleus [5]. Recently, its presence is detected in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid. Melatonin is said to play a significant role in protecting the oral cavity through its antioxidant, immunomodulatory, oncostatic, and other functions [6]. Based on this evolving evidence, an attempt is made to review melatonin’s synthesis, effects and proposed therapeutic potentials. 2. Synthesis Pinealocytes are responsible for melatonin production through a series of well-known
HBA: Distributed Metadata Management for Large Cluster-Based Storage Systems
Sirisha Petla,Poorna Satyanarayana. B
International Journal of Engineering Innovations and Research , 2012,
Abstract: An efficient and distributed scheme for file mapping or file lookup is critical in decentralizing metadata management within a group of metadata servers, here the technique used called HIERARCHICAL BLOOM FILTER ARRAYS (HBA) to map filenames to the metadata servers holding their metadata. The Bloom filter arrays with different levels of accuracies are used on each metadata server. The first one with low accuracy and used to capture the destination metadata server information of frequently accessed files. The other array is used to maintain the destination metadata information of all files. Simulation results show our HBA design to be highly effective and efficient in improving the performance and scalability of file systems in clusters with 1,000 to 10,000 nodes (or superclusters) and with the amount of data in the petabyte scale or higher. HBA is reducing metadata operation by using the single metadata architecture instead of 16 metadata server.
Intrusion Injury of Deciduous Tooth sequeling Ectopic Eruption of a Permanent Successor
Rajajee KTSS,Hema Sirisha K
Indian Journal of Dental Advancements , 2010,
Abstract: Intrusive luxation of primary teeth carries a high risk of damage to underlying permanent tooth germs. Ectopic eruption of permanent incisors is an unusual outcome of traumatic injury to their predecessors. In this case report, we describe the multidisciplinary management of the consequences of a primary tooth intrusion that led to severe impaction of the permanent left central incisor in a vertical position at the level of the labial sulcus.
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