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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10129 matches for " Simon Oko Okpara "
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Trace Metals in Groundwater of Kumba and Environs in Cameroon  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Thomson Areakpoh Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Simon Oko Okpara
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105824
Kumba and environs situate between longitudes 9.24E - 9.5E and latitudes 4.44N - 4.7N, is the economic capital of the Southwest Region-Cameroon. It is located along the Cameroon Line at northwestern edge of the Douala Basin. The inhabitants depend mostly on groundwater through springs, handdug wells and boreholes. In this area like in most of Cameroon and Africa, water from groundwater sources (springs, wells and boreholes) is not treated. Often, it is given minimal or cosmetic periodic treatment if at all. Although the concentra-tions of trace metals in groundwater affects its safety and acceptability, testing for trace metals is less common and typically occurs mostly when a specific risk has been identified. This could be attributed to the high cost of analysis and lack of technological know-how. In addition to this, testing and monitoring of groundwater is not carried out most of the time and whenever it is done, only major cations and anions are analyzed. Due to the absence of treatment and testing of groundwater before drinking in Kumba and environs, there is a need to evaluate the trace metal content. The study had 21 groundwater samples analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy. Field measurement of physicochemical parameters was determined. R-mode statistical analysis; Pearson’s Correlation Analysis (PCA) together with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) between the trace metals and the physico-chemical parameters was carried out. Ten indices were determined: Four trace metal hazard indices: the average daily dose ADD, carcinogenic risks CR and the non-carcinogenic risk hazard quotient HQ which yields the hazard indices HI, and six trace metal pollution indices: Degree of contamination (DC), Enrichment factor (EF), Ecological risk index (Er), Potential ecological risk index (RI), Pollution load index (PLI) and Geo-accu- mulation index (Igeo). The general trend of mean trace metal concentration in the groundwater is in the order of: Mn > Fe > Ba > Sr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Li > Cr > V > As > Cd. HCA distinguishes two clusters based on spatial similarities and dissimilarities. Cluster one; (01) element Ba; soluble; Cluster two (13) non soluble elements divided into three classes; class one (06) As, Cd, V, Li, Pb, and Cr; less enriched. Class two (03) Co, Cu, Ni and Zn; enriched; Class two (04) Zn, Sr, Fe and Mn; more enriched.?
Groundwater Biological Quality in Abuja FCT: Myths and Realities of Point and Non-Point Pollution of Fractured Rock Aquifers  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Jane-Francis Kihla Akoachere, Simon Oko Okpara, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Felix Akumcha Mbaabe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105734
The quality of groundwater is three fold: physical, chemical and biological. For water to be fit for human consumption, it must have satisfied all three quality aspects. Therefore, the groundwater biological quality of Abuja FCT can never be over emphasized since the wellbeing of the citizens of the capital territory, seat of the government of Nigeria, is of strategic importance. There are myths and realities about the biological quality of groundwater in fractured rock aquifers which must be clarified. Groundwater plays a very important role in the development of Abuja, Nigeria’s Capital as many private, government, and households establishments depend solely on hand-dug wells and boreholes for their daily water needs. This study evaluates the biological quality using total bacterial density (TBD), total coliform (TC), coliform bacteria (CB), faecal coliform (FC), total bacteria count (TBC), and salmonella species (SS) as biological pollution indicators. From physicochemical parameters: pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26?C - 36.1?C and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L. Groundwater of Abuja FCT is not suitable for drinking as the species had the following concentration and percentages above the permissible limits for drinking water: TC (0 - 1280) 51.06%, FC (0 - 170) 19.15%, TBD (0 - 86.6) 98.94%, TBC (0 - 5120) 95.74%, CB (0 - 438) 74.47% and SS (0 - 223) 69.15%. Groundwater from Abuja FCT Granite-Gneiss fractured rock aquiferous formation is unfit for human consumption and an added danger to humans since it is usually assumed to be safe. Groundwater from Granite-Gneiss fractured rock aquifers could be the source of endemic outbreaks of waterborne diseases such as E. coli, Cholera, Gastroenteritis, Typhoid and Diarrhea; as such all groundwater from the aquiferous formations in Abuja FCT should be treated before consumption and use. Source protection strategies as well as monitoring are recommended although it may not serve the purpose for which it is intended since the potential for pollution is point and non-point sourced.
Evaluation of Trace Metals in Groundwater of Ekondo-Titi and Environs, Onshore Rio Del Rey, Cameroun  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Thomson Areakpoh Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Simon Oko Okpara, Tom Tabi Oben
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105791
Abstract: Barium is the most enriched element in the study area; this could be attributed to agricultural fertilizers. Igeo values indicate groundwater is no pollution to moderately pollution risk from Li, V, Cr, Co, As, Cd, Pb while groundwater has a strong pollution risk from Ba and extreme pollution risk from Mn, Sr, Fe and Zn, though the concentrations of the trace metals are below WHO guidelines. Thus, from the health hazard indices and pollution risk indices on trace metals, the groundwater in Ekondo-Titi and environs is safe for drinking. The severity of metal toxicity is governed by several factors, such as dose, nutrition, age, and even life style. Therefore, these low trends that indicate the absence of human health hazards and health risks, the groundwater, might not guarantee the complete and permanent absence of human health hazards and risks due to an increasing level of environmental pollution that might be imposed by the increasing plantation agriculture in this area. Groundwater sources might become a potential sink of contaminants; this is the reason for recommending a constant monitoring and implementation program in Ekondo-Titi and environs.
African Women, the Vision of Equality and the Quest for Empowerment: Addressing Inequalities at the Heart of the Post-2015 Development Agenda and the Future  [PDF]
Ani Casimir, Ome Emmanuel, Maudline Okpara
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.34068
Abstract: The history of women has been defined by a world enmeshed in woes, frustration, oppression, maltreatment and inequalities. Feminism as a philosophy of change sought to fight, end and change this woeful scenario of women that denied their self respect, dignity and led to a loss of self confidence. Fundamentally, feminist philosophy sought for explanations and justifications why women were denied a voice and why they were historically not treated as coequals of men. The basis of inequality is historically rooted in cultural and philosophical falsities that were not evidenced based but were used to justify oppression against women. The Universal Declaration of human rights gave women and the world the platform that empowered them with rights and led to fresh processes that sought to end oppression and their underdevelopment inspired by inequality, iniquities, denial of opportunities for growth and empowerment. The millennium development goal of ending inequality and oppression against women should achieve equality and women’s empowerment in Africa. Since the declaration of the MDGS, considerable gains had been made inAfricabut challenges and problems are still identified in the areas of cultural inequality complicated by the weakness of the major governance institutions and corruption. Other challenges centre on women’s lack of genuine empowerment, violence against women, trafficking in women, denial of human rights, lack of participation in policy and governance. Since empowerment is the key to achieving mainstreaming and gender equality, this paper seeks to redefine the concept of empowering women as the platform to ending inequality, social injustice and achieving equality in the context of the unique challenges of underdevelopment facingAfrica. It will identify the policy implications of establishing empowerment structures that address multiple challenges facing gender inequality and how these structures will assist in building the necessary feminine human resources that will make women as partners of sustainable growth and development after 2015.
Aetiology of Igbo Cultural Rites (A Case Study of Abiriba Community): Implications for Counselling.
KA Oko
Edo Journal of Counselling , 2011,
Abstract: The study investigated the aetiology of Igbo cultural rites with the aim of highlighting the implications for church and community relations as a means of promoting peaceful co-existence. The investigation isolated the following rites namely: “igu afa” (naming ceremony); “igba nnunnu”(shooting of birds); “uche oba” (surveillance of barn); “izari efa” (public recognition ceremony); “igwa mang” (Fulfilment of vows); “uche”(community surveillance); “ili madu” (burial); “ikwapu aria”(sharing of property) and “ila ikwu nne” (matrilineage). The Abiriba community in Igboland of Abia State in Nigeria was used as a case study. The research was guided by three research questions designed to establish the essence, raison d’etre and similarities between the rites and Christian rites. The case study featured three sages selected with a criterion as purposive sample and applied an unstructured interview schedule derived from the purpose of study as the instrument for data generation. Frequency distribution was used to analyze the data. The findings indicate that ( i) the cultural rites have symbolic essence (ii) the rites have raison d’etre (iii) there are similarities between cultural and Christian rites. The implications of the findings for the pastoral counsellor, the church, and the age grade system were highlighted. It was recommended that the church should adopt the attitude of critical contextualization which refers to the process whereby cultural beliefs or rites are neither rejected nor accepted without objective cross-cultural analysis. Key Words: Igbo, Culture, rites, community relations
The Role of Guidance Counsellors in Universal Basic Education School Based Assessment
KA Oko
Edo Journal of Counselling , 2010,
Abstract: This monograph on the role of guidance counsellors in School Based Assessment of Universal Basic Education explored the counselling features of the 6:3:3:4 curriculum such as multiple entry and exit phases, monitoring, functionalism and continuous assessment. It also explored the origin of the school based assessment; the difference between it and the current concept of continuous assessment and the functions of counsellors in the implementation of the school based assessment. The weaknesses of the previous UPE which failed to achieve its objective were highlighted to promote precautionary measures. The paper ended with recommendations on the necessary changes the government and counsellors can make to neutralize the impression that counselling is the same as advice giving and to realize the counselling objectives of the Universal Basic Education. Key Words: Education, Counsellors, Assessment, Nigeria
Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using host-pathogen tests
Sylwia Okoń
Acta Agrobotanica , 2012, DOI: 10.5586/aa.2012.008
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3%) had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.
Zna aj peritoneumske dijalize u le enju dijabetesne nefropatije
Maksi? ?oko
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/vsp0301053m
New Approach to Remuneration Policy for Investment Firms: a Polish Capital Market Perspective
Szymon Okoń
Contemporary Economics , 2012, DOI: 10.5709/ce.1897-9254.35
Abstract: The experience of the recent financial crisis leads to reflections on the relevant mechanisms of risk reduction of an investment firms activity. Within the European Union, the Directive 2010/76/EU (CRD III) has introduced new rules regarding the remuneration policy for investment firms. The main goal was to reduce the risk of investment firms’ activity. This is a prudential regulation. The purpose of this article is to evaluate, from the point of view of an investment firm, proposed by the EU legislator approach to remuneration policy aimed at reducing the risk of the operation of this type of financial institutions. The aim was to identify the key problems with which Polish investment firms may face in the future in connection with new remuneration policy rules. As far as the methodology is concerned, the author carried out in-depth and standardized interviews with the representatives of several investment firms in Poland. In addition, the method of observation has been applied. The results of the research demonstrates that the abovementioned regulations will have limited impact on reducing the risk of the activities of these financial institutions as well as their implementation will be difficult for them in practice.
Investor Reaction to Mandatory Offers on the Warsaw Stock Exchange
Szymon Okoń
Contemporary Economics , 2012, DOI: 10.5709/ce.1897-9254.44
Abstract: The following paper aims to assess investor reaction to mandatory offers on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, which is important because knowledge about these reactions can be used to make better investment decisions. This paper highlights the importance of procedure in making a mandatory offer and its grounds in the Polish legal system. Additionally, it presents empirical research on the reactions of investors to mandatory offers on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. It has been provided that mandatory offers have a significant impact on the price of a company’s shares listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Knowledge about the reactions of investors to a mandatory offer may be used when selecting securities for an investment portfolio. The findings may provide guidance in deciding whether to begin or end investment in the company, both for individual and institutional investors. The event study methodology approach used in the paper is regarded as valuable and can be the basis for further research in other areas of the capital market research, especially in the context of information efficiency.
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